List of U.S. states and territories by life expectancy

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Left: Map of U.S. states and territories by life expectancy in 2018. Right: Life Expectancy by county in 2018 (excluding counties in the U.S. territories), found in interactive versions at two sources[1][2]

This article presents a list of United States states and territories sorted by their life expectancy at birth, sex, race, and in the past. The data in the 2018 column is taken from work funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation for the 50 states and the District of Columbia;[3] from the World Bank for Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; and from the CIA World Factbook for American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands.[4] Data in the 2010 columns comes from Health Data.[5]

Overall, life expectancy at birth in Hawaii, California, and New York (state) are among the longest in the nation, while life expectancy at birth in Mississippi, American Samoa, and West Virginia are among the shortest in the nation.

The life expectancy in some states has fallen in recent years; for example, Maine's life expectancy in 2010 was 79.1 years, and in 2018 it was 78.7 years. The Washington Post noted in November 2018 that overall life expectancy in the United States was declining although in 2018 life expectancy had a slight increase of 0.1 and bringing it to having not changed since 2010.[6]

Life expectancy in 2019[edit]

Rank State/Territory Life Expectancy 2018[3] Life Expectancy 2010[7] Change 2010-2018 Male[8] Female[8] White

[3]

Hispanic

[3]

Black

[3]

Asian [3] American Indian

[3]

