List of U.S. states by incarceration and correctional supervision rate

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This article has lists of U.S. states by adult incarceration and correctional supervision rates according to United States Department of Justice figures. The state incarceration numbers include sentenced and unsentenced inmates in jails and state prisons, but not persons in federal prisons. They are listed separately. The state numbers also do not include youth held in juvenile detention.

Imprisonment rate of sentenced prisoners under jurisdiction of state correctional authorities per 100,000 U.S. residents, age 18 or older. Does not include prisoners who have not been convicted or sentenced. Does not include jail inmates whether convicted or not. Does not include federal prisoners.


Incarceration rate by state[edit]

U.S. states by incarceration rate under state prison or local jail jurisdiction per 100,000 population.[1] Rates are for yearend 2016. The table below has all 50 states plus the District of Columbia.

Note: The rate columns can be sorted Sort both small.svg in ascending or descending order. Sort the column with the state names to return to alphabetical order.
Note: There are 2 state incarceration rate columns: One per 100,000 adults, and one per 100,000 of all ages.[1]
Note: State and federal rows add up to US total row. Federal prison inmates are not included in the state rates.
Row numbers: The row number column on the left does not sort, and remains static.








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Incarceration rate by state.[1]
Jurisdiction Yearend
2016. In
prison
or jail
2016
rate per
100,000
adults
2016
rate per
100,000
of all ages
US total 2,131,000 850 660
Federal 188,400 80 60
State 1,942,600 780 600
Alabama 40,900 1,080 840
Alaska 4,400 800 600
Arizona 55,000 1,030 790
Arkansas 24,000 1,050 800
California 202,700 670 510
Colorado 32,100 740 580
Connecticut 15,000 530 420
Delaware 6,600 880 690
District of Columbia 1,800 320 270
Florida 149,800 900 720
Georgia 91,400 1,160 880
Hawaii 5,600 500 390
Idaho 11,300 900 670
Illinois 60,800 620 480
Indiana 43,200 850 650
Iowa 13,400 560 430
Kansas 17,200 780 590
Kentucky 34,700 1,010 780
Louisiana 45,400 1,270 970
Maine 4,100 380 300
Maryland 28,400 610 470
Massachusetts 19,400 360 280
Michigan 56,500 730 570
Minnesota 16,300 380 290
Mississippi 28,700 1,260 960
Missouri 44,300 940 730
Montana 5,700 700 550
Nebraska 8,800 610 460
Nevada 20,200 890 680
New Hampshire 4,500 410 330
New Jersey 32,000 460 360
New Mexico 14,700 930 710
New York 74,400 480 380
North Carolina 54,100 680 530
North Dakota 3,100 540 410
Ohio 71,000 790 610
Oklahoma 39,000 1,310 990
Oregon 20,700 640 500
Pennsylvania 82,400 810 640
Rhode Island 3,100 370 290
South Carolina 32,100 820 640
South Dakota 5,800 880 670
Tennessee 48,400 930 720
Texas 218,500 1,050 780
Utah 11,700 540 380
Vermont 1,700 340 280
Virginia 57,500 880 680
Washington 30,400 530 410
West Virginia 10,100 690 550
Wisconsin 35,600 790 620
Wyoming 3,900 870 660

Comparison with other countries[edit]

The US incarceration rate peaked in 2008. The US rate was the highest in the world in 2008. Chart is for prisoners per 100,000 population of all ages. [2][1]

According to the World Prison Brief the United States currently has the largest prison population in the world, and the highest incarceration rate.[3][4][5][6]

On January 1, 2008 more than 1 in 100 adults in the United States were in prison or jail.[7][8] Total US incarceration peaked in 2008.[1]

In addition to the overall highest incarceration rate, the United States also has the highest rate of female incarceration. According to a November 2017 report by the World Prison Brief around 212,000 of the 714,000 female prisoners worldwide (women and girls) are incarcerated in the United States.[9] In the United States in 2015, women made up 10.4% of the incarcerated population in adult prisons and jails.[10] In most countries, the proportion of female inmates to the larger prison population is closer to one in twenty. Australia is the exception where the rate of female imprisonment increased from 9.2 percent in 1991 to 15.3 percent in 1999.[11]

