List of U.S. states by incarceration and correctional supervision rate

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This article has lists of U.S. states by adult incarceration and correctional supervision rates according to United States Department of Justice figures. Incarceration numbers include sentenced and unsentenced inmates in jails and state prisons, but not persons in federal prisons. It does not include youth held in juvenile detention.

A map of U.S. states by adult incarceration rate per 100,000 adult population. State prisons and local jails. Excludes federal prisoners.

Incarceration rate by state[edit]

U.S. states by incarceration rate under state prison or local jail jurisdiction per 100,000 population. Rates are for yearend 2013. Federal prison inmates are not included in the state rates. The table below has all 50 states plus the District of Columbia.

Note: There are 2 incarceration rate columns: One per 100,000 adults, and one per 100,000 of all ages.[1][2]
Note: The rate columns can be sorted in ascending or descending order. The row number column on the left sorts separately. This way the states can be ranked by incarceration rate. Sort the state column to return to alphabetical order.








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Jurisdiction Yearend
2013. In
prison
or jail
2013
rate per
100,000
adults
2013
rate per
100,000
of all ages
State 2,012,400 830 636
Federal 215,100 90 68
U.S. total 2,227,500 910 704

Alabama 46,000 1,230 951
Alaska 5,100 940 691
Arizona 55,200 1,090 831
Arkansas 22,800 1,010 770
California 218,800 750 569
Colorado 32,100 790 608
Connecticut 17,600 620 488
Delaware 7,000 960 756
District of Columbia 2,400 450 369
Florida 154,500 990 788
Georgia 91,600 1,220 916
Hawaii 5,600 510 397
Idaho 10,200 860 632
Illinois 69,300 700 537
Indiana 45,400 910 690
Iowa 12,700 530 410
Kansas 16,600 760 573
Kentucky 32,100 950 729
Louisiana 50,100 1,420 1,082
Maine 3,800 350 285
Maryland 32,700 710 550
Massachusetts 21,400 400 318
Michigan 60,200 790 608
Minnesota 15,700 380 289
Mississippi 28,800 1,270 962
Missouri 44,500 950 736
Montana 6,000 760 591
Nebraska 8,500 600 454
Nevada 19,900 930 712
New Hampshire 4,800 460 362
New Jersey 37,600 540 421
New Mexico 15,500 980 742
New York 81,400 530 413
North Carolina 55,300 730 561
North Dakota 2,700 470 373
Ohio 69,800 780 603
Oklahoma 37,900 1,300 983
Oregon 22,900 740 582
Pennsylvania 85,500 850 668
Rhode Island 3,400 400 322
South Carolina 32,600 880 683
South Dakota 5,300 820 626
Tennessee 48,100 960 740
Texas 221,800 1,130 836
Utah 12,500 620 430
Vermont 2,100 410 335
Virginia 58,800 910 710
Washington 29,700 550 425
West Virginia 9,700 660 523
Wisconsin 34,800 780 605
Wyoming 3,800 840 651

Comparison with other countries[edit]

The stats source is the World Prison Population List. 8th edition. Prisoners per 100,000 population.[3]

The United States has the largest prison population in the world,[4][5][6] and the second-highest per-capita incarceration rate, behind Seychelles (which in 2014 had a total prison population of 735 out of a population of around 92,000).[4][7]

On January 1, 2008 more than 1 in 100 adults in the United States were in prison or jail.[8][9] Total US incarceration peaked in 2008.[1]

In addition to overall incarceration rates, the United States is also leading in rates of female incarceration. In the United States, women make up more than one tenth of the whole prison population.[10] In most countries, the proportion of female inmates to the larger population is closer to one in twenty. Australia is the exception where the rate of female imprisonment increased from 9.2 percent in 1991 to 15.3 percent in 1999.[11]

Comparing other English-speaking developed countries,[4] whereas the incarceration rate in the US is 704 per 100,000 (as of 2013), the incarceration rate of Canada is 106 per 100,000 (as of 2014),[12] England and Wales is 148 per 100,000 (as of 2015),[13] and Australia is 151 per 100,000 (as of 2015).[14] Comparing other developed countries, the rate of Spain is 141 per 100,000 (as of 2015),[15] Greece is 120 per 100,000 (as of 2013),[16] Norway is 71 per 100,000 (as of 2015),[17] Netherlands is 75 per 100,000 (as of 2013),[18] and Japan is 49 per 100,000 (as of 2014).[19]

