List of U.S. states and territories by African-American population

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Proportion of African Americans in each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census
Proportion of Black Americans in each county of the fifty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census

The following is a list of U.S. states, territories, and the District of Columbia ranked by the proportion of African Americans of full or partial descent including those of Hispanic origin, in the population. Considering only those who marked black and no other race in combination as in the first table, the percentage was 12.4% in 2020, down from 12.6% in 2010.[1] Considering those who marked black and any other race in combination as in the second table the percentage increased from 13.6% to 14.2%.

2020 census (single race)[edit]

% Black or African-
American alone[2]
Rank State or territory Black or African-American alone
Population (2020)
76.0% 1 United States Virgin Islands Virgin Islands (U.S.) 80,908[3]
44.1% 2  District of Columbia 385,810
37.9% 3  Mississippi 2,084,481
33.1% 4  Louisiana 2,464,023
33.0% 5 Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 3,538,146
32.0% 6  Maryland 2,220,472
25.8% 7  Alabama 1,696,162
27.0% 8  South Carolina 1,680,531
24.1% 9  Delaware 318,899
22.5% 10  North Carolina 2,540,217
18.6% 11  Virginia 2,607,581
17.8% 12  Tennessee 1,492,948
17.1% 13  Florida 3,703,952
17.1% 14  Arkansas 853,783
16.8% 15 New York (state) New York 3,533,873
16.1% 16  Illinois 2,808,271
15.7% 17  Michigan 1,776,579
15.1% 18  New Jersey 1,619,770
12.5% 19  Ohio 1,878,781
14.2%  United States of America 47,511,020
12.2% 20  Texas 3,964,700
11.4% 21  Missouri 799,840
10.9% 22  Pennsylvania 1,823,169
10.8% 23  Connecticut 388,675
10.8% 24  Nevada 404,739
10.6% 25  Indiana 748,513
8.0% 26  Kentucky 462,417
7.3% 27  Oklahoma 389,961
7.0% 28  Massachusetts 594,029
7.0% 29  Minnesota 598,434
7.0% 30  Puerto Rico 328,711
6.4% 31  Wisconsin 476,256
5.7% 32  California 2,825,293
5.7% 33  Kansas 208,809
5.7% 34  Rhode Island 172,168
5.9% 35  Nebraska 196,535
5.7% 36  Arizona 439,150
5.1% 37  Colorado 334,828
5.1% 38  Iowa 231,972
5.0% 39 Washington (state) Washington 407,565
3.9% 40  North Dakota 30,067
5.7% 41  West Virginia 165,813
3.0% 42  Alaska 31,898
2.2% 43  New Mexico 55,904
2.0% 44  Oregon 182,655
2.0% 45  South Dakota 27,842
1.9% 46  Maine 25,752
1.6% 47  Hawaii 23,417
1.5% 48  New Hampshire 20,127
1.4% 49  Vermont 9,034
1.2% 50  Utah 62,058
1.0%[4] 51  Guam 1,540[4]
0.9% 52  Idaho 15,726
0.9% 53  Wyoming 5,232
0.5% 54  Montana 5,484
0.1%[5] 55  Northern Mariana Islands 55[5]
0.02%[6] 56  American Samoa 13[6]

African-American proportion of state and territory populations (1790–2020)[edit]

From 1787 to 1868, enslaved African-Americans were counted in the US census under the Three-fifths Compromise. The compromise was an agreement reached during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention over the counting of slaves in determining a state's total population. This count would determine the number of seats in the House of Representatives and how much each state would pay in taxes. The compromise counted three-fifths of each state's slave population toward that state's total population for the purpose of apportioning the House of Representatives. Even though slaves were denied voting rights, this gave Southern states more Representatives and more presidential electoral votes than if slaves had not been counted. Free blacks and indentured servants were not subject to the compromise, and each was counted as one full person for representation.[7]

In the United States Constitution, the Three-fifths Compromise is part of Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3. Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment (1868) later superseded this clause and explicitly repealed the compromise.