Comparing other English-speaking developed countries,[3] whereas the incarceration rate in the US is 660 per 100,000 population of all ages (as of 2016 table above),[1] the incarceration rate of Canada is 114 per 100,000 (as of 2015),[12] England and Wales is 146 per 100,000 (as of 2016),[13] and Australia is 160 per 100,000 (as of 2016).[14] Comparing other developed countries, the rate of Spain is 133 per 100,000 (as of 2016),[15], France is 110 per 100,000 (as of 2016),[16] Germany is 76 per 100,000 (as of 2016),[17] Norway is 73 per 100,000 (as of 2016),[18] Netherlands is 69 per 100,000 (as of 2014),[19] and Japan is 48 per 100,000 (as of 2014).[20]

In addition, the United States has striking statistics when observing the racial dimension of mass incarceration. According to Michelle Alexander, the United States "imprisons a larger percentage of its black population than South Africa did at the height of apartheid."[21]

Correctional supervision rates by state[edit]

Chart below has numbers for people in adult facilities, and for people on probation and on parole.[1] The incarceration numbers in the main part of the chart below are for sentenced and unsentenced inmates in adult facilities in local jails and state prisons, but not for people in federal prisons.

The bottom of the chart has totals and average rates for each column.

Federal prison numbers are added at the end of the chart. So the total number (local, state, and federal) under adult correctional supervision is 6,582,100. That is a correctional supervision rate of 2,630 per 100,000 U.S. adult residents. That rounds off to 2.6% of US adult residents.

Correctional supervision rates by state, 2016.[1]
Jurisdiction Total Community supervision Incarcerated
Total,
12/31/2016
Rate per 100,000
adults
Probation or Parole,
12/31/2016
Rate per 100,000
adults
In prison or jail,
12/31/2016
Rate per 100,000
adults

Alabama 99,800 2,640 60,700 1,610 40,900 1,080
Alaska 12,900 2,320 8,400 1,520 4,400 800
Arizona 137,500 2,570 84,800 1,590 55,000 1,030
Arkansas 72,100 3,150 51,500 2,250 24,000 1,050
California 536,100 1,770 333,300 1,100 202,700 670
Colorado 121,900 2,820 90,900 2,110 32,100 740
Connecticut 59,600 2,110 44,700 1,580 15,000 530
Delaware 22,400 2,980 15,800 2,100 6,600 880
District of Columbia 10,400 1,840 9,600 1,710 1,800 320
Florida 366,000 2,200 218,600 1,320 149,800 900
Georgia .. .. .. .. 91,400 1,160
Hawaii 27,500 2,450 21,900 1,950 5,600 500
Idaho 48,800 3,880 37,500 2,980 11,300 900
Illinois 204,200 2,070 143,400 1,450 60,800 620
Indiana 159,900 3,150 116,700 2,300 43,200 850
Iowa 46,700 1,940 35,100 1,460 13,400 560
Kansas 38,500 1,750 21,500 980 17,200 780
Kentucky 97,900 2,850 63,800 1,860 34,700 1,010
Louisiana 111,000 3,110 71,000 1,980 45,400 1,270
Maine 10,300 960 6,800 630 4,100 380
Maryland 99,000 2,120 82,800 1,770 28,400 610
Massachusetts 82,900 1,520 63,600 1,170 19,400 360
Michigan .. .. .. .. 56,500 730
Minnesota 119,500 2,810 103,900 2,450 16,300 380
Mississippi 65,300 2,880 37,700 1,660 28,700 1,260
Missouri 105,900 2,240 61,600 1,300 44,300 940
Montana 15,200 1,860 10,200 1,250 5,700 700
Nebraska 23,300 1,620 14,600 1,010 8,800 610
Nevada 39,200 1,720 19,000 830 20,200 890
New Hampshire 10,800 1,010 6,400 590 4,500 410
New Jersey 186,300 2,670 155,700 2,230 32,000 460
New Mexico 30,200 1,900 15,500 970 14,700 930
New York 212,100 1,360 142,400 910 74,400 480
North Carolina 149,300 1,890 95,200 1,210 54,100 680
North Dakota 10,300 1,770 7,100 1,230 3,100 540
Ohio 326,200 3,620 256,400 2,840 71,000 790
Oklahoma 74,500 2,510 35,500 1,190 39,000 1,310
Oregon 82,000 2,520 61,400 1,890 20,700 640
Pennsylvania 368,100 3,640 291,600 2,880 82,400 810
Rhode Island 24,300 2,850 23,200 2,730 3,100 370
South Carolina 68,800 1,770 36,700 940 32,100 820
South Dakota 15,000 2,290 9,300 1,420 5,800 880
Tennessee 119,400 2,310 74,700 1,440 48,400 930
Texas 681,900 3,290 482,900 2,330 218,500 1,050
Utah 25,400 1,180 15,900 740 11,700 540
Vermont 7,400 1,450 5,800 1,150 1,700 340
Virginia 120,000 1,830 62,500 950 57,500 880
Washington 127,000 2,230 100,600 1,760 30,400 530
West Virginia 20,100 1,380 10,100 690 10,100 690
Wisconsin 100,500 2,230 64,900 1,440 35,600 790
Wyoming 9,400 2,100 5,500 1,230 3,900 870
State 6,262,000 2,500 4,405,400 1,760 1,942,600 780
Federal 320,000 130 131,700 50 188,400 80
U.S. total 6,582,100 2,630 4,537,100 1,810 2,131,000 850

