List of U.S. states and territories by historical population

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The population growth of each U.S. state between 1970 and 2010. Click on this map to see the scale/key.

This is a list of U.S. states and territories by historical population, as enumerated every decade by the United States Census. As required by the United States Constitution, a census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. Although the decennial census collects a variety of information that used in demographic studies, marketing, and other enterprises, the purpose of the census as stated in the Constitution is to produce an "actual enumeration" of the number of persons in the states in order to calculate their Congressional apportionment.

As the United States has grown in area and population, new states have been formed out of U.S. territories or the division of existing states. The population figures provided here reflect modern state boundaries. Shaded areas of the tables indicate census years when a territory or the part of another state had not yet been admitted as a new state.[note 1] As of 2019, 6 regions of the U.S. (the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) remain non-states.

1790–1860, census data[edit]

Total population, 1790–1860[edit]

Name Admitted
[note 2]
1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860
 Alabama 1819   1,250 9,046 127,901 309,527 590,756 771,623 964,201
 Alaska 1959                
 American Samoa 1900                
 Arizona 1912                
 Arkansas 1836     1,062 14,273 30,388 97,574 209,897 435,450
 California 1850             92,597 379,994
 Colorado 1876               34,277
 Connecticut 1788 237,946 251,002 262,042 275,202 297,675 309,978 370,792 460,147
 Delaware 1787 59,096 64,273 72,674 72,749 76,748 78,085 91,532 112,216
 District of Columbia [note 3] 1790   8,144 15,471 23,336 30,261 33,745 51,687 75,080
 Florida 1845         34,730 54,477 87,445 140,424
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 1788 82,548 162,686 251,407 340,989 516,823 691,392 906,185 1,057,286
 Guam 1899                
 Hawaii 1959                
 Idaho 1890                
 Illinois 1818   2,458 12,282 55,211 157,445 476,183 851,470 1,711,951
 Indiana 1816   2,632 24,520 147,178 343,031 685,866 988,416 1,350,428
 Iowa 1846           43,112 192,214 674,913
 Kansas 1861               107,206
 Kentucky 1792 73,677 220,959 406,511 564,317 687,917 779,828 982,405 1,155,684
 Louisiana [note 4] 1812     76,556 153,407 215,739 352,411 517,762 708,002
 Maine [note 5] 1820 96,540 151,719 228,705 298,335 399,455 501,793 583,169 628,279
 Maryland [note 6] 1788 319,728 341,548 380,546 407,350 447,040 470,019 583,034 687,049
 Massachusetts 1788 378,787 422,845 472,040 523,287 610,408 737,699 994,514 1,231,066
 Michigan 1837   3,757 4,762 7,452 28,004 212,267 397,654 749,113
 Minnesota 1858             6,077 172,023
 Mississippi 1817   7,600 31,306 75,448 136,621 375,651 606,526 791,305
 Missouri 1821     19,783 66,586 140,455 383,702 682,044 1,182,012
 Montana 1889                
 Nebraska 1867               28,841
 Nevada 1864               6,857
 New Hampshire 1788 141,885 183,858 214,360 244,161 269,328 284,574 317,976 326,073
 New Jersey 1787 184,139 211,149 245,555 277,575 320,823 373,306 489,555 672,035
 New Mexico 1912             61,547 87,034
New York (state) New York 1788 340,120 586,050 959,049 1,372,812 1,918,608 2,428,921 3,097,394 3,880,735
 North Carolina 1789 393,751 478,103 556,526 638,829 737,987 753,419 869,039 992,622
 North Dakota 1889                
 Northern Mariana Islands 1986                
 Ohio 1803   42,159 230,760 581,434 937,903 1,519,467 1,980,329 2,339,511
 Oklahoma 1907                
 Oregon 1859             12,093 52,465
 Pennsylvania 1787 434,373 602,545 810,091 1,049,458 1,348,233 1,724,033 2,311,786 2,906,215
 Puerto Rico 1899                
 Rhode Island 1790 68,825 69,122 76,931 83,059 97,199 108,830 147,545 174,620
 South Carolina 1788 249,073 345,591 415,115 502,741 581,185 594,398 668,507 703,708
 South Dakota [note 7] 1889               4,837
 Tennessee 1796 35,691 105,602 261,727 422,813 681,904 829,210 1,002,717 1,109,801
 Texas 1845             212,592 604,215
 U.S. Virgin Islands 1917                
 Utah 1896             11,380 40,273
 Vermont [note 8] 1791 85,425 154,465 217,713 235,764 280,652 291,948 314,120 315,098
 Virginia [note 9] 1788 691,937 807,557 877,683 938,261 1,044,054 1,025,227 1,119,348 1,219,630
Washington (state) Washington 1889             1,201 11,594
 West Virginia [note 10] 1863 55,873 78,592 105,469 136,808 176,924 224,537 302,313 376,688
 Wisconsin 1848       1,444 3,635 30,945 305,391 775,881
 Wyoming 1890                
 United States   3,929,214 5,308,483 7,239,881 9,638,453 12,860,702 17,063,353 23,191,876 31,443,321