In addition, the United States has striking statistics when observing the racial dimension of mass incarceration. According to Michelle Alexander, the United States "imprisons a larger percentage of its black population than South Africa did at the height of apartheid."[20]

Correctional supervision rate by state[edit]

Chart below has numbers for people in adult facilities, and for people on probation and on parole.[1] The incarceration numbers in the main part of the chart below are for sentenced and unsentenced inmates in adult facilities in local jails and state prisons, but not for people in federal prisons.

The bottom of the chart has totals and average rates for each column.

Federal prison numbers are added at the end of the chart. So the total number (local, state, and federal) under adult correctional supervision is 6,906,200. That is a correctional supervision rate of 2,830 per 100,000 U.S. adult residents. That rounds off to 2.8% of US adult residents.

Jurisdiction Total Community supervision Incarcerated
Total,
12/31/2013
Rate per 100,000
adults
Probation or Parole,
12/31/2013
Rate per 100,000
adults
In prison or jail,
12/31/2013
Rate per 100,000
adults
Alabama 115,600 3,100 70,800 1,900 46,000 1,230
Alaska 14,600 2,670 9,500 1,730 5,100 940
Arizona 132,300 2,620 79,200 1,570 55,200 1,090
Arkansas 69,900 3,100 50,200 2,220 22,800 1,010
California 600,400 2,050 381,600 1,300 218,800 750
Colorado 120,700 2,970 89,700 2,210 32,100 790
Connecticut 62,900 2,230 45,400 1,610 17,600 620
Delaware 23,700 3,260 16,700 2,300 7,000 960
District of Columbia 13,700 2,540 12,600 2,330 2,400 450
Florida 389,400 2,490 237,800 1,520 154,500 990
Georgia 624,200 8,290 536,200 7,120 91,600 1,220
Hawaii 28,900 2,630 23,300 2,120 5,600 510
Idaho 45,500 3,820 35,200 2,960 10,200 860
Illinois 222,700 2,250 153,400 1,550 69,300 700
Indiana 179,400 3,580 134,000 2,680 45,400 910
Iowa 45,900 1,930 34,700 1,460 12,700 530
Kansas 37,100 1,710 20,500 940 16,600 760
Kentucky 97,600 2,880 65,900 1,940 32,100 950
Louisiana 115,700 3,280 70,700 2,010 50,100 1,420
Maine 10,500 980 6,700 630 3,800 350
Maryland 74,800 1,620 46,300 1,010 32,700 710
Massachusetts 91,100 1,710 70,000 1,310 21,400 400
Michigan 253,700 3,310 195,200 2,550 60,200 790
Minnesota 123,500 2,970 107,800 2,590 15,700 380
Mississippi 67,400 2,980 38,600 1,710 28,800 1,270
Missouri 114,900 2,460 70,400 1,510 44,500 950
Montana 14,800 1,870 9,500 1,190 6,000 760
Nebraska 23,200 1,640 14,800 1,050 8,500 600
Nevada 37,500 1,750 17,600 820 19,900 930
New Hampshire 11,100 1,050 6,300 590 4,800 460
New Jersey 164,100 2,380 128,100 1,860 37,600 540
New Mexico 34,200 2,170 18,700 1,180 15,500 980
New York 228,100 1,470 151,400 980 81,400 530
North Carolina 156,000 2,050 100,600 1,320 55,300 730
North Dakota 8,100 1,430 5,500 960 2,700 470
Ohio 335,500 3,750 267,400 2,990 69,800 780
Oklahoma 67,700 2,320 unk unk 37,900 1,300
Oregon 84,100 2,720 61,100 1,980 22,900 740
Pennsylvania 355,600 3,530 275,800 2,730 85,500 850
Rhode Island 24,600 2,930 23,400 2,790 3,400 400
South Carolina 73,500 1,980 40,900 1,100 32,600 880
South Dakota 14,800 2,310 9,500 1,490 5,300 820
Tennessee 122,500 2,440 77,900 1,550 48,100 960
Texas 711,900 3,640 508,000 2,600 221,800 1,130
Utah 25,200 1,250 14,500 720 12,500 620
Vermont 8,600 1,710 6,900 1,370 2,100 410
Virginia 114,600 1,780 55,800 870 58,800 910
Washington 139,200 2,570 111,100 2,060 29,700 550
West Virginia 20,500 1,390 11,000 750 9,700 660
Wisconsin 98,100 2,200 65,300 1,470 34,800 780
Wyoming 9,700 2,180 6,000 1,340 3,800 840
State 6,559,200 2,690 4,619,400 1,900 2,012,400 830
Federal 347,000 140 131,900 50 215,100 90
U.S. total 6,906,200 2830 4,751,400 1950 2,227,500 910