Male and female incarceration and correctional supervision numbers[edit]

Number and rate of persons supervised by U.S. adult correctional systems, by sex and correctional status, 2015.[22]
Community supervision (parole, probation, etc.) Incarcerated
Number Rate per 100,000 U.S. residents of all ages Number Rate per 100,000 U.S. residents of all ages
Jurisdiction Total Male Female Male Female Total Male Female Male Female
U.S. total 4,650,900 3,594,300 1,056,700 2,260 640 2,145,100 1,942,500 202,600 1,600 160
Federal 132,800 109,200 23,700 70 10 195,700 182,800 12,900 150 10
State 4,518,100 3,485,100 1,033,000 2,190 630 1,949,400 1,759,700 189,800 1,450 150

Alabama 64,600 50,600 14,000 2,140 560 42,900 38,600 4,300 1,640 170
Alaska 8,500 6,600 1,900 1,700 550 5,400 4,800 600 1,230 170
Arizona 83,300 66,700 16,700 1,950 480 54,900 49,100 5,800 1,440 170
Arkansas 51,500 39,000 12,500 2,660 820 24,000 21,200 2,800 1,450 180
California 349,600 277,500 72,100 1,420 360 201,000 186,000 15,100 950 80
Colorado 89,200 66,700 22,400 2,410 820 31,800 28,000 3,800 1,010 140
Connecticut 45,300 35,700 9,500 2,040 520 15,800 14,700 1,100 840 60
Delaware 16,100 12,400 3,700 2,690 760 6,700 6,100 500 1,330 110
District of Columbia 9,900 8,500 1,400 2,640 400 1,800 1,700 100 530 30
Florida 225,400 167,000 58,400 1,670 560 153,000 137,900 15,100 1,380 140
Georgia 451,800 353,600 98,200 7,060 1,870 88,500 79,600 8,900 1,590 170
Hawaii 22,500 17,200 5,300 2,360 740 5,900 5,200 700 710 100
Idaho 37,800 28,100 9,700 3,370 1,160 10,900 9,300 1,600 1,120 190
Illinois 151,300 118,200 33,100 1,870 510 63,900 59,500 4,400 940 70
Indiana 122,500 93,100 29,400 2,850 870 43,500 38,200 5,200 1,170 160
Iowa 35,600 26,900 8,700 1,730 550 12,900 11,500 1,400 740 90
Kansas 20,900 16,400 4,500 1,120 310 16,600 14,800 1,800 1,010 130
Kentucky 70,600 49,400 21,300 2,260 940 33,800 28,700 5,100 1,310 230
Louisiana 71,900 57,400 14,500 2,510 600 49,000 45,400 3,600 1,980 150
Maine 6,700 5,400 1,400 820 200 4,000 3,500 500 540 70
Maryland 87,400 71,800 15,600 2,460 500 29,700 27,800 1,900 950 60