Comparable Country[9]
1.  Hawaii 82.3 81.4 Increase 0.9 79.4 85.3 81.3 87.9 80.9 83.7 81.9  New Zealand
2.  California 81.7 80.6 Increase 1.1 79.2 84.2 80.8 83.6 76.1 87.8 75.7  Belgium
3.  New York 81.4 80.3 Increase 1.1 79.0 83.6 81.1 82.4 78.1 87.4 83.7  Germany
4.  Minnesota 80.9 80.8 Increase 0.1 78.7 83.0 81.0 83.4 79.3 86.8 69.9  Denmark
5.  Connecticut 80.9 80.7 Increase 0.2 78.3 83.3 80.6 82.9 78.0 87.2 83.6  Denmark
6.  Massachusetts 80.6 80.5 Increase 0.1 78.1 83.0 80.2 82.2 78.8 86.9 84.1  Costa Rica
7  Colorado 80.6 80.1 Increase 0.5 78.4 83.0 80.7 81.1 77.2 87.9 74.2  Costa Rica
8.  New Jersey 80.5 80.0 Increase 0.5 78.0 83.0 80.3 82.7 75.0 87.4 84.1  Costa Rica
9.  Washington 80.4 80.1 Increase 0.3 78.3 82.6 80.1 81.7 78.0 84.3 74.0  Costa Rica
10.  Florida 80.2 79.0 Increase 1.2 77.4 83.1 80.0 82.1 76.1 86.1 81.6  Chile
11.  Utah 80.1 79.8 Increase 0.3 78.4 82.0 79.9 82.1 80.3 86.5 74.3  Chile
12.  Arizona 80.0 79.3 Increase 0.7 77.3 82.8 80.0 81.1 76.8 87.3 71.8  Chile
13.  Oregon 79.9 79.5 Increase 0.4 77.7 82.2 79.6 84.0 77.6 86.4 76.9  Chile
-  Guam[4] 79.9 77.9 Increase 2.0 76.6[4] 83.4[4] - - - - -  Chile
14.  Rhode Island 79.8 79.5 Increase 0.3 77.1 82.4 79.7 83.1 77.5 86.6 84.0  Chile
15.  Vermont 79.8 80.1 Decrease 0.3 77.4 82.1 79.7 83.1 81.1 87.2 85.0  Czech Republic
-  Puerto Rico[4] 79.8 78.4 Increase 1.4 76.4[4] 83.4[4] - - - - -  Chile
16.  North Dakota 79.7 79.7 Steady 77.4 82.0 80.0 85.1 82.1 88.3 69.4  Chile
17.  New Hampshire 79.7 80.3 Decrease 0.6 77.2 82.3 79.6 83.5 80.8 87.6 84.4  Czech Republic
18.  Nebraska 79.6 79.7 Decrease 0.1 77.3 81.9 79.6 82.1 73.9 86.3 71.1  Czech Republic
-  U.S. Virgin Islands[4] 79.6 78.0 Increase 1.6 76.3[4] 83.0[4] - - - - -  Czech Republic
19.  Virginia 79.5 79.1 Increase 0.4 77.0 81.8 79.7 84.7 74.5 86.0 82.3  Czech Republic
20.  Wisconsin 79.5 79.6 Decrease 0.1 77.2 81.8 79.4 83.3 73.4 85.8 71.7  Czech Republic
21.  Iowa 79.4 79.6 Decrease 0.2 77.0 81.9 79.3 81.8 74.8 86.6 80.1  Czech Republic
22.  Idaho 79.4 79.4 Steady 77.3 81.7 79.2 83.2 81.3 85.1 74.6  Barbados
23.  Illinois 79.4 79.0 Increase 0.4 76.6 82.0 79.2 82.9 73.9 85.3 83.0  Barbados
24.  Texas 79.5 78.4 Increase 0.8 76.6 81.7 78.6 81.4 74.3 85.2 81.8  Barbados
25.  Maryland 79.2 79.0 Increase 0.2 76.3 82.0 80.0 81.9 75.5 87.3 83.7  Barbados
26.  Alaska 79.0 78.0 Increase 1.0 77.0 81.3 80.0 80.9 79.0 87.1 70.5  Cuba