Juvenile detention[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Correctional Populations In The United States, 2013. Published December 2014. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). By Lauren E. Glaze and Danielle Kaeble, BJS Statisticians. The numbers are from Appendix Table 1 in the PDF.
  2. ^ State Totals: Vintage 2014. By U.S. Census Bureau. See: "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 (NST-EST2014-01)". 2013 state populations were taken from that. Also, the 2013 national population. See the CSV and FactFinder links. The 2013 populations were used to calculate the incarceration rate per 100,000 of all ages.
  3. ^ Walmsley, Roy (30 Jan 2009). World Prison Population List (8th Edition). From World Prison Population Lists. By International Centre for Prison Studies. "The information is the latest available in early December 2008. … Most figures relate to dates between the beginning of 2006 and the end of November 2008." According to the summary on page one there were 2.29 million U.S. inmates and 9.8 million inmates worldwide. The U.S. held 23.4% of the world's inmates. The U.S. total in this report is for December 31, 2007 (see page 3), and does not include inmates in juvenile detention facilities.
  4. ^ a b c Entire world – Prison Population Rates per 100,000 of the national population. Highest to Lowest Rates. For more details about the figures of any country, click on the name of that country. World Prison Brief. International Centre for Prison Studies. See this page for breakdowns by region, whole world, prison population total, prison population rate, percentage of pre-trial detainees / remand prisoners, percentage of female prisoners, percentage of foreign prisoners, and occupancy rate.
  5. ^ Mahapatra, Lisa (19 March 2014). Incarcerated In America: Why Are So Many People In US Prisons? (CHARTS). International Business Times. Chart showing incarceration rates of 50 most populous countries. Another chart showing what the inmates in the USA are in for (does not indicate reasons for probation and parole violations. Those offenses, such as drug tests, etc. change the breakdown of what inmates are in for).
  6. ^ National Research Council. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014: "The U.S. penal population of 2.2 million adults is by far the largest in the world. Just under one-quarter of the world's prisoners are held in American prisons."
  7. ^ Seychelles. International Centre for Prison Studies.
  8. ^ One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008. February 28, 2008. The Pew Center on the States.
  9. ^ Liptak, Adam (28 Feb 2008). 1 in 100 U.S. Adults Behind Bars, New Study Says. New York Times.
  10. ^ Carlen, Pat (2004). Analysing Women's Imprisonment. Portland: Willan Publishing. p. 43. 
  11. ^ Carlen, Pat (2004). Analysing Women's Imprisonment. Portland: Willan Publishing. p. 42. 
  12. ^ Canada. International Centre for Prison Studies.
  13. ^ United Kingdom: England & Wales. International Centre for Prison Studies.
  14. ^ Australia. International Centre for Prison Studies.
  15. ^ Spain. International Centre for Prison Studies.
  16. ^ Greece. International Centre for Prison Studies.
  17. ^ Norway. International Centre for Prison Studies.
  18. ^ Netherlands. International Centre for Prison Studies.
  19. ^ Japan. International Centre for Prison Studies.
  20. ^ Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press. p. 7. 
  21. ^ Sickmund, M., Sladky, T.J., Kang, W., & Puzzanchera, C.. "Easy Access to the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement". Click "National Crosstabs" at the top, and then choose the census years. Click "Show table" to get the total number of juvenile inmates for those years. Or go here for all the years. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

External links[edit]

Rate Per 100,000 and Rank by State of Crime and Imprisionment by US States 1978 - 2012 Crime,Punishment and Ratio of Crime to Punishment Per 100,000 and Rank by Year and between States