Massachusetts 66,900 52,600 14,300 1,590 410 20,100 19,000 1,200 570 30
Michigan 193,900 147,700 46,100 3,020 910 57,700 53,100 4,600 1,090 90
Minnesota 105,100 81,000 24,000 2,960 870 16,500 14,800 1,600 540 60
Mississippi 44,800 35,500 9,300 2,440 600 28,000 25,800 2,300 1,770 150
Missouri 62,600 47,600 15,000 1,590 480 43,400 38,500 4,900 1,290 160
Montana 9,700 7,400 2,300 1,430 440 5,600 4,800 800 930 150
Nebraska 13,700 10,000 3,700 1,050 390 8,600 7,700 900 810 100
Nevada 19,200 15,200 4,000 1,040 270 19,100 16,800 2,300 1,150 160
New Hampshire 6,300 4,900 1,400 750 210 4,600 4,100 500 620 80
New Jersey 151,300 117,700 33,700 2,690 730 33,900 31,700 2,200 720 50
New Mexico 16,800 12,600 4,200 1,210 400 15,100 13,300 1,800 1,290 170
New York 145,600 120,500 25,000 1,250 250 75,900 71,100 4,800 740 50
North Carolina 97,400 73,400 24,000 1,490 460 53,800 48,800 5,000 990 100
North Dakota 6,900 5,100 1,800 1,300 490 3,200 2,700 400 690 120
Ohio 262,000 189,700 72,300 3,330 1,220 70,700 62,800 7,900 1,100 130
Oklahoma 33,400 25,700 7,700 1,320 390 39,700 34,400 5,300 1,770 270
Oregon 61,900 49,600 12,300 2,470 600 21,000 18,600 2,400 930 120
Pennsylvania 296,200 223,500 72,700 3,560 1,110 83,900 76,300 7,600 1,220 120
Rhode Island 24,400 20,600 3,800 4,010 690 3,200 3,100 100 600 30
South Carolina 38,500 30,500 8,000 1,280 320 31,600 28,900 2,800 1,210 110
South Dakota 9,800 7,500 2,300 1,720 540 5,300 4,600 800 1,050 180
Tennessee 75,400 57,100 18,300 1,770 540 48,000 41,600 6,500 1,290 190
Texas 488,800 375,200 113,600 2,730 810 214,800 192,500 22,300 1400 160
Utah 15,700 12,000 3,700 790 240 11,700 10,100 1,600 660 110
Vermont 6,300 4,800 1,500 1,550 470 1,800 1,600 200 520 50
Virginia 57,000 43,700 13,300 1,060 310 57,300 51,000 6,300 1,230 150
Washington 104,700 81,600 23,200 2,260 640 29,700 26,300 3,400 730 90
West Virginia 10,100 7,300 2,800 800 300 10,100 8,700 1,400 950 150
Wisconsin 65,600 52,700 12,900 1,830 440 35,000 31,800 3,100 1,110 110
Wyoming 5,900 4,300 1,600 1,450 550 3,900 3,400 600 1,130 200

