List of U.S. states by incarceration and correctional supervision rate
This article has lists of U.S. states by adult incarceration and correctional supervision rates according to United States Department of Justice figures. Incarceration numbers include sentenced and unsentenced inmates in jails and state prisons, but not persons in federal prisons. It does not include youth held in juvenile detention.
Incarceration rate by state
U.S. states by incarceration rate under state prison or local jail jurisdiction per 100,000 population. Rates are for yearend 2013. Federal prison inmates are not included in the state rates. The table below has all 50 states plus the District of Columbia.
- Note: There are 2 incarceration rate columns: One per 100,000 adults, and one per 100,000 of all ages.
- Note: The rate columns can be sorted in ascending or descending order. The row number column on the left sorts separately. This way the states can be ranked by incarceration rate. Sort the state column to return to alphabetical order.
Comparison with other countries
The United States has the largest prison population in the world, and the second-highest per-capita incarceration rate, behind Seychelles (which in 2014 had a total prison population of 735 out of a population of around 92,000).
In addition to overall incarceration rates, the United States is also leading in rates of female incarceration. In the United States, women make up more than one tenth of the whole prison population. In most countries, the proportion of female inmates to the larger population is closer to one in twenty. Australia is the exception where the rate of female imprisonment increased from 9.2 percent in 1991 to 15.3 percent in 1999.
Comparing other English-speaking developed countries, whereas the incarceration rate in the US is 704 per 100,000 (as of 2013), the incarceration rate of Canada is 106 per 100,000 (as of 2014), England and Wales is 148 per 100,000 (as of 2015), and Australia is 151 per 100,000 (as of 2015). Comparing other developed countries, the rate of Spain is 141 per 100,000 (as of 2015), Greece is 120 per 100,000 (as of 2013), Norway is 71 per 100,000 (as of 2015), Netherlands is 75 per 100,000 (as of 2013), and Japan is 49 per 100,000 (as of 2014).
In addition, the United States has striking statistics when observing the racial dimension of mass incarceration. According to Michelle Alexander, the United States "imprisons a larger percentage of its black population than South Africa did at the height of apartheid."
Correctional supervision rate by state
Chart below has numbers for people in adult facilities, and for people on probation and on parole. The incarceration numbers in the main part of the chart below are for sentenced and unsentenced inmates in adult facilities in local jails and state prisons, but not for people in federal prisons.
The bottom of the chart has totals and average rates for each column.
Federal prison numbers are added at the end of the chart. So the total number (local, state, and federal) under adult correctional supervision is 6,906,200. That is a correctional supervision rate of 2,830 per 100,000 U.S. adult residents. That rounds off to 2.8% of US adult residents.
|Rate per 100,000
|Probation or Parole,
|Rate per 100,000
|In prison or jail,
|Rate per 100,000
|District of Columbia||13,700||2,540||12,600||2,330||2,400||450|
- United States incarceration rate
- Incarceration in the United States
- Incarceration of women in the United States
- Racial and ethnic demographics of the United States
- Race and the War on Drugs
- Youth incarceration in the United States
- School-to-prison pipeline
- List of U.S. states by homicide rate
- Correctional Populations in the United States, 2013 (NCJ 248479). Published December 2014 by U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). By Lauren E. Glaze and Danielle Kaeble, BJS statisticians. See PDF. Appendix table 1 on page 11 has rates and counts by state. See page 1 "highlights" section for the "1 in ..." numbers. See table 1 on page 2 for adult numbers. See table 5 on page 6 for male and female numbers. See table 2 on page 3 for a timeline of nationwide incarceration rates. See appendix table 5 on page 13, for "Estimated number of persons supervised by adult correctional systems, by correctional status, 2000–2013." See appendix table 2: "Inmates held in custody in state or federal prisons or in local jails, 2000 and 2012–2013".
- State Totals: Vintage 2014. By U.S. Census Bureau. See: "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 (NST-EST2014-01)". 2013 state populations were taken from that. Also, the 2013 national population. See the CSV and FactFinder links. The 2013 populations were used to calculate the incarceration rate per 100,000 of all ages.
- Walmsley, Roy (30 Jan 2009). World Prison Population List (8th Edition). From World Prison Population Lists. By International Centre for Prison Studies. "The information is the latest available in early December 2008. … Most figures relate to dates between the beginning of 2006 and the end of November 2008." According to the summary on page one there were 2.29 million U.S. inmates and 9.8 million inmates worldwide. The U.S. held 23.4% of the world's inmates. The U.S. total in this report is for December 31, 2007 (see page 3), and does not include inmates in juvenile detention facilities.
- Entire world – Prison Population Rates per 100,000 of the national population. Highest to Lowest Rates. For more details about the figures of any country, click on the name of that country. World Prison Brief. International Centre for Prison Studies. See this page for breakdowns by region, whole world, prison population total, prison population rate, percentage of pre-trial detainees / remand prisoners, percentage of female prisoners, percentage of foreign prisoners, and occupancy rate.
- Mahapatra, Lisa (19 March 2014). Incarcerated In America: Why Are So Many People In US Prisons? (CHARTS). International Business Times. Chart showing incarceration rates of 50 most populous countries. Another chart showing what the inmates in the USA are in for (does not indicate reasons for probation and parole violations. Those offenses, such as drug tests, etc. change the breakdown of what inmates are in for).
- National Research Council. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014: "The U.S. penal population of 2.2 million adults is by far the largest in the world. Just under one-quarter of the world's prisoners are held in American prisons."
- Seychelles. International Centre for Prison Studies.
- One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008. February 28, 2008. The Pew Center on the States.
- Liptak, Adam (28 Feb 2008). 1 in 100 U.S. Adults Behind Bars, New Study Says. New York Times.
- Carlen, Pat (2004). Analysing Women's Imprisonment. Portland: Willan Publishing. p. 43.
- Carlen, Pat (2004). Analysing Women's Imprisonment. Portland: Willan Publishing. p. 42.
- Canada. International Centre for Prison Studies.
- United Kingdom: England & Wales. International Centre for Prison Studies.
- Australia. International Centre for Prison Studies.
- Spain. International Centre for Prison Studies.
- Greece. International Centre for Prison Studies.
- Norway. International Centre for Prison Studies.
- Netherlands. International Centre for Prison Studies.
- Japan. International Centre for Prison Studies.
- Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press. p. 7.
- Sickmund, M., Sladky, T.J., Kang, W., & Puzzanchera, C.. "Easy Access to the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement". Click "National Crosstabs" at the top, and then choose the census years. Click "Show table" to get the total number of juvenile inmates for those years. Or go here for all the years. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.