27.  District of Columbia 79.0 76.9 Increase 2.1 76.0 82.0 88.0 88.3 72.7 89.9 90.5  Albania
28.  South Dakota 78.9 79.3 Decrease 0.4 76.3 81.4 80.0 82.7 81.2 85.2 67.4  Barbados
29.  Wyoming 78.9 78.1 Increase 0.8 76.7 81.1 78.9 81.8 80.2 85.2 72.9  Lebanon
30.  Montana 78.9 78.5 Increase 0.4 76.6 81.3 79.4 82.1 81.9 86.1 69.5  Cuba
-  United States 78.8[10] 78.7[10] Increase 0.1 76.3[10] 81.4[10] 78.6[10] 81.8[10] 74.9[10] 86.3[10] 77.4[10]  Cuba
31.  Maine 78.7 79.1 Decrease 0.4 76.0 81.3 78.6 82.1 80.9 85.9 83.8  Poland
32.  Nevada 78.7 77.8 Increase 0.9 76.1 81.5 76.9 80.9 76.6 84.3 74.9  Panama
33.  Kansas 78.5 78.6 Decrease 0.1 76.2 80.9 78.2 81.5 73.8 84.2 79.1  Panama
34.  Delaware 78.5 78.3 Increase 0.2 75.8 81.1 78.5 81.4 75.4 85.7 83.1  Panama
35.  Pennsylvania 78.4 78.5 Decrease 0.1 76.0 81.2 78.4 82.2 73.3 86.9 82.2  Dominica
36.  North Carolina 78.1 77.8 Increase 0.5 75.3 80.8 78.6 81.8 75.0 84.3 76.8  United Arab Emirates
37.  New Mexico 78.0 78.2 Decrease 0.2 74.7 81.4 78.6 78.6 74.8 81.8 73.9  Dominica
38.  Michigan 78.1 78.0 Increase 0.1 75.7 80.6 78.1 80.9 73.5 86.0 79.8  United Arab Emirates
39. Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 77.9 77.3 Increase 0.6 75.4 80.3 78.1 81.3 75.6 85.2 80.8  Oman
40.  Missouri 77.3 77.4 Decrease 0.1 74.6 80.1 77.5 81.8 73.6 84.6 81.0  Colombia
41.  South Carolina 77.1 76.8 Increase 0.3 74.2 80.0 78.1 81.4 73.6 83.1 80.9  Sri Lanka
42.  Indiana 77.1 77.5 Decrease 0.4 74.5 79.8 76.9 81.8 73.3 85.4 81.2  Sri Lanka
43.  Ohio 77.0 77.7 Decrease 0.7 74.3 79.6 77.2 81.1 73.1 85.9 80.6  China
-  Northern Mariana Islands[11] 76.1[11] 76.4[12] Decrease 0.3 73.6[11] 79.3[11] - - - - -  Romania
44.  Louisiana 76.1 75.8 Increase 0.3 73.2 79.0 77.1 80.9 73.1 81.1 80.5  Romania
45.  Tennessee 76.0 76.2 Decrease 0.2 73.4 78.7 76.1 80.7 72.7 82.6 80.4  Serbia
46.  Oklahoma 76.0 75.7 Increase 0.3 73.4 78.6 76.1 80.9 72.9 81.0 73.6  Serbia
47.  Arkansas 76.0 76.0 Steady 73.5 78.6 76.0 79.2 72.8 80.6 79.0  Brazil
48.  Kentucky 75.6 75.9 Decrease 0.3 72.9 78.2 75.6 79.6 73.0 81.2 78.9  Vietnam
49.  Alabama 75.5 75.4 Increase 0.1 72.5 78.4 76.1 79.1 72.9 81.0 78.7  Vietnam
50.  Mississippi 74.9 74.8 Increase 0.1 72.0 77.8 76.0 79.3 72.6 80.8 79.2  Honduras
-  American Samoa[11] 74.8[11] 71.6[12] Increase 3.2 73.0[11] 77.0[11] - - - - -  Nicaragua
51.  West Virginia 74.8 75.5 Decrease 0.7 72.1 77.7 74.8 79.7 72.2 81.0 79.0  Nicaragua