African-American % of Population (1790–1990) Black or African American alone or in combination (2000-2020) by U.S. state and territory[8][9][10][11] [12] [13]
State/Territory 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
United States United States of America 19.3% 18.9% 19.0% 18.4% 18.1% 16.8% 15.7% 14.1% 12.7% 13.1% 11.9% 11.6% 10.7% 9.9% 9.7% 9.8% 10.0% 10.5% 11.1% 11.7% 12.1% 12.9% 13.6% 14.2%
Alabama Alabama 41.4% 29.0% 33.2% 38.5% 43.3% 44.7% 45.4% 47.7% 47.5% 44.8% 45.2% 42.5% 38.4% 35.7% 34.7% 32.0% 30.0% 26.2% 25.6% 25.3% 26.0% 26.3% 26.8%
Alaska Alaska 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 3.0% 3.0% 3.4% 4.1% 4.3% 4.7% 4.8%
American Samoa American Samoa 0.02% 0.04% 0.02%
Arizona Arizona 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 1.5% 1.5% 1.0% 2.4% 2.5% 3.0% 3.5% 3.3% 3.0% 2.8% 3.0% 3.6% 5.0% 6.2%
Arkansas Arkansas 13.0% 11.7% 15.5% 20.9% 22.7% 25.6% 25.2% 26.3% 27.4% 28.0% 28.1% 27.0% 25.8% 24.8% 22.3% 21.8% 18.3% 16.3% 15.9% 16.0% 16.1% 16.5%
California California 1.0% 1.1% 0.8% 0.7% 0.9% 0.7% 0.9% 1.1% 1.4% 1.8% 4.4% 5.6% 7.0% 7.7% 7.4% 7.4% 7.2% 7.1%
Colorado Colorado 0.1% 1.1% 1.3% 1.5% 1.6% 1.4% 1.2% 1.1% 1.1% 1.5% 2.3% 3.0% 3.5% 4.0% 4.4% 5.0% 5.5%
Connecticut Connecticut 2.3% 2.5% 2.6% 2.9% 2.7% 2.6% 2.1% 1.9% 1.8% 1.9% 1.6% 1.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 1.9% 2.7% 4.2% 6.0% 7.0% 8.3% 10.0% 11.3% 13.0%
Delaware Delaware 21.6% 22.4% 23.8% 24.0% 24.9% 25.0% 22.2% 19.3% 18.2% 18.0% 16.8% 16.6% 15.4% 13.6% 13.7% 13.5% 13.7% 13.6% 14.3% 16.1% 16.9% 20.1% 22.9% 24.7%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 30.4% 33.1% 31.2% 30.1% 29.1% 26.6% 19.1% 33.0% 33.6% 32.8% 31.1% 28.5% 25.1% 27.1% 28.2% 35.0% 53.9% 71.1% 70.3% 65.8% 61.3% 52.2% 44.2%
Florida Florida 47.1% 48.7% 46.0% 44.6% 48.8% 47.0% 42.5% 43.7% 41.0% 34.0% 29.4% 27.1% 21.8% 17.8% 15.3% 13.8% 13.6% 15.5% 17.0% 17.2%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 35.9% 37.1% 42.5% 44.4% 42.6% 41.0% 42.4% 44.0% 46.0% 47.0% 46.7% 46.7% 45.1% 41.7% 36.8% 34.7% 30.9% 28.5% 25.9% 26.8% 27.0% 29.2% 31.5% 33.0%
Guam Guam 2.37% 1.02% 0.96%
Hawaii Hawaii 0.2% 0.4% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.5% 0.8% 1.0% 1.8% 2.5% 2.8% 2.9% 3.2%
Idaho Idaho 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.6% 1.0% 1.5%
Illinois Illinois 7.4% 6.4% 2.5% 1.5% 0.8% 0.6% 0.4% 1.1% 1.5% 1.5% 1.8% 1.9% 2.8% 4.3% 4.9% 7.4% 10.3% 12.8% 14.7% 14.8% 15.6% 15.4% 15.5%
Indiana Indiana 4.4% 2.6% 1.0% 1.1% 1.0% 1.1% 0.8% 1.5% 2.0% 2.1% 2.3% 2.2% 2.8% 3.5% 3.6% 4.4% 5.8% 6.9% 7.6% 7.8% 8.8% 10.1% 11.2%
