List of US Open women's singles champions

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US Open Women’s Singles Champions
Location Queens – New York City
United States
Venue USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center
Governing body USTA
Created 1887; 131 years ago (1887)
Editions 131 (2017)
Open Era: 50 (2017)
Surface Grass (1887–1974)
Clay (1975–1977)
Hard (1978–present)
Prize money Total: US$36,324,000 (2016)
Winner: US$3,500,000 (2016)
Trophy US Open Trophy
Website Official website
Most titles
Amateur era 8: Molla Bjurstedt Mallory
Open era 6: Chris Evert
6: Serena Williams
Most consecutive titles
Amateur era 4: Molla Bjurstedt Mallory
4: Helen Jacobs
Open era 4: Chris Evert
Current champion
Sloane Stephens
(first title)

The US Open women's singles championship is an annual tennis event that is being held since 1887 as part of the US Open[a][b] tournament. The tournament is played on outdoor hard courts[c] at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows – Corona Park, New York City.[1][2]

The US Open is played during a two-week period in late August and early September and has been chronologically the last of the four Grand Slam tournaments of the tennis year since 1987.[3] The Philadelphia Cricket Club (1887–1920) and Forest Hills (1921–1977) hosted the event before it settled in 1978 at its current site.[4] The United States Tennis Association is the national body that organizes this event.

The champion receives a full-size replica of the event's trophy engraved with her name.[5] In 2016, the winner received prize money of US$3,500,000.[6][7] A bonus pool of US$1,000,000 is also paid to US Open champions who finished in first place during the US Open Series.[8]

History[edit]

The format of the women's singles event has undergone several changes since the first edition. From 1888 through 1918, the event started with a knockout phase, the All-Comers singles, whose winner faced the defending champion in a challenge round.[9] The All-Comers winner was awarded the title by default six times (1893, 1899, 1900, 1905, 1906 and 1907) in the absence of the previous year's champion. The challenge round system was abolished with the 1919 edition.[10] Since 1887, all matches have been played as the best-of-three sets, except in the eleven-year period from 1891 until 1901, when the challenge round was scored the best-of-five-sets.[10] From 1894 until 1901 the women were required to play best-of-five sets in both the all-comers final and the challenge round.[11]

Format[edit]

Since 1887, the winner of the next game at five-games–all took the set in every match except the All-Comers final and the challenge round, which was won by the player who had won at least six games and at least two games more than his opponent. This advantage format was introduced for the final sets of early rounds, for women starting in 1887, and used for all sets in final rounds from 1887 through 1969.[12] The tie-break system was introduced in 1970 for all sets, in its best-of-nine points sudden death version until 1974, and in its best-of-12 points lingering death version since 1975.[12][13][14] The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament to have a third set tie-break, which has occurred twice in women's singles finals in 1981 and in 1985.[3]

Surface[edit]

The court surface changed twice, from grass (1887–1974), to Har-Tru clay (1975–1977), to hard courts since 1978.[15] No women's tennis player won the event on all three surfaces, and no women's tennis player won it on both grass and clay. Chris Evert was the only one to win the event on clay and on hard court, thereby making her the only woman to win on two different surfaces at the event.

Finals[edit]

Key
Regular competition
All Comers' winner, Challenge round winner ‡
Defending champion, Challenge round winner †
All Comers' winner, no Challenge round ◊

U.S. National Championships[edit]

A woman in all white attire is hitting a forehand with the tennis racket in the right hand, which it is a black and white photograph
Elisabeth Moore is a four-time champion
A woman in all white attire is hitting a backhand with the tennis racket in the right hand, which it is a black and white photograph
Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman is a four-time champion
A brown-haired woman is wearing all white clothing, and is hitting a tennis shot.
Molla Bjurstedt Mallory's eight US singles championships is the all–time record among both men and women.
A woman looking away from the camera with a tennis racket in her right hand and a colored sweater on and all white clothing, which this picture is a black and white
Helen Wills Moody is a seven-time champion
Maureen Connolly Brinker was a three-time champion
Year[d] Country Champion Country Runner–up Score
1887  USA Ellen Hansell  USA Laura Knight 6–1, 6–0
1888  USA Bertha Townsend ‡  USA Ellen Hansell 6–3, 6–5
1889  USA Bertha Townsend † (2)  USA Lida Voorhees 7–5, 6–2
1890  USA Ellen Roosevelt ‡  USA Bertha Townsend 6–2, 6–2
1891  GBR[f] Mabel Cahill ‡  USA Ellen Roosevelt 6–4, 6–1, 4–6, 6–3
1892  GBR Mabel Cahill † (2)  USA Elisabeth Moore 5–7, 6–3, 6–4, 4–6, 6–2
1893  USA Aline Terry ◊  USA Augusta Schultz 6–1, 6–3
1894  USA Helen Hellwig ‡  USA Aline Terry 7–5, 3–6, 6–0, 3–6, 6–3
1895  USA Juliette Atkinson ‡  USA Helen Hellwig 6–4, 6–2, 6–1
1896  USA Elisabeth Moore ‡  USA Juliette Atkinson 6–4, 4–6, 6–2, 6–2
1897  USA Juliette Atkinson ‡  USA Elisabeth Moore (2) 6–3, 6–3, 4–6, 3–6, 6–3
1898  USA Juliette Atkinson † (3)  USA Marion Jones 6–