Past life expectancy, 1960–2018[edit]

State/Territory 2019[3] 2010[7] 2000[7] 1990[7] 1980[7] 1970[7] 1960[7] Change

1960-2018

 United States[10] 78.8 78.7 76.8 75.4 73.7 70.8 69.7 Increase 9.1
 Alabama 75.5 75.4 74.4 73.7 72.3 69.2 67.9 Increase 7.6
 Alaska 79.0 78.0 76.2 75.0 72.4 69.2 67.2 Increase 11.8
 American Samoa[12] 74.8 71.6 71.4 70.9 70.2 69.3 67.0 Increase 7.8
 Arizona 80.0 79.3 77.1 76.2 74.2 70.9 69.3 Increase 10.7
 Arkansas 76.0 76.0 74.8 74.4 73.3 70.8 69.9 Increase 6.1
 California 81.7 80.6 78.1 75.8 74.3 71.8 70.8 Increase 10.9
 Colorado 80.6 80.1 78.4 77.2 75.4 72.1 70.9 Increase 9.7
 Connecticut 80.9 80.7 78.3 77.1 74.9 72.6 71.1 Increase 9.8
 Delaware 78.5 78.3 76.4 75.0 73.2 69.9 69.1 Increase 9.4
 District of Columbia[8] 79.0 76.9 72.1 67.4 68.9 65.2 66.3 Increase 12.7
 Florida 80.2 79.0 77.0 75.7 73.8 70.8 69.9 Increase 10.3
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 77.9 77.3 75.1 73.8 72.1 68.4 67.5 Increase 10.4
 Guam[4] 79.9 77.0 75.0 71.9 69.3 65.7 61.0 Increase 18.9
 Hawaii 82.3 81.4 79.5 78.2 77.1 74.0 71.3 Increase 11.0
 Idaho 79.4 79.4 78.1 77.2 75.2 72.0 71.4 Increase 8.0
 Illinois 79.4 79.0 76.6 74.9 73.3 70.1 69.6 Increase 9.8
 Indiana 77.1 77.5 76.0 75.4 73.9 70.9 70.3 Increase 6.8
 Iowa 79.4 79.6 78.3 77.5 75.8 72.6 71.9 Increase 7.5
 Kansas 78.5 78.6 77.4 77.0 75.2 72.8 71.9 Increase 6.6
 Kentucky 75.6 75.9 75.1 74.4 72.8 70.0 69.6 Increase 6.0
 Louisiana 76.1 75.8 74.1 73.1 71.6 68.7 67.9 Increase 8.2
 Maine 78.7 79.1 77.6 76.6 74.4 70.7 70.2 Increase 8.5
 Maryland 79.2 79.0 76.2 74.9 73.3 70.2 68.6 Increase 10.6
 Massachusetts 80.6 80.5 78.2 76.8 74.8 71.9 70.5 Increase 10.1
 Michigan 78.1 78.0 76.4 75.1 73.7 70.7 70.2 Increase 7.9
 Minnesota 80.9 80.8 79.0 77.8 76.1 73.0 71.8 Increase 9.1
 Mississippi 74.9 74.8 73.4 73.1 71.8 68.4 67.6 Increase 7.3
 Missouri 77.3 77.4 76.0 75.3 73.6 70.6 70.2 Increase 7.1
 Montana 78.9 78.5 77.3 76.4 73.8 70.8 69.6 Increase 9.3
 Nebraska 79.6 79.7 78.3 76.9 75.4 72.5 72.0 Increase 7.6
 Nevada 78.7 77.8 75.9 74.5 72.6 69.3 67.6 Increase 11.1
 New Hampshire 79.7 80.3 78.5 77.0 75.1 71.6 70.7 Increase 9.0
 New Jersey 80.5 80.0 77.3 75.4 73.8 71.0 69.9 Increase 10.6
 New Mexico 78.0 78.2 77.1 76.0 73.8 70.5 69.3 Increase 8.7
 New York 81.4 80.3 77.6 74.6 73.4 70.5 69.7 Increase 11.7
 North Carolina 78.1 77.8 75.6 74.7 73.0 69.3 68.2 Increase 9.9
 North Dakota 79.7 79.7 78.8 77.5 75.6 73.0 71.5 Increase 8.2
 Northern Mariana Islands[12] 76.1 76.4 75.8 74.3 73.6 71.4 69.3 Increase 6.8
 Ohio 77.0 77.7 76.3 75.3 73.3 70.8 70.2 Increase 6.8
 Oklahoma 76.0 75.7 75.0 75.0 73.6 71.1 70.8 Increase 5.2
 Oregon 79.9 79.5 77.8 76.5 74.9 72.4 71.0 Increase 8.9
 Pennsylvania 78.4 78.5 76.7 75.4 73.3 70.4 69.5 Increase 8.9
 Puerto Rico[4] 79.8 78.4 76.7 74.2 73.7 71.5 68.7 Increase 11.1
 Rhode Island 79.8 79.5 78.0 76.4 74.6 71.7 70.6 Increase 9.2
 South Carolina 77.1 76.8 74.7 73.6 71.8 68.1 66.1 Increase 11.0
 South Dakota 78.9 79.3 78.0 77.1 74.8 72.3 70.5 Increase 8.4
 Tennessee 76.0 76.2 74.7 74.2 73.1 70.0 69.4 Increase 6.6
 Texas 79.2 78.4 76.5 75.2 73.6 70.8 70.2 Increase 9.0
 Utah 80.1 79.8 78.6 78.0 75.8 72.8 71.8 Increase 8.3
 U.S. Virgin Islands[4] 79.6 78.0 76.6 74.2 71.7 69.1 66.2 Increase 13.4
 Vermont 79.8 80.1 78.2 76.7 74.3 71.9 70.4 Increase 9.4
 Virginia 79.5 79.1 76.8 75.3 73.3 70.2 68.7 Increase 10.8
 Washington 80.4 80.1 78.2 76.8 75.0 71.9 71.1 Increase 9.3
 West Virginia 74.8 75.5 74.9 74.4 72.6 69.2 69.6 Increase 5.2
 Wisconsin 79.5 79.6 78.0 76.9 75.3 72.5 71.1 Increase 8.4
 Wyoming 78.9 78.1 77.1 76.4 73.8 70.8 69.2 Increase 9.7
Life Expectancy in the U.S. by race 1900-2019[13]






Life expectancy in the top 50 largest U.S. cities in 2018[edit]