Iowa Iowa 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.9% 1.2% 1.4% 1.7% 2.5% 3.7% 5.4%
Kansas Kansas 0.6% 4.7% 4.3% 3.5% 3.5% 3.2% 3.3% 3.5% 3.6% 3.8% 4.2% 4.8% 5.3% 5.8% 6.3% 7.1% 7.6%
Kentucky Kentucky 17.0% 18.6% 20.2% 22.9% 24.7% 24.3% 22.5% 20.4% 16.8% 16.5% 14.4% 13.3% 11.4% 9.8% 8.6% 7.5% 6.9% 7.1% 7.2% 7.1% 7.1% 7.7% 8.7% 9.7%
Louisiana Louisiana 55.2% 51.8% 58.5% 55.0% 50.7% 49.5% 50.1% 51.5% 50.0% 47.1% 43.1% 38.9% 36.9% 35.9% 32.9% 31.9% 29.8% 29.4% 30.8% 32.9% 32.8% 33.1%
Maine Maine 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.7% 1.6% 2.7%
Maryland Maryland 34.7% 36.7% 38.2% 36.1% 34.9% 32.3% 28.3% 24.9% 22.5% 22.5% 20.7% 19.8% 17.9% 16.9% 16.9% 16.6% 16.5% 16.7% 17.8% 22.7% 24.9% 28.8% 30.9% 32.0%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 1.4% 1.5% 1.4% 1.3% 1.2% 1.2% 0.9% 0.8% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.1% 1.1% 1.2% 1.2% 1.3% 1.6% 2.2% 3.1% 3.9% 5.0% 6.3% 7.8% 9.5%
Michigan Michigan 3.7% 3.0% 2.1% 0.8% 0.3% 0.6% 0.9% 1.0% 0.9% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 1.6% 3.5% 4.0% 6.9% 9.2% 11.2% 12.9% 13.9% 14.8% 15.2% 15.3%
Minnesota Minnesota 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.7% 0.9% 1.3% 2.2% 4.1% 6.2% 8.5%
Mississippi Mississippi 41.5% 47.0% 44.1% 48.4% 52.3% 51.2% 55.3% 53.7% 57.5% 57.6% 58.5% 56.2% 52.2% 50.2% 49.2% 45.3% 42.0% 36.8% 35.2% 35.6% 36.6% 37.6% 37.9%
Missouri Missouri 17.6% 15.9% 18.3% 15.6% 13.2% 10.0% 6.9% 6.7% 5.6% 5.2% 4.8% 5.2% 6.2% 6.5% 7.5% 9.0% 10.3% 10.5% 10.7% 11.7% 12.5% 13.0%
Montana Montana 0.9% 0.9% 1.0% 0.6% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 0.8% 1.2%
Nebraska Nebraska 0.3% 0.6% 0.5% 0.8% 0.6% 0.6% 1.0% 1.0% 1.1% 1.5% 2.1% 2.7% 3.1% 3.6% 4.4% 5.4% 6.4%
Nevada Nevada 0.7% 0.8% 0.8% 0.5% 0.3% 0.6% 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 2.7% 4.7% 5.7% 6.4% 6.6% 7.5% 9.4% 12.1%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 0.6% 0.5% 0.5% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 1.0% 1.7% 2.4%
New Jersey New Jersey 7.7% 8.0% 7.6% 7.2% 6.4% 5.8% 4.9% 3.8% 3.4% 3.4% 3.3% 3.7% 3.5% 3.7% 5.2% 5.5% 6.6% 8.5% 10.7% 12.6% 13.4% 14.4% 14.8% 15.2%
New Mexico New Mexico 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.8% 1.2% 0.8% 0.5% 1.6% 0.7% 0.9% 1.2% 1.8% 1.9% 1.8% 2.0% 2.3% 2.8% 3.2%
New York (state) New York 7.6% 5.3% 4.2% 2.9% 2.3% 2.1% 1.6% 1.3% 1.2% 1.3% 1.2% 1.4% 1.5% 1.9% 3.3% 4.2% 6.2% 8.4% 11.9% 13.7% 15.9% 17.0% 17.2% 17.5%
North Carolina North Carolina 26.8% 29.4% 32.2% 34.4% 35.9% 35.6% 36.4% 36.4% 36.6% 38.0% 34.7% 33.0% 31.6% 29.8% 29.0% 27.5% 25.8% 24.5% 22.2% 22.4% 22.0% 22.1% 22.6% 22.5%
