List of U.S. states by incarceration rate

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This is a list of U.S. states by adult incarceration rate according to United States Department of Justice figures. It includes sentenced and unsentenced inmates in jails and state prisons, but not persons in federal prisons.

Incarceration rate by state[edit]

A map of U.S. states by adult incarceration rate per 100,000 adult population. State prisons and local jails. Excludes federal prisoners.

U.S. states by adult incarceration rate under state prison or local jail jurisdiction per 100,000 adult population. Rates are for yearend 2013.[1] Federal prison inmates are not included in the state rates. The table below has all 50 states plus the District of Columbia.

The rate column can be sorted in ascending or descending order. The rank column on the left sorts separately. This way the states can be ranked by incarceration rate. Sort the state column to return to alphabetical order.






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Jurisdiction In prison or jail Rate per 100,000 adults
State 2,012,400 830
Federal 215,100 90
U.S. total 2,227,500 910

Alabama 46,000 1,230
Alaska 5,100 940
Arizona 55,200 1,090
Arkansas 22,800 1,010
California 218,800 750
Colorado 32,100 790
Connecticut 17,600 620
Delaware 7,000 960
District of Columbia 2,400 450
Florida 154,500 990
Georgia 91,600 1,220
Hawaii 5,600 510
Idaho 10,200 860
Illinois 69,300 700
Indiana 45,400 910
Iowa 12,700 530
Kansas 16,600 760
Kentucky 32,100 950
Louisiana 50,100 1,420
Maine 3,800 350
Maryland 32,700 710
Massachusetts 21,400 400
Michigan 60,200 790
Minnesota 15,700 380
Mississippi 28,800 1,270
Missouri 44,500 950
Montana 6,000 760
Nebraska 8,500 600
Nevada 19,900 930
New Hampshire 4,800 460
New Jersey 37,600 540
New Mexico 15,500 980
New York 81,400 530
North Carolina 55,300 730
North Dakota 2,700 470
Ohio 69,800 780
Oklahoma 37,900 1,300
Oregon 22,900 740
Pennsylvania 85,500 850
Rhode Island 3,400 400
South Carolina 32,600 880
South Dakota 5,300 820
Tennessee 48,100 960
Texas 221,800 1,130
Utah 12,500 620
Vermont 2,100 410
Virginia 58,800 910
Washington 29,700 550
West Virginia 9,700 660
Wisconsin 34,800 780
Wyoming 3,800 840

Comparison with other countries[edit]

The stats source is the World Prison Population List. 8th edition. Prisoners per 100,000 population.[2][3]

The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate in the world at 754 per 100,000 (as of 2009).[4] A report released 28 February 2008, indicates that more than 1 in 100 adults in the United States are in prison.[5] The United States has less than 5% of the world's population[6] and 23% of the world's prison population.[2] In addition to overall incarceration rates, the United States is also leading in rates of female incarceration. In the United States, women make up more than one tenth of the whole prison population.[7] In most countries, the proportion of female inmates to the larger population is closer to one in twenty. Australia is the exception where the rate of female imprisonment increased from 9.2 percent in 1991 to 15.3 percent in 1999.[8]

Comparing other English-speaking developed countries, the incarceration rate of Canada is 117 per 100,000 (as of 2008), England and Wales is 154 per 100,000 (as of 2011), and Australia is 133 per 100,000 (as of 2010). Comparing other developed countries, the rate of Spain is 159 per 100,000 (as of 2011), Greece is 102 per 100,000 (as of 2009),and Japan is 59 per 100,000 (as of 2009). Comparing other countries with similar percentages of immigrants, Germany has a rate of 85 per 100,000 (as of 2010), Italy has a rate of 113 per 100,000 (as of 2010), and Saudi Arabia has a rate of 178 per 100,000 (as of 2009).[4]

The incarceration rate of the People's Republic of China varies depending on sources and measures. According to the ICPS, the rate for only sentenced prisoners is 120 per 100,000 (as of 2009) and the rate for prisoners including those in administrative detention and pre-trial detainees is 186 per 100,000 (as of 2009).[4] Su Jiang assessed the incarceration rate for all forms of imprisonment in China at 218 prisoners per 100,000 population.[9] Harry Wu, a U.S.-based human rights activist and ex-Chinese labor camp prisoner, estimates that "in the last 60 years, more than 40–50 million people" were in Chinese labor camps.[10]

In addition, the United States has striking statistics when observing the racial dimension of mass incarceration. According to Michelle Alexander, the United States "imprisons a larger percentage of its black population than South Africa did at the height of apartheid."[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Correctional Populations In The United States, 2013. Published December 2014. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). By Lauren E. Glaze and Danielle Kaeble, BJS Statisticians. The numbers are from Appendix Table 1 in the PDF.
  2. ^ a b World Prison Population List. 8th edition. By Roy Walmsley. Published in 2009. International Centre for Prison Studies. School of Law, King's College London.
  3. ^ Human Development Report 2007/2008 (HDR 2007/2008). For prison population per 100,000 people see Table 27 on page 322 of the full report. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), using data from the World Prison Population List, 7th edition. HDR 2009 does not contain a prison population table.
  4. ^ a b c International Centre for Prison Studies (18 Mar 2010). "Prison Brief - Highest to Lowest Rates". World Prison Brief. London: King's College London School of Law. Archived from the original on 25 March 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  5. ^ "One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008" (PDF). The Pew Center on the States. 28 February 2008. 
  6. ^ "US & World Population Clock". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  7. ^ Carlen, Pat (2004). Analysing Women's Imprisonment. Portland: Willan Publishing. p. 43. 
  8. ^ Carlen, Pat (2004). Analysing Women's Imprisonment. Portland: Willan Publishing. p. 42. 
  9. ^ Jiang, Su. "Measuring Prison Population in China: A Preliminary Observation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of The Law and Society Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 27 May 2008
  10. ^ Wu, Harry (1 March 2010). One on One (audio). Interview with Chris Johnstone. Radio Prague. Český rozhlas 7. Prague, Czech Republic. Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  11. ^ Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press. p. 7. 

External links[edit]

Rate Per 100,000 and Rank by State of Crime and Imprisionment by US States 1978 - 2012 Crime,Punishment and Ratio of Crime to Punishment Per 100,000 and Rank by Year and between States