List of U.S. states and territories by incarceration and correctional supervision rate

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This article has lists of U.S. states by adult incarceration and correctional supervision rates according to United States Department of Justice figures. The state incarceration numbers include sentenced and un-sentenced inmates in jails and state prisons, but not persons in federal prisons. They are listed separately. The state numbers also do not include youth held in juvenile detention. There is a separate table of incarceration numbers for U.S. territories.

Imprisonment rate of sentenced prisoners under jurisdiction of state correctional authorities per 100,000 U.S. residents, age 18 or older. Does not include prisoners who have not been convicted or sentenced. Does not include jail inmates whether convicted or not. Does not include federal prisoners.


Incarceration rate by state[edit]

U.S. states by incarceration rate under state prison or local jail jurisdiction per 100,000 population.[1] Rates are for year-end 2018. The table below has all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Note: The table is initially in descending order for rate per 100,000 of all ages.
Note: The columns can be sorted Sort both small.svg in ascending or descending order. Sort state name column to return to alphabetical order.
Note: There are 2 state incarceration rate columns: One per 100,000 of all ages. And one per 100,000 adults.[1]
Note: Federal prison inmates are not included in state rates.
Row numbers: The row number column on the left does not sort, and remains static.
Adult incarceration rates by state. Dec 31, 2018[1]
Jurisdiction 2018 rate per 100,000 of all ages 2018 rate per 100,000 adults 2018. Adults in prison or jail
  Federal 50 70 179,200
  State 580 750 1,919,200

 Louisiana 980 1,280 45,700
 Oklahoma 970 1,290 38,500
 Mississippi 920 1,210 27,500
 Georgia 850 1,110 89,700
 Kentucky 840 1,080 37,500
 Alabama 820 1,060 40,400
 Arkansas 820 1,070 24,700
 Arizona 750 980 54,600
 Texas 750 1,010 218,000
 Tennessee 730 930 49,300
 Florida 700 870 150,500
 Missouri 700 900 43,000
 Wyoming 700 910 4,000
 Idaho 690 920 12,100
 Indiana 690 900 46,300
 South Dakota 680 910 6,100
 Nevada 670 860 20,500
 Virginia 670 850 57,100
 Wisconsin 630 810 36,700
 Delaware 620 790 6,100
 Kansas 620 820 18,000
 New Mexico 620 810 13,100
 Pennsylvania 610 770 77,900
 Alaska 600 790 4,400
 Ohio 600 770 70,500
 South Carolina 590 760 30,300
 West Virginia 590 740 10,600
 Montana 580 740 6,200
 Colorado 570 730 32,700
 Michigan 540 690 54,500
 North Carolina 520 670 54,600
 California 510 650 200,700
 Oregon 500 630 21,100
 Nebraska 480 640 9,300
 Maryland 460 580 27,600
 Illinois 440 560 55,800
 Iowa 440 580 14,000
 Washington 410 520 30,900
 North Dakota 400 530 3,100
 Utah 390 550 12,500
 Connecticut 380 480 13,700
 Hawaii 380 480 5,400
 New York 350 440 67,700
 New Jersey 320 410 28,700
 Maine 300 370 4,000
 New Hampshire 300 370 4,100
 Minnesota 280 370 15,900
 District of Columbia 260 310 1,800
 Rhode Island 260 320 2,800
 Vermont 260 320 1,700
 Massachusetts 250 320 17,600

Incarceration stats by US territory, and percent female[edit]

Incarceration stats by US territory, and percent female[2]
Territory Incarceration rate per 100,000 of all ages Total number of prisoners Prison population percent female Data year. In order by column

 American Samoa 345 193 4.1% 2017, 2017, 2017
 Guam 411 690 7.2% 2019, 2019, 2017
 Northern Mariana Islands 313 175 5.8% 2019, 2019, 2007
 Puerto Rico 278 8,884 3.6% 2019, 2019, 2017
 U.S. Virgin Islands 394 412 2.7% 2020, 2020, 2011

Juvenile detention[edit]

Juvenile detention totals from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.[3]

Juvenile detention in the US
Year Male Female Total
1997 90,771 14,284 105,055
1999 92,985 14,508 107,493
2001 89,115 15,104 104,219
2003 81,975 14,556 96,531
2006 78,998 13,723 92,721
2007 75,017 11,797 86,814
2010 61,359 9,434 70,793
2011 53,079 8,344 61,423
2013 46,421 7,727 54,148
2015 40,750 7,293 48,043
2017 36,982 6,598 43,580

