List of U.S. states and territories by incarceration and correctional supervision rate
This article has lists of U.S. states by adult incarceration and correctional supervision rates according to United States Department of Justice figures. The state incarceration numbers include sentenced and un-sentenced inmates in jails and state prisons, but not persons in federal prisons. They are listed separately. The state numbers also do not include youth held in juvenile detention. There is a separate table of incarceration numbers for U.S. territories.
Incarceration rate by state
- Note: The table is initially in descending order for rate per 100,000 of all ages.
- Note: The columns can be sorted in ascending or descending order. Sort state name column to return to alphabetical order.
- Note: There are 2 state incarceration rate columns: One per 100,000 of all ages. And one per 100,000 adults.
- Note: Federal prison inmates are not included in state rates.
- Row numbers: The row number column on the left does not sort, and remains static.
|Jurisdiction||2018 rate per 100,000 of all ages||2018 rate per 100,000 adults||2018. Adults in prison or jail|
|District of Columbia||260||310||1,800|
Incarceration stats by US territory, and percent female
|Territory||Incarceration rate per 100,000 of all ages||Total number of prisoners||Prison population percent female||Data year. In order by column|
|American Samoa||345||193||4.1%||2017, 2017, 2017|
|Guam||411||690||7.2%||2019, 2019, 2017|
|Northern Mariana Islands||313||175||5.8%||2019, 2019, 2007|
|Puerto Rico||278||8,884||3.6%||2019, 2019, 2017|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||394||412||2.7%||2020, 2020, 2011|
Juvenile detention totals from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Comparison with other countries
In addition to the overall highest incarceration rate, the United States also has the highest rate of female incarceration. According to a November 2017 report by the World Prison Brief around 212,000 of the 714,000 female prisoners worldwide (women and girls) are incarcerated in the United States. In the United States in 2016, women made up 9.8% of the incarcerated population in adult prisons and jails.
Comparing English-speaking developed countries; the overall incarceration rate in the US is 639 per 100,000 population of all ages (as of 2018), the incarceration rate of Canada is 104 per 100,000 (as of 2018), England and Wales is 130 per 100,000 (as of 2021), and Australia is 160 per 100,000 (as of 2020). Comparing other developed countries, the rate of Spain is 122 per 100,000 (as of 2020), France is 90 per 100,000 (as of 2020), Germany is 69 per 100,000 (as of 2020), Norway is 49 per 100,000 (as of 2020), Netherlands is 63 per 100,000 (as of 2018), and Japan is 38 per 100,000 (as of 2019).
In addition, the United States has striking statistics when observing the racial dimension of mass incarceration. According to Michelle Alexander (in 2010 book), the United States "imprisons a larger percentage of its black population than South Africa did at the height of apartheid."
Correctional supervision rates by state
Chart below has numbers for people in adult facilities, and for people on probation and on parole. The incarceration numbers for the states in the chart below are for sentenced and unsentenced inmates in adult facilities in local jails and state prisons. Numbers for federal prisons are in one of the header lines at the top.
|Total, 12/31/2018||Rate per 100,000 adults||Probation or Parole, 12/31/2018||Rate per 100,000 adults||In prison or jail, 12/31/2018||Rate per 100,000 adults|
|District of Columbia||9,500||1,340||8,600||1,210||1,800||260|
Male and female incarceration and correctional supervision numbers
In 2015 there were 1,942,500 male and 202,600 female inmates in prisons and jails. That is 10.4% female. See the state, federal, and overall total at the bottom of the table.
|Jurisdiction||Community supervision (parole, probation, etc.)||Incarcerated|
|Number||Rate per 100,000 of all ages||Number||Rate per 100,000 of all ages|
|District of Columbia||9,900||8,500||1,400||2,640||400||1,800||1,700||100||530||30|
|State or federal district||4,518,100||3,485,100||1,033,000||2,190||630||1,949,400||1,759,700||189,800||1,450||150|
State female incarceration rates compared to countries
Female incarceration rates by country and US state. Per 100,000 female population of all ages. Female incarceration rates if every US state were a country. Incarcerated females of all ages (where the data is available). From a 2018 report with latest available data. From the source report: "Figure 1. This graph shows the number of women in state prisons, local jails, and federal prisons from each U.S. state per 100,000 people in that state and the incarceration rate per 100,000 in all countries with at least a half million in total population."