Enslaved population, 1790–1860[edit]

Name 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860
 Alabama 494 2,565 41,879 117,549 253,532 342,844 435,080
 Arkansas 136 1,617 4,576 19,935 47,100 111,115
 California 0 0
 Colorado 0
 Connecticut 2,764 951 310 97 25 17 0 0
 Delaware 8,887 6,153 4,177 4,509 3,292 2,605 2,290 1,798
 District of Columbia 2,072 3,554 4,520 4,505 3,320 3,687 3,185
 Florida 15,501 25,717 39,310 61,745
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 29,264 59,699 105,218 149,656 217,531 280,944 381,682 462,198
 Illinois 107 168 917 747 331 0 0
 Indiana 28 237 190 3 3 0 0
 Iowa 16 0 0
 Kansas 2
 Kentucky 12,430 40,343 80,561 126,732 165,213 182,258 210,981 225,483
 Louisiana 34,660 69,064 109,588 168,452 244,809 331,726
 Maine 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
 Maryland 103,036 105,635 111,502 107,398 102,994 89,737 90,368 87,189
 Massachusetts 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
 Michigan 0 24 0 1 0 0 0
 Minnesota 0 0
 Mississippi 2,995 14,523 32,814 65,659 195,211 309,878 436,631
 Missouri 2,875 10,222 25,091 58,240 87,422 114,931
 Nebraska 15
 Nevada 0
 New Hampshire 158 8 0 0 3 1 0 0
 New Jersey 11,423 12,422 10,851 7,557 2,254 674 236 18
 New Mexico 0 0
 New York 21,324 20,613 15,017 10,088 75 4 0 0
 North Carolina 100,572 133,296 168,824 204,917 245,601 245,817 288,548 331,059
 Ohio 0 0 0 6 3 0 0
 Oregon 0 0
 Pennsylvania 3,737 1,706 795 211 403 64 0 0
 Rhode Island 948 380 108 48 17 5 0 0
 South Carolina 107,094 146,151 196,365 258,475 315,401 327,038 384,984 402,406
 Tennessee 3,417 13,584 44,535 80,107 141,603 183,059 239,459 275,719
 Texas 58,161 182,566
 Utah 26 29
 Vermont 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Virginia [note 11] 287,959 339,499 383,521 411,886 453,698 431,873 452,028 472,494
 Washington 0 0 0
 West Virginia [note 12] 4,668 7,172 10,836 15,169 17,673 18,488 20,500 18,371
 Wisconsin 0 31 11 0 0
 United States 697,681 893,602 1,191,362 1,538,022 2,009,043 2,487,355 3,204,313 3,953,760

1870–1950, census data[edit]