Comparison with other countries[edit]

The US incarceration rate peaked in 2008. The US rate was the highest in the world in 2008. Chart is for prisoners per 100,000 population of all ages.[4][5]

According to the World Prison Brief the United States currently has the largest prison population in the world, and the highest incarceration rate.[6][7][8][9]

On January 1, 2008 more than 1 in 100 adults in the United States were in prison or jail.[10][11] Total US incarceration peaked in 2008.[5]

In addition to the overall highest incarceration rate, the United States also has the highest rate of female incarceration.[12] According to a November 2017 report by the World Prison Brief around 212,000 of the 714,000 female prisoners worldwide (women and girls) are incarcerated in the United States.[13] In the United States in 2016, women made up 9.8% of the incarcerated population in adult prisons and jails.[7][14]

Comparing English-speaking developed countries;[6] the overall incarceration rate in the US is 639 per 100,000 population of all ages (as of 2018),[7] the incarceration rate of Canada is 104 per 100,000 (as of 2018),[15] England and Wales is 130 per 100,000 (as of 2021),[16] and Australia is 160 per 100,000 (as of 2020).[17] Comparing other developed countries, the rate of Spain is 122 per 100,000 (as of 2020),[18] France is 90 per 100,000 (as of 2020),[19] Germany is 69 per 100,000 (as of 2020),[20] Norway is 49 per 100,000 (as of 2020),[21] Netherlands is 63 per 100,000 (as of 2018),[22] and Japan is 38 per 100,000 (as of 2019).[23]

In addition, the United States has striking statistics when observing the racial dimension of mass incarceration. According to Michelle Alexander (in 2010 book), the United States "imprisons a larger percentage of its black population than South Africa did at the height of apartheid."[24]

Correctional supervision rates by state[edit]

Chart below has numbers for people in adult facilities, and for people on probation and on parole.[1] The incarceration numbers for the states in the chart below are for sentenced and unsentenced inmates in adult facilities in local jails and state prisons. Numbers for federal prisons are in one of the header lines at the top.

Correctional supervision rates by state, 2018.[1]
Jurisdiction Total Community supervision Incarcerated
Total, 12/31/2018 Rate per 100,000 adults Probation or Parole, 12/31/2018 Rate per 100,000 adults In prison or jail, 12/31/2018 Rate per 100,000 adults
  Federal 302,100 90 122,800 40 179,200 50
  State 6,083,300 1,850 4,276,200 1,300 1,919,200 580