- United States incarceration rate
- Incarceration in the United States
- Incarceration of women in the United States
- Racial and ethnic demographics of the United States
- Race and the War on Drugs
- Youth incarceration in the United States
- School-to-prison pipeline
- List of U.S. states by homicide rate
- Correctional Populations in the United States, 2017-2018 (NCJ 252157). Published August 2020 by U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). Laura M. Maruschak, Todd D. Minton, BJS statisticians. See PDF. Appendix table 1 on page 11 has rates and counts by state.
- US territories. From World Prison Brief. Prisonstudies.org pages: American Samoa. Guam. Northern Mariana Islands. Puerto Rico. Virgin Islands.
- Sickmund, M., Sladky, T.J., Kang, W., & Puzzanchera, C.. "Easy Access to the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement". Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Click "National Crosstabs" at the top, and then choose the census years. Click "Show table" to get the total number of juvenile inmates for those years. Or go here for all the years. And here.
- Walmsley, Roy (30 Jan 2009). World Prison Population List (8th Edition). From World Prison Population Lists. By World Prison Brief. "The information is the latest available in early December 2008. … Most figures relate to dates between the beginning of 2006 and the end of November 2008." According to the summary on page one there were 2.29 million U.S. inmates and 9.8 million inmates worldwide. The U.S. held 23.4% of the world's inmates. The U.S. total in this report is for December 31, 2007 (see page 3), and does not include inmates in juvenile detention facilities.
- Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016 (NCJ 251211). Published April 2018 by U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). By Danielle Kaeble and Mary Cowhig, BJS statisticians. See PDF. Appendix table 1 on page 11 has rates and counts by state. See page 1 "highlights" section for the "1 in ..." numbers. See table 4 on page 4 for a timeline of nationwide incarceration rates. See appendix table 3 on page 13, for "Persons held in custody in state or federal prisons or in local jails, 2000, 2010, and 2015–2016". That table also has incarceration rates. See appendix table 2 on page 12 for the number or persons incarcerated in territorial prisons, military facilities, and jails in Indian country.
- Highest to Lowest. World Prison Brief (WPB). Use dropdown menu to choose lists of countries by region, or the whole world. Use menu to select highest-to-lowest lists of prison population totals, prison population rates, percentage of pre-trial detainees / remand prisoners, percentage of female prisoners, percentage of foreign prisoners, and occupancy rate. Column headings in WPB tables can be clicked to reorder columns lowest to highest, or alphabetically. For detailed information for each country click on any country name in lists. See also the WPB main data page and click on the map links and/or the sidebar links to get to the region and country desired.
- United States of America. By World Prison Brief.
- Mahapatra, Lisa (19 March 2014). Incarcerated In America: Why Are So Many People In US Prisons? (CHARTS). International Business Times. Chart showing incarceration rates of 50 most populous countries. Another chart showing what the inmates in the USA are in for (does not indicate reasons for probation and parole violations. Those offenses, such as drug tests, etc. change the breakdown of what inmates are in for).
- National Research Council. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014: "The U.S. penal population of 2.2 million adults is by far the largest in the world. Just under one-quarter of the world's prisoners are held in American prisons."
- One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008. February 28, 2008. The Pew Center on the States.
- Liptak, Adam (28 Feb 2008). 1 in 100 U.S. Adults Behind Bars, New Study Says. New York Times.
- Kajstura, Aleks (June 2018). "States of Women's Incarceration: The Global Context 2018". Prison Policy Initiative. See the appendix for a detailed data breakdown.
- World Female Imprisonment List (fourth edition). Nov. 9, 2017. World Prison Brief.
- Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015. By Danielle Kaeble and Lauren Glaze, BJS Statisticians. Dec. 2016. Bureau of Justice Statistics. See PDF. Appendix table 3 on page 15 says there are 1,942,500 male and 202,600 female inmates in prisons and jails. That is 10.4% female.
- Canada. World Prison Brief.
- United Kingdom: England & Wales. World Prison Brief.
- Australia. World Prison Brief.
- Spain. World Prison Brief.
- France. World Prison Brief.
- Germany. World Prison Brief.
- Norway. World Prison Brief.
- Netherlands. World Prison Brief.
- Japan. World Prison Brief.
- Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press. p. 7.
- Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015. By Danielle Kaeble and Lauren Glaze, BJS Statisticians. Dec. 2016. Bureau of Justice Statistics. See PDF. Appendix table 3 on page 14 has male and female counts and rates by state. It says there are 1,942,500 male and 202,600 female inmates in prisons and jails. That is 10.4% female.