City State Total [3] Male[14] Female[14] White[3] Hispanic[3] Black[3] Asian[3] American Indian[3] Comparable country [9]
 New York City  New York 82.9 80.3 85.3 82.7 85.2 80.0 89.4 100+  Iceland
 Los Angeles  California 82.3 80.0 84.4 81.0 84.4 75.9 87.6 83.3  New Zealand
 Chicago  Illinois 79.4 76.8 81.8 80.8 85.5 73.1 88.2 100+  Czech Republic
 Houston  Texas 79.6 77.3 81.9 78.9 84.1 74.6 87.3 100+  Czech Republic
Flag of Phoenix.png Phoenix  Arizona 80.4 78.2 82.7 80.6 81.8 76.5 87.0 75.1  Costa Rica
 Philadelphia  Pennsylvania 76.1 72.7 79.2 77.0 79.7 73.5 88.4 99.2  Romania
 San Antonio  Texas 78.9 76.4 81.6 78.6 79.7 75.5 88.0 100+  Lebanon
Flag of San Diego, California.svg San Diego  California 82.2 80.1 84.3 81.4 84.2 78.3 88.0 76.6  Luxembourg
 Dallas  Texas 78.9 76.4 81.3 78.6 84.5 74.6 88.1 91.6  Lebanon
 San Jose  California 84.6 82.9 86.3 82.8 84.2 79.6 89.6 81.3  Japan
Flag of Austin, Texas.svg Austin  Texas 81.8 80.0 83.6 81.5 84.0 77.3 89.1 100+  Finland
 Jacksonville  Florida 76.2 73.6 78.7 76.0 84.3 74.4 88.7 100+  Malaysia
Flag of Honolulu, Hawaii.svg Honolulu  Hawaii 82.5 79.7 85.3 81.7 77.0 86.1 83.2 91.0  Norway
Flag of Fort Worth.png Fort Worth  Texas 79.1 77.0 81.1 78.4 84.6 76.5 86.8 99.5  Barbados
Flag of Columbus, Ohio.svg Columbus  Ohio 77.1 74.8 79.2 77.5 90.5 74.3 87.1 82.2  Sri Lanka
Flag of Charlotte.png Charlotte  North Carolina 80.4 77.9 82.6 81.4 91.4 76.9 87.1 87.1  Costa Rica
 San Francisco  California 83.8 81.1 86.6 82.9 85.6 72.8 87.5 77.2   Switzerland
 Indianapolis  Indiana 75.7 73.0 78.2 76.2 88.5 73.0 84.1 99.6  North Macedonia
Seattle  Washington 82.4 80.3 84.3 82.0 86.2 78.2 87.8 74.4  Canada
Flag of Denver, Colorado.svg Denver  Colorado 79.8 77.7 82.0 80.6 79.4 75.9 86.4 76.0  Qatar
 Washington  District of Columbia 78.6 75.6 81.0 87.5 87.8 72.6 89.5 98.5  Albania
 Boston  Massachusetts 81.2 78.4 83.9 80.4 88.4 79.5 90.0 83.2  United Kingdom
Flag of El Paso, Texas.svg El Paso  Texas 80.5 77.7 83.2 77.5 81.2 79.8 88.6 92.1  Liechtenstein
Flag of Nashville, Tennessee.png Nashville  Tennessee 77.0 74.2 79.8 77.5 89.4 74.2 87.5 97.0  Sri Lanka
Flag of Detroit.svg Detroit  Michigan 72.4 72.5 78.1 77.3 79.6 72.2 90.0 77.4  Honduras
Flag of Oklahoma City.png Oklahoma City  Oklahoma 76.1 73.7 78.4 76.2 82.6 73.2 83.2 74.3  Romania
 Portland  Oregon 79.7 77.3 81.9 79.7 85.5 74.4 84.8 72.8  Qatar
 Las Vegas  Nevada 78.8 76.4 81.3 77.2 86.2 74.5 85.4 80.4  Cuba
Flag of Memphis, Tennessee.svg Memphis  Tennessee 75.7 72.5 78.4 78.1 89.9 73.3 86.9 87.1  North Macedonia
Flag of Louisville, KY.png Louisville  Kentucky 75.8 73.2 78.3 76.1 89.2 73.3 84.1 81.2  North Macedonia
Flag of Baltimore, Maryland.svg Baltimore  Maryland 72.8 68.9 76.7 75.5 92.5 70.7 94.8 96.2  Syria
Flag of Milwaukee, Wisconsin.svg Milwaukee  Wisconsin 76.9 74.4 79.4 78.4 82.5 71.6 83.8 76.5  China
 Albuquerque  New Mexico 78.5 75.7 81.3 79.3 78.1 75.3 84.5 75.7  Panama
Flag of Tucson.png Tucson  Arizona 79.6 77.1 82.0 79.5 80.9 76.5 87.9 71.1  Czech Republic
Flag of Fresno, California.svg Fresno  California 78.9 76.6 81.2 77.9 81.1 72.1 81.5 79.0  Lebanon
Flag of Mesa, Arizona.svg Mesa  Arizona 80.0 77.7 82.1 80.1 81.9 77.0 85.1 76.1  Qatar
Flag of Sacramento, California.svg Sacramento  California 79.6 77.4 82.0 78.8 83.0 75.7 85.0 75.4  Czech Republic