 Alabama 99,200 2,030 60,900 1,240 40,400 820
 Alaska 7,800 1,060 3,400 460 4,400 600
 Arizona 136,800 1,890 84,300 1,170 54,600 750
 Arkansas 74,700 2,470 53,800 1,780 24,700 820
 California 513,100 1,290 312,400 790 200,700 510
 Colorado 122,600 2,140 91,300 1,590 32,700 570
 Connecticut 54,800 1,530 43,100 1,210 13,700 380
 Delaware 20,600 2,120 14,500 1,490 6,100 620
 District of Columbia 9,500 1,340 8,600 1,210 1,800 260
 Florida 357,400 1,670 209,400 980 150,500 700
 Georgia 495,200 4,680 433,200 4,100 89,700 850
 Hawaii 27,200 1,920 21,900 1,540 5,400 380
 Idaho 51,800 2,920 39,700 2,240 12,100 690
 Illinois 171,900 1,350 116,100 910 55,800 440
 Indiana 164,700 2,450 118,400 1,760 46,300 690
 Iowa 47,600 1,500 35,600 1,120 14,000 440
 Kansas 39,000 1,340 21,900 750 18,000 620
 Kentucky 99,600 2,230 62,800 1,400 37,500 840
 Louisiana 104,000 2,230 62,300 1,340 45,700 980
 Maine 10,300 770 6,800 500 4,000 300
 Maryland 96,600 1,600 80,600 1,330 27,600 460
 Massachusetts 71,200 1,030 53,700 780 17,600 250
 Michigan 219,200 2,190 164,800 1,650 54,500 540
 Minnesota 122,900 2,180 107,500 1,910 15,900 280
 Mississippi 63,600 2,130 37,200 1,240 27,500 920
 Missouri 106,100 1,730 63,100 1,030 43,000 700
 Montana 16,700 1,570 11,400 1,070 6,200 580
 Nebraska 25,100 1,300 15,900 820 9,300 480
 Nevada 40,300 1,310 19,800 640 20,500 670
 New Hampshire 10,400 760 6,300 460 4,100 300
 New Jersey 173,700 1,950 146,300 1,640 28,700 320
 New Mexico 26,800 1,280 13,700 660 13,100 620
 New York 202,300 1,040 139,700 720 67,700 350
 North Carolina 148,600 1,420 94,100 900 54,600 520
 North Dakota 10,100 1,320 7,000 920 3,100 400
 Ohio 322,500 2,760 253,900 2,170 70,500 600
 Oklahoma 81,800 2,070 43,300 1,100 38,500 970
 Oregon 81,000 1,920 59,900 1,420 21,100 500
 Pennsylvania 360,200 2,810 288,000 2,250 77,900 610
 Rhode Island 22,000 2,080 20,900 1,980 2,800 260
 South Carolina 67,000 1,310 36,700 720 30,300 590
 South Dakota 15,100 1,710 9,200 1,040 6,100 680
 Tennessee 117,400 1,730 72,100 1,060 49,300 730
 Texas 672,400 2,330 474,600 1,640 218,000 750
 Utah 26,800 840 16,600 520 12,500 390
 Vermont 6,500 1,030 4,800 770 1,700 260
 Virginia 122,000 1,430 65,000 760 57,100 670
 Washington 115,200 1,520 88,900 1,170 30,900 410
 West Virginia 21,500 1,190 10,900 600 10,600 590
 Wisconsin 100,600 1,730 63,900 1,100 36,700 630
 Wyoming 9,900 1,720 6,300 1,090 4,000 700

Male and female incarceration and correctional supervision numbers[edit]

In 2015 there were 1,942,500 male and 202,600 female inmates in prisons and jails. That is 10.4% female.[25] See the state, federal, and overall total at the bottom of the table.

Male and female incarceration and correctional supervision numbers
Jurisdiction Community supervision (parole, probation, etc.) Incarcerated
Number Rate per 100,000 of all ages Number Rate per 100,000 of all ages
Total Male Female Male Female Total Male Female Male Female