Name 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950
 Alabama 996,992 1,262,505 1,513,017 1,828,697 2,138,093 2,348,174 2,646,248 2,832,961 3,061,743
 Alaska     33,426 32,052 64,356 55,036 59,278 72,524 128,643
 American Samoa               12,908 24,889
 Arizona 9,658 40,440 88,243 122,931 204,354 334,162 435,573 499,261 749,587
 Arkansas 484,471 802,525 1,128,211 1,311,564 1,574,449 1,752,204 1,854,482 1,949,387 1,909,511
 California 560,247 864,694 1,213,398 1,485,053 2,377,549 3,426,861 5,677,251 6,907,387 10,586,223
 Colorado 39,864 194,327 413,249 539,700 799,024 939,629 1,035,791 1,123,296 1,325,089
 Connecticut 537,454 622,700 746,258 908,420 1,114,756 1,380,631 1,606,903 1,709,242 2,007,280
 Delaware 125,015 146,608 168,493 184,735 202,322 223,003 238,380 266,505 318,085
 District of Columbia 131,700 177,624 230,392 278,718 331,069 437,571 486,869 663,091 802,178
 Florida 187,748 269,493 391,422 528,542 752,619 968,470 1,468,211 1,897,414 2,771,305
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 1,184,109 1,542,180 1,837,353 2,216,331 2,609,121 2,895,832 2,908,506 3,123,723 3,444,578
 Guam         11,806 13,275 18,509 22,290 59,498
 Hawaii       154,001 191,909 255,912 368,336 423,330 499,794
 Idaho 14,999 32,610 88,548 161,772 325,594 431,866 445,032 524,873 588,637
 Illinois 2,539,891 3,077,871 3,826,351 4,821,550 5,638,591 6,485,280 7,630,654 7,897,241 8,712,176
 Indiana 1,680,637 1,978,301 2,192,404 2,516,462 2,700,876 2,930,390 3,238,503 3,427,796 3,934,224
 Iowa 1,194,020 1,624,615 1,912,297 2,231,853 2,224,771 2,404,021 2,470,939 2,538,268 2,621,073
 Kansas 364,399 996,096 1,428,108 1,470,495 1,690,949 1,769,257 1,880,999 1,801,028 1,905,299
 Kentucky 1,321,011 1,648,690 1,858,635 2,147,174 2,289,905 2,416,630 2,614,589 2,845,627 2,944,806
 Louisiana 726,915 939,946 1,118,587 1,381,625 1,656,388 1,798,509 2,101,593 2,363,880 2,683,516
 Maine 626,915 648,936 661,086 694,466 742,371 768,014 797,423 847,226 913,774
 Maryland 780,894 934,943 1,042,390 1,188,044 1,295,346 1,449,661 1,631,526 1,821,244 2,343,001
 Massachusetts 1,457,351 1,783,085 2,238,943 2,805,346 3,366,416 3,852,356 4,249,614 4,316,721 4,690,514
 Michigan 1,184,059 1,636,937 2,093,889 2,420,982 2,810,173 3,668,412 4,842,325 5,256,106 6,371,766
 Minnesota 439,706 780,773 1,310,283 1,751,394 2,075,708 2,387,125 2,563,953 2,792,300 2,982,483
 Mississippi 827,922 1,131,597 1,289,600 1,551,270 1,797,114 1,790,618 2,009,821 2,183,796 2,178,914
 Missouri 1,721,295 2,168,380 2,679,184 3,106,665 3,293,335 3,404,055 3,629,367 3,784,664 3,954,653
 Montana 20,595 39,159 142,924 243,329 376,053 548,889 537,606 559,456 591,024
 Nebraska 122,993 452,402 1,062,656 1,066,300 1,192,214 1,296,372 1,377,963 1,315,834 1,325,510
 Nevada 42,491 62,266 47,355 42,335 81,875 77,407 91,058 110,247 160,083
 New Hampshire 318,300 346,991 376,530 411,588 430,572 443,083 465,293 491,524 533,242
 New Jersey 906,096 1,131,116 1,444,933 1,883,669 2,537,167 3,155,900 4,041,334 4,160,165 4,835,329
 New Mexico 91,874 119,565 160,282 195,310 327,301 360,350 423,317 531,818 681,187
 New York 4,382,759 5,082,871 6,003,174 7,268,894 9,113,614 10,385,227 12,588,066 13,479,142 14,830,192
 North Carolina 1,071,361 1,399,750 1,617,947 1,893,810 2,206,287 2,559,123 3,170,276 3,571,623 4,061,929
 North Dakota 2,405 36,909 190,983 319,146 577,056 646,872 680,845 641,935 619,636
 Northern Mariana Islands
 Ohio 2,665,260 3,198,062 3,672,316 4,157,545 4,767,121 5,759,394 6,646,697 6,907,612 7,946,627
 Oklahoma     258,657 790,391 1,657,155 2,028,283 2,396,040 2,336,434 2,233,351
 Oregon 90,923 174,768 317,704 413,536 672,765 783,389 953,786 1,089,684 1,521,341
 Panama Canal Zone [note 13]           22,858 39,467 51,827 52,822
 Pennsylvania 3,521,951 4,282,891 5,258,014 6,302,115 7,665,111 8,720,017 9,631,350 9,900,180 10,498,012
 Puerto Rico         1,118,012 1,299,809 1,543,913 1,869,255 2,210,703
 Rhode Island 217,353 276,531 345,506 428,556 542,610 604,397 687,497 713,346 791,896
 South Carolina 705,606 995,577 1,151,149 1,340,316 1,515,400 1,683,724 1,738,765 1,899,804 2,117,027
 South Dakota 11,776 98,268 348,600 401,570 583,888 636,547 692,849 642,961 652,740
 Tennessee 1,258,520 1,542,359 1,767,518 2,020,616 2,184,789 2,337,885 2,616,556 2,915,841 3,291,718
 Texas 818,579 1,591,749 2,235,523 3,048,710 3,896,542 4,663,228 5,824,715 6,414,824 7,711,194
 U.S. Virgin Islands             22,012 39,467 51,827
 Utah 86,336 143,963 210,779 276,749 373,351 449,396 507,847 550,310 688,862
 Vermont 330,551 332,286 332,422 343,641 355,956 352,428 359,611 359,231 377,747
 Virginia 1,225,163 1,512,565 1,655,980 1,854,184 2,061,612 2,309,187 2,421,851 2,677,773 3,318,680
 Washington 23,955 75,116 357,232 518,103 1,141,990 1,356,621 1,563,396 1,736,191 2,378,963
 West Virginia 442,014 618,457 762,794 958,800 1,221,119 1,463,701 1,729,205 1,901,974 2,005,552
 Wisconsin 1,054,670 1,315,497 1,693,330 2,069,042 2,333,860 2,632,067 2,939,006 3,137,587 3,434,575
 Wyoming 9,118 20,789 60,705 92,531 145,965 194,402 225,565 250,742 290,529
 United States 38,558,371 50,155,783 62,947,714
[note 14]
75,994,575 91,972,266 105,710,620 122,775,046 131,669,275 150,697,361

1960–2010, census data[edit]

Name 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
 Alabama 3,266,740 3,444,165 3,893,888 4,040,587 4,447,100 4,779,736
 Alaska 226,167 300,382 401,851 550,043 626,932 710,231
 American Samoa 20,051 27,159 32,297 46,773 57,291 55,519
 Arizona 1,302,161 1,770,900 2,718,215 3,665,228 5,130,632 6,392,017
 Arkansas 1,786,272 1,923,295 2,286,435 2,350,725 2,673,400 2,915,918
 California 15,717,204 19,953,134 23,667,902 29,760,021 33,871,648 37,253,956
 Colorado 1,753,947 2,207,259 2,889,964 3,294,394 4,301,261 5,029,196
 Connecticut 2,535,234 3,031,709 3,107,576 3,287,116 3,405,565 3,574,097
 Delaware 446,292 548,104 594,338 666,168 783,600 897,934
 District of Columbia 763,956 756,510 638,333 606,900 572,059 601,723
 Florida 4,951,560 6,789,443 9,746,324 12,937,926 15,982,378 18,801,310
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 3,943,116 4,589,575 5,463,105 6,478,216 8,186,453 9,687,653
 Guam 67,044 84,966 105,979 133,152 154,805 159,358
 Hawaii 632,772 768,561 964,691 1,108,229 1,211,537 1,360,301
 Idaho 667,191 712,567 943,935 1,006,749 1,293,953 1,567,582
 Illinois 10,081,158 11,113,976 11,426,518 11,430,602 12,419,293 12,830,632
 Indiana 4,662,498 5,193,669 5,490,224 5,544,159 6,080,485 6,483,802
 Iowa 2,757,537 2,824,376 2,913,808 2,776,755 2,926,324 3,046,355
 Kansas 2,178,611 2,246,578 2,363,679 2,477,574 2,688,418 2,853,118
 Kentucky 3,038,156 3,218,706 3,660,777 3,685,296 4,041,769 4,339,367
 Louisiana 3,257,022 3,641,306 4,205,900 4,219,973 4,468,976 4,533,372
 Maine 969,265 992,048 1,124,660 1,227,928 1,274,923 1,328,361
 Maryland 3,100,689 3,922,399 4,216,975 4,781,468 5,296,486 5,773,552
 Massachusetts 5,148,578 5,689,170 5,737,037 6,016,425 6,349,097 6,547,629
 Michigan 7,823,194 8,875,083 9,262,078 9,295,297 9,938,444 9,883,640
 Minnesota 3,413,864 3,804,971 4,075,970 4,375,099 4,919,479 5,303,925
 Mississippi 2,178,141 2,216,912 2,520,638 2,573,216 2,844,658 2,967,297
 Missouri 4,319,813 4,676,501 4,916,686 5,117,073 5,595,211 5,988,927
 Montana 674,767 694,409 786,690 799,065 902,195 989,415
 Nebraska 1,411,330 1,483,493 1,569,825 1,578,385 1,711,263 1,826,341
 Nevada 285,278 488,738 800,493 1,201,833 1,998,257 2,700,551
 New Hampshire 606,921 737,681 920,610 1,109,252 1,235,786 1,316,470
 New Jersey 6,066,782 7,168,164 7,364,823 7,730,188 8,414,350 8,791,894
 New Mexico 951,023 1,016,000 1,302,894 1,515,069 1,819,046 2,059,179
 New York 16,782,304 18,236,967 17,558,072 17,990,455 18,976,457 19,378,102
 North Carolina 4,556,155 5,082,059 5,881,766 6,628,637 8,049,313 9,535,483
 North Dakota 632,446 617,761 652,717 638,800 642,200 672,591
 Northern Mariana Islands 16,780 43,345 69,221 53,883
 Ohio 9,706,397 10,652,017 10,797,630 10,847,115 11,353,140 11,536,504
 Oklahoma 2,328,284 2,559,229 3,025,290 3,145,585 3,450,654 3,751,351
 Oregon 1,768,687 2,091,385 2,633,105 2,842,321 3,421,399 3,831,074
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Pacific Trust Territory [note 15] 90,940 116,149
 Panama Canal Zone [note 16] 42,112 44,198
 Pennsylvania 11,319,366 11,793,909 11,863,895 11,881,643 12,281,054 12,702,379
 Puerto Rico 2,349,544 2,712,033 3,196,520 3,522,037 3,808,610 3,725,789
 Rhode Island 859,488 946,725 947,154 1,003,464 1,048,319 1,052,567
 South Carolina 2,382,594 2,590,516 3,121,820 3,486,703 4,012,012 4,625,364
 South Dakota 680,514 665,507 690,768 696,004 754,844 814,180
 Tennessee 3,567,089 3,923,687 4,591,120 4,877,185 5,689,283 6,346,105
 Texas 9,579,677 11,196,730 14,229,191 16,986,510 20,851,820 25,145,561
 U.S. Virgin Islands 32,099 62,468 96,569 101,809 108,612 106,405
 Utah 890,627 1,059,273 1,461,037 1,722,850 2,233,169 2,763,885
 Vermont 389,881 444,330 511,456 562,758 608,827 625,741
 Virginia 3,966,949 4,648,494 5,346,818 6,187,358 7,078,515 8,001,024
 Washington 2,853,214 3,409,169 4,132,156 4,866,692 5,894,121 6,724,540
 West Virginia 1,860,421 1,744,237 1,949,644 1,793,477 1,808,344 1,852,994
 Wisconsin 3,951,777 4,417,731 4,705,767 4,891,769 5,363,675 5,686,986
 Wyoming 330,066 332,416 469,557 453,588 493,782 563,626
 United States 179,323,175 203,211,926 226,545,805 248,709,873 281,421,906 308,745,538