 Atlanta  Georgia 79.5 77.1 81.9 82.8 88.8 75.2 89.5 92.9  Czech Republic
Flag of Kansas City, Missouri.svg Kansas City  Missouri 78.2 75.7 80.6 78.9 84.3 74.6 86.2 92.0  Dominica
Flag of Colorado Springs, Colorado.svg Colorado Springs  Colorado 78.8 78.0 80.6 78.9 79.6 76.1 86.0 75.4  Cuba
Flag of Omaha, Nebraska.svg Omaha  Nebraska 79.1 76.7 81.5 79.6 87.9 72.6 87.2 74.4  Barbados
Flag of Raleigh, North Carolina.svg Raleigh  North Carolina 81.6 79.5 83.5 82.2 87.5 77.8 89.1 83.5  Belgium
 Miami  Florida 82.2 79.4 84.8 80.3 84.0 76.7 90.2 97.3  Luxembourg
Flag of Long Beach.png Long Beach  California 82.4 80.2 84.4 81.2 84.4 76.1 88.8 83.9  Norway
Flag of Virginia Beach, Virginia.png Virginia Beach  Virginia 80.6 78.8 82.2 80.5 85.3 78.2 88.1 85.5  Liechtenstein
Flag of Oakland, California.svg Oakland  California 82.9 80.7 84.9 82.0 84.6 75.7 88.2 83.6  Sweden
 Minneapolis  Minnesota 81.3 79.2 83.2 81.9 89.5 77.2 86.1 64.7  Germany
Flag of Tulsa, Oklahoma (2018–present).svg Tulsa  Oklahoma 76.6 74.1 79.1 77.2 84.9 71.3 82.9 73.8  Iran
Flag of Tampa, Florida.svg Tampa  Florida 79.3 77.0 81.7 78.7 82.5 76.4 90.3 83.4  Barbados
Flag of Arlington, Texas.svg Arlington  Texas 79.5 77.4 81.5 79.0 84.8 77.0 87.0 99.9  Barbados
 New Orleans  Louisiana 76.9 73.2 80.6 80.1 82.7 74.9 87.7 81.2  China
 Cleveland  Ohio 76.9 74.2 79.4 78.0 82.1 73.7 89.1 84.9  China
Flag of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.svg Pittsburgh  Pennsylvania 77.9 75.2 80.4 78.7 90.8 72.4 87.7 82.0  Oman
 Orlando  Florida 80.3 77.8 82.7 79.6 83.6 77.8 89.1 88.7  Costa Rica
Flag of Salt Lake City (2020).svg Salt Lake City  Utah 79.5 77.6 81.4 79.2 82.6 76.1 83.4 74.9  Czech Republic

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Life Expectancy by County". Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  2. ^ Kopf, Dan; Wolfe, Daniel (December 12, 2018). "Map: What story does your neighborhood's life expectancy tell?". Quartz. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Life Expectancy". University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. 2018. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Life Expectancy at Birth, total (years) - Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands (U.S.)". The World Bank. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  5. ^ "US Health Map". Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington. 2014. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  6. ^ Bernstein, Lenny (November 29, 2018). "U.S. life expectancy declines again, a dismal trend not seen since World War I". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "Journal of the American Medical Association" (PDF).
  8. ^ a b c "USAmortality.org".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. ^ a b "2020 Human development index".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "2019 mortality" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "CIA world factbook".[dead link]
  12. ^ a b c d "Country Profiles". Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluarion, University of Washington. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  13. ^ "Mortality 2019" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ a b "United States health map".