 Alabama 64,600 50,600 14,000 2,140 560 42,900 38,600 4,300 1,640 170
 Alaska 8,500 6,600 1,900 1,700 550 5,400 4,800 600 1,230 170
 Arizona 83,300 66,700 16,700 1,950 480 54,900 49,100 5,800 1,440 170
 Arkansas 51,500 39,000 12,500 2,660 820 24,000 21,200 2,800 1,450 180
 California 349,600 277,500 72,100 1,420 360 201,000 186,000 15,100 950 80
 Colorado 89,200 66,700 22,400 2,410 820 31,800 28,000 3,800 1,010 140
 Connecticut 45,300 35,700 9,500 2,040 520 15,800 14,700 1,100 840 60
 Delaware 16,100 12,400 3,700 2,690 760 6,700 6,100 500 1,330 110
 District of Columbia 9,900 8,500 1,400 2,640 400 1,800 1,700 100 530 30
 Florida 225,400 167,000 58,400 1,670 560 153,000 137,900 15,100 1,380 140
 Georgia 451,800 353,600 98,200 7,060 1,870 88,500 79,600 8,900 1,590 170
 Hawaii 22,500 17,200 5,300 2,360 740 5,900 5,200 700 710 100
 Idaho 37,800 28,100 9,700 3,370 1,160 10,900 9,300 1,600 1,120 190
 Illinois 151,300 118,200 33,100 1,870 510 63,900 59,500 4,400 940 70
 Indiana 122,500 93,100 29,400 2,850 870 43,500 38,200 5,200 1,170 160
 Iowa 35,600 26,900 8,700 1,730 550 12,900 11,500 1,400 740 90
 Kansas 20,900 16,400 4,500 1,120 310 16,600 14,800 1,800 1,010 130
 Kentucky 70,600 49,400 21,300 2,260 940 33,800 28,700 5,100 1,310 230
 Louisiana 71,900 57,400 14,500 2,510 600 49,000 45,400 3,600 1,980 150
 Maine 6,700 5,400 1,400 820 200 4,000 3,500 500 540 70
 Maryland 87,400 71,800 15,600 2,460 500 29,700 27,800 1,900 950 60
 Massachusetts 66,900 52,600 14,300 1,590 410 20,100 19,000 1,200 570 30
 Michigan 193,900 147,700 46,100 3,020 910 57,700 53,100 4,600 1,090 90
 Minnesota 105,100 81,000 24,000 2,960 870 16,500 14,800 1,600 540 60
 Mississippi 44,800 35,500 9,300 2,440 600 28,000 25,800 2,300 1,770 150
 Missouri 62,600 47,600 15,000 1,590 480 43,400 38,500 4,900 1,290 160
 Montana 9,700 7,400 2,300 1,430 440 5,600 4,800 800 930 150
 Nebraska 13,700 10,000 3,700 1,050 390 8,600 7,700 900 810 100
 Nevada 19,200 15,200 4,000 1,040 270 19,100 16,800 2,300 1,150 160
 New Hampshire 6,300 4,900 1,400 750 210 4,600 4,100 500 620 80
 New Jersey 151,300 117,700 33,700 2,690 730 33,900 31,700 2,200 720 50
 New Mexico 16,800 12,600 4,200 1,210 400 15,100 13,300 1,800 1,290 170
 New York 145,600 120,500 25,000 1,250 250 75,900 71,100 4,800 740 50
 North Carolina 97,400 73,400 24,000 1,490 460 53,800 48,800 5,000 990 100
 North Dakota 6,900 5,100 1,800 1,300 490 3,200 2,700 400 690 120
 Ohio 262,000 189,700 72,300 3,330 1,220 70,700 62,800 7,900 1,100 130
 Oklahoma 33,400 25,700 7,700 1,320 390 39,700 34,400 5,300 1,770 270
 Oregon 61,900 49,600 12,300 2,470 600 21,000 18,600 2,400 930 120
 Pennsylvania 296,200 223,500 72,700 3,560 1,110 83,900 76,300 7,600 1,220 120
 Rhode Island 24,400 20,600 3,800 4,010 690 3,200 3,100 100 600 30
 South Carolina 38,500 30,500 8,000 1,280 320 31,600 28,900 2,800 1,210 110
 South Dakota 9,800 7,500 2,300 1,720 540 5,300 4,600 800 1,050 180
 Tennessee 75,400 57,100 18,300 1,770 540 48,000 41,600 6,500 1,290 190
 Texas 488,800 375,200 113,600 2,730 810 214,800 192,500 22,300 1,400 160
 Utah 15,700 12,000 3,700 790 240 11,700 10,100 1,600 660 110
 Vermont 6,300 4,800 1,500 1,550 470 1,800 1,600 200 520 50
 Virginia 57,000 43,700 13,300 1,060 310 57,300 51,000 6,300 1,230 150
 Washington 104,700 81,600 23,200 2,260 640 29,700 26,300 3,400 730 90
 West Virginia 10,100 7,300 2,800 800 300 10,100 8,700 1,400 950 150
 Wisconsin 65,600 52,700 12,900 1,830 440 35,000 31,800 3,100 1,110 110
 Wyoming 5,900 4,300 1,600 1,450 550 3,900 3,400 600 1,130 200
State or federal district 4,518,100 3,485,100 1,033,000 2,190 630 1,949,400 1,759,700 189,800 1,450 150
Federal 132,800 109,200 23,700 70 10 195,700 182,800 12,900 150 10
U.S. total 4,650,900 3,594,300 1,056,700 2,260 640 2,145,100 1,942,500 202,600 1,600 160

State female incarceration rates compared to countries[edit]

Female incarceration rates by country and US state. Per 100,000 female population of all ages. Female incarceration rates if every US state were a country. Incarcerated females of all ages (where the data is available). From a 2018 report with latest available data. From the source report: "Figure 1. This graph shows the number of women in state prisons, local jails, and federal prisons from each U.S. state per 100,000 people in that state and the incarceration rate per 100,000 in all countries with at least a half million in total population."[12]