North Dakota North Dakota 1.0% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.4% 0.6% 0.8% 1.6% 4.4%
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands 0.06% 0.06% 0.1%
Ohio Ohio 0.5% 0.8% 0.8% 1.0% 1.1% 1.3% 1.6% 2.4% 2.5% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 3.2% 4.7% 4.9% 6.5% 8.1% 9.1% 10.0% 10.6% 12.1% 13.4% 14.4%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 8.4% 7.0% 8.3% 7.4% 7.2% 7.2% 6.5% 6.6% 6.7% 6.8% 7.4% 8.3% 8.7% 9.7%
Oregon Oregon 0.5% 0.2% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.8% 1.0% 1.3% 1.4% 1.6% 2.1% 2.6% 3.2%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 2.4% 2.7% 2.9% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% 2.3% 2.0% 1.9% 2.0% 2.0% 2.5% 2.5% 3.3% 4.5% 4.7% 6.1% 7.5% 8.6% 8.8% 9.2% 10.5% 11.9% 12.7%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 10.9% 14.8% 17.5%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 6.3% 5.3% 4.8% 4.3% 3.7% 3.0% 2.5% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.1% 2.1% 1.8% 1.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 2.1% 2.7% 2.9% 3.9% 5.5% 7.4% 9.1%
South Carolina South Carolina 43.7% 43.2% 48.4% 52.8% 55.6% 56.4% 58.9% 58.6% 58.9% 60.7% 59.8% 58.4% 55.2% 51.4% 45.6% 42.9% 38.8% 34.8% 30.5% 30.4% 29.8% 29.9% 28.8% 26.8%
South Dakota South Dakota 0.0% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 0.9% 1.8% 3.0%
Tennessee Tennessee 10.6% 13.2% 17.5% 19.6% 21.4% 22.7% 24.5% 25.5% 25.6% 26.1% 24.4% 23.8% 21.7% 19.3% 18.3% 17.4% 16.1% 16.5% 15.8% 15.8% 16.0% 16.8% 17.4% 17.3%
Texas Texas 27.5% 30.3% 31.0% 24.7% 21.8% 20.4% 17.7% 15.9% 14.7% 14.4% 12.7% 12.4% 12.5% 12.0% 11.9% 12.0% 12.6% 13.6%
Utah Utah 0.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 1.1% 1.6% 2.1%
Vermont Vermont 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.7% 1.5% 2.2%
United States Virgin Islands Virgin Islands (U.S.) 76.62% 76.19% 76.03%
Virginia Virginia 43.4% 44.6% 47.1% 47.8% 47.9% 46.9% 45.0% 43.3% 41.9% 41.8% 38.4% 35.6% 32.6% 29.9% 26.8% 24.7% 22.1% 20.6% 18.5% 18.9% 18.8% 20.4% 20.7% 20.9%
Washington (state) Washington 0.3% 0.9% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 1.3% 1.7% 2.1% 2.6% 3.1% 4.4% 4.8% 5.8%
West Virginia West Virginia 9.5% 9.8% 11.5% 12.1% 11.2% 9.6% 7.8% 5.6% 4.1% 4.2% 4.3% 4.5% 5.3% 5.9% 6.6% 6.2% 5.7% 4.8% 3.9% 3.3% 3.1% 3.5% 4.2% 5.0%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 1.2% 1.8% 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.8% 1.9% 2.9% 3.9% 5.0% 6.1% 7.1% 7.7%
Wyoming Wyoming 2.0% 1.4% 1.5% 1.0% 1.5% 0.7% 0.6% 0.4% 0.9% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.8% 1.0% 1.3% 1.7%