Juvenile detention[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016 (NCJ 251211). Published April 2018 by U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). By Danielle Kaeble and Mary Cowhig, BJS statisticians. See PDF. Appendix table 1 on page 11 has rates and counts by state. See page 1 "highlights" section for the "1 in ..." numbers. See table 4 on page 4 for a timeline of nationwide incarceration rates. See appendix table 3 on page 13, for "Persons held in custody in state or federal prisons or in local jails, 2000, 2010, and 2015–2016". That table also has incarceration rates. See appendix table 2 on page 12 for the number or persons incarcerated in territorial prisons, military facilities, and jails in Indian country.
  2. ^ Walmsley, Roy (30 Jan 2009). World Prison Population List (8th Edition). From World Prison Population Lists. By World Prison Brief. "The information is the latest available in early December 2008. … Most figures relate to dates between the beginning of 2006 and the end of November 2008." According to the summary on page one there were 2.29 million U.S. inmates and 9.8 million inmates worldwide. The U.S. held 23.4% of the world's inmates. The U.S. total in this report is for December 31, 2007 (see page 3), and does not include inmates in juvenile detention facilities.
  3. ^ a b Highest to Lowest. World Prison Brief (WPB). Use dropdown menu to choose lists of countries by region, or the whole world. Use menu to select highest-to-lowest lists of prison population totals, prison population rates, percentage of pre-trial detainees / remand prisoners, percentage of female prisoners, percentage of foreign prisoners, and occupancy rate. Column headings in WPB tables can be clicked to reorder columns lowest to highest, or alphabetically. For detailed information for each country click on any country name in lists. See also the WPB main data page and click on the map links and/or the sidebar links to get to the region and country desired.
  4. ^ United States of America. By World Prison Brief.
  5. ^ Mahapatra, Lisa (19 March 2014). Incarcerated In America: Why Are So Many People In US Prisons? (CHARTS). International Business Times. Chart showing incarceration rates of 50 most populous countries. Another chart showing what the inmates in the USA are in for (does not indicate reasons for probation and parole violations. Those offenses, such as drug tests, etc. change the breakdown of what inmates are in for).
  6. ^ National Research Council. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014: "The U.S. penal population of 2.2 million adults is by far the largest in the world. Just under one-quarter of the world's prisoners are held in American prisons."
  7. ^ One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008. February 28, 2008. The Pew Center on the States.
  8. ^ Liptak, Adam (28 Feb 2008). 1 in 100 U.S. Adults Behind Bars, New Study Says. New York Times.
  9. ^ World Female Imprisonment List (fourth edition). Nov. 9, 2017. World Prison Brief.
  10. ^ Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015. By Danielle Kaeble and Lauren Glaze, BJS Statisticians. Dec. 2016. Bureau of Justice Statistics. See PDF. Appendix table 3 on page 15 says there are 1,942,500 male and 202,600 female inmates in prisons and jails. That is 10.4% female.
  11. ^ Carlen, Pat (2004). Analysing Women's Imprisonment. Portland: Willan Publishing. p. 42.
  12. ^ Canada. World Prison Brief.
  13. ^ United Kingdom: England & Wales. World Prison Brief.
  14. ^ Australia. World Prison Brief.
  15. ^ Spain. World Prison Brief.
  16. ^ France. World Prison Brief.
  17. ^ Germany. World Prison Brief.
  18. ^ Norway. World Prison Brief.
  19. ^ Netherlands. World Prison Brief.
  20. ^ Japan. World Prison Brief.
  21. ^ Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press. p. 7.
  22. ^ Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015. By Danielle Kaeble and Lauren Glaze, BJS Statisticians. Dec. 2016. Bureau of Justice Statistics. See PDF. Appendix table 3 on page 14 has male and female counts and rates by state. It says there are 1,942,500 male and 202,600 female inmates in prisons and jails. That is 10.4% female.
  23. ^ Sickmund, M., Sladky, T.J., Kang, W., & Puzzanchera, C.. "Easy Access to the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement". Click "National Crosstabs" at the top, and then choose the census years. Click "Show table" to get the total number of juvenile inmates for those years. Or go here for all the years. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

External links[edit]

Rate Per 100,000 and Rank by State of Crime and Imprisionment by US States 1978 - 2012 Crime,Punishment and Ratio of Crime to Punishment Per 100,000 and Rank by Year and between States