Female incarceration rates by country and US state.gif

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Correctional Populations in the United States, 2017-2018 (NCJ 252157). Published August 2020 by U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). Laura M. Maruschak, Todd D. Minton, BJS statisticians. See PDF. Appendix table 1 on page 11 has rates and counts by state.
  2. ^ US territories. From World Prison Brief. Prisonstudies.org pages: American Samoa. Guam. Northern Mariana Islands. Puerto Rico. Virgin Islands.
  3. ^ Sickmund, M., Sladky, T.J., Kang, W., & Puzzanchera, C.. "Easy Access to the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement". Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Click "National Crosstabs" at the top, and then choose the census years. Click "Show table" to get the total number of juvenile inmates for those years. Or go here for all the years. And here.
  4. ^ Walmsley, Roy (30 Jan 2009). World Prison Population List (8th Edition). From World Prison Population Lists. By World Prison Brief. "The information is the latest available in early December 2008. … Most figures relate to dates between the beginning of 2006 and the end of November 2008." According to the summary on page one there were 2.29 million U.S. inmates and 9.8 million inmates worldwide. The U.S. held 23.4% of the world's inmates. The U.S. total in this report is for December 31, 2007 (see page 3), and does not include inmates in juvenile detention facilities.
  5. ^ a b Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016 (NCJ 251211). Published April 2018 by U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). By Danielle Kaeble and Mary Cowhig, BJS statisticians. See PDF. Appendix table 1 on page 11 has rates and counts by state. See page 1 "highlights" section for the "1 in ..." numbers. See table 4 on page 4 for a timeline of nationwide incarceration rates. See appendix table 3 on page 13, for "Persons held in custody in state or federal prisons or in local jails, 2000, 2010, and 2015–2016". That table also has incarceration rates. See appendix table 2 on page 12 for the number or persons incarcerated in territorial prisons, military facilities, and jails in Indian country.
  6. ^ a b Highest to Lowest. World Prison Brief (WPB). Use dropdown menu to choose lists of countries by region, or the whole world. Use menu to select highest-to-lowest lists of prison population totals, prison population rates, percentage of pre-trial detainees / remand prisoners, percentage of female prisoners, percentage of foreign prisoners, and occupancy rate. Column headings in WPB tables can be clicked to reorder columns lowest to highest, or alphabetically. For detailed information for each country click on any country name in lists. See also the WPB main data page and click on the map links and/or the sidebar links to get to the region and country desired.
  7. ^ a b c United States of America. By World Prison Brief.
  8. ^ Mahapatra, Lisa (19 March 2014). Incarcerated In America: Why Are So Many People In US Prisons? (CHARTS). International Business Times. Chart showing incarceration rates of 50 most populous countries. Another chart showing what the inmates in the USA are in for (does not indicate reasons for probation and parole violations. Those offenses, such as drug tests, etc. change the breakdown of what inmates are in for).
  9. ^ National Research Council. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014: "The U.S. penal population of 2.2 million adults is by far the largest in the world. Just under one-quarter of the world's prisoners are held in American prisons."
  10. ^ One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008. February 28, 2008. The Pew Center on the States.
  11. ^ Liptak, Adam (28 Feb 2008). 1 in 100 U.S. Adults Behind Bars, New Study Says. New York Times.
  12. ^ a b Kajstura, Aleks (June 2018). "States of Women's Incarceration: The Global Context 2018". Prison Policy Initiative. See the appendix for a detailed data breakdown.
  13. ^ World Female Imprisonment List (fourth edition). Nov. 9, 2017. World Prison Brief.
  14. ^ Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015. By Danielle Kaeble and Lauren Glaze, BJS Statisticians. Dec. 2016. Bureau of Justice Statistics. See PDF. Appendix table 3 on page 15 says there are 1,942,500 male and 202,600 female inmates in prisons and jails. That is 10.4% female.
  15. ^ Canada. World Prison Brief.
  16. ^ United Kingdom: England & Wales. World Prison Brief.
  17. ^ Australia. World Prison Brief.
  18. ^ Spain. World Prison Brief.
  19. ^ France. World Prison Brief.
  20. ^ Germany. World Prison Brief.
  21. ^ Norway. World Prison Brief.
  22. ^ Netherlands. World Prison Brief.
  23. ^ Japan. World Prison Brief.
  24. ^ Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press. p. 7.
  25. ^ Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015. By Danielle Kaeble and Lauren Glaze, BJS Statisticians. Dec. 2016. Bureau of Justice Statistics. See PDF. Appendix table 3 on page 14 has male and female counts and rates by state. It says there are 1,942,500 male and 202,600 female inmates in prisons and jails. That is 10.4% female.

External links[edit]