Free Blacks as a percentage out of the total Black population by U.S. region and U.S. state between 1790 and 1860[edit]

In 1865, all enslaved Blacks (African-Americans) in the United States were emancipated as a result of the Thirteenth Amendment. However, some U.S. states had previously emancipated some or all of their Black population. The table below shows the percentage of free Blacks as a percentage of the total Black population in various U.S. regions and U.S. states between 1790 and 1860 (the blank areas on the chart below mean that there is no data for those specific regions or states in those specific years).

Free Blacks as a percentage of the total Black (African-American) population by U.S. region and U.S. state between 1790 and 1860[14]
State/territory 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860
 United States 7.9% 10.8% 13.5% 13.2% 13.7% 13.4% 11.9% 11.0%
Northeast 40.1% 56.2% 73.5% 83.7% 97.8% 99.5% 99.8% 100.0%
Midwest 78.7% 52.4% 38.0% 37.7% 34.4% 35.5% 37.6%
South 4.7% 6.7% 8.5% 8.2% 8.4% 8.1% 7.0% 6.3%
West 97.9% 99.4%
 Alabama 4.4% 2.2% 1.3% 1.3% 0.8% 0.7% 0.6%
 Alaska
 Arizona 100.0%
 Arkansas 1.4% 3.5% 3.0% 2.3% 1.3% 0.1%
 California 100.0% 100.0%
 Colorado 100.0%
 Connecticut 50.4% 84.9% 95.4% 98.8% 99.7% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0%
 Delaware 30.5% 57.3% 75.9% 74.2% 82.8% 86.7% 88.8% 91.7%
 District of Columbia 16.2% 30.7% 37.9% 50.5% 66.2% 73.2% 77.8%
 Florida 5.2% 3.1% 2.3% 1.5%
 Georgia 1.3% 1.7% 1.7% 1.2% 1.1% 1.0% 0.8% 0.8%
 Hawaii
 Idaho
 Illinois 41.5% 78.5% 33.3% 68.7% 91.6% 100.0% 100.0%
 Indiana 75.7% 62.4% 86.6% 99.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 Iowa 91.5% 100.0% 100.0%
 Kansas 99.7%
 Kentucky 0.9% 1.8% 2.1% 2.1% 2.9% 3.9% 4.5% 4.5%
 Louisiana 18.0% 13.2% 13.2% 13.1% 6.7% 5.3%
 Maine 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 Maryland 7.2% 15.6% 23.3% 27.0% 33.9% 40.9% 45.3% 49.1%
 Massachusetts 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 Michigan 100.0% 83.3% 100.0% 99.6% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 Minnesota 100.0% 100.0%
 Mississippi 5.0% 1.2% 1.4% 0.8% 0.7% 0.3% 0.2%
 Missouri 17.4% 3.3% 2.2% 2.6% 2.9% 3.0%
 Montana
 Nebraska 81.7%
 Nevada 100.0%
 New Hampshire 79.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 99.5% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0%
 New Jersey 19.5% 26.2% 42.0% 62.2% 89.0% 96.9% 99.0% 99.9%
 New Mexico 100.0% 100.0%
 New York 17.9% 33.3% 62.8% 74.4% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 North Carolina 4.7% 5.0% 5.7% 6.7% 7.4% 8.5% 8.7% 8.4%
 North Dakota
 Ohio 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 99.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 Oklahoma
 Oregon 100.0% 100.0%
 Pennsylvania 63.6% 89.5% 96.6% 99.3% 98.9% 99.9% 100.0% 100.0%
 Rhode Island 78.2% 89.7% 97.1% 98.7% 99.5% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0%
 South Carolina 1.7% 2.1% 2.3% 2.6% 2.4% 2.5% 2.3% 2.4%
 South Dakota N/A[a]
 Tennessee 9.6% 2.2% 2.9% 3.3% 3.1% 2.9% 2.6% 2.6%
 Texas 0.7% 0.2%
 Utah 48.0% 50.8%
 Vermont 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
 Virginia 4.1% 5.6% 7.3% 8.2% 9.3% 10.1% 10.2% 10.5%
 Washington 100.0% 100.0%
 West Virginia 11.6% 6.8% 10.5% 8.5% 10.9% 14.1% 13.1% 13.1%
 Wisconsin 100.0% 51.6% 94.4% 100.0% 100.0%
 Wyoming

a^ There were no Blacks at all—either free or enslaved—in South Dakota in 1860.[14]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census". Archived from the original on 15 August 2021. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  2. ^ "Explore Census Data". Archived from the original on 2021-04-29. Retrieved 2020-12-25.
  3. ^ https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_VISF_P3&prodType=table Archived 2020-02-12 at archive.today American FactFinder. Race; Total Population — 2010 U.S. Virgin Islands Summary File. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  4. ^ a b https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_GUSF_P3&prodType=table Archived 2020-02-14 at archive.today American FactFinder. Ethnic Origin or Race. Total Population - Guam 2010 Summary File. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  5. ^ a b https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_MPSF_P3&prodType=table Archived 2020-02-14 at archive.today American FactFinder. Ethnic Origin or Race. Total population - 2010 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Summary File. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
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