1900–2015, Federal Reserve economic data[edit]

Interactive semi-log plot of historical population of the 50 states of USA and the District of Columbia from 1900 to 2015 according to Federal Reserve Economic Data categorised by US census region. In the SVG file, hover over a graph, its state abbreviation, its map or its region label to highlight it (and in SMIL-enabled browsers, click to select/deselect it).

Source: http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/release?rid=118

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General
  • State data, 1790-1990: "Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990 by State" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2014-11-21. Retrieved 2011-11-01.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  • National data, 1790-1990: "United States - Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2014-11-14. Retrieved 2011-11-01.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  • State and national data, 2000-2010: "Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-11-01.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The District of Columbia is not shaded.
  2. ^ Dates for the states are the dates they were admitted to the Union. Dates for the territories are the dates they were acquired by the United States. Date for the District of Columbia is the date the district was formed.
  3. ^ The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790. The territory that formed that federal capital was originally donated by both Maryland and Virginia; however, the Virginia portion was returned by Congress in 1846.
  4. ^ Previously a part of the Orleans Territory.
  5. ^ Between 1790 and 1820, the District of Maine was part of the state of Massachusetts.
  6. ^ Starting with the 1800 Census, Maryland donated territory to create the District of Columbia.
  7. ^ Figures recorded for Dakota Territory by the censuses of 1860, 1870, and 1880 are listed here as belonging to South Dakota.
  8. ^ Vermont was enumerated in the 1790 Census but was only admitted as a state in 1791.
  9. ^ Between 1790 and 1860, the state of West Virginia was part of Virginia. In addition, between the Censuses of 1800 and 1840, territory donated by the state of Virginia formed a portion of District of Columbia but the land was returned in 1846.
  10. ^ Between 1790 and 1860, the state of West Virginia was part of Virginia; the data for each state reflect the present-day boundaries.
  11. ^ Not including the Virginia counties that formed the new state of West Virginia in 1863, but includes the enslaved population in the returned land that had been donated to form the District of Columbia.
  12. ^ These figures are for the Virginia counties that formed the state of West Virginia in 1863.
  13. ^ This territory no longer exists.
  14. ^ Figure includes Native American reservations in the United States. There were 62,622,250 persons not on reservations in 1890.
  15. ^ This territory no longer exists.
  16. ^ This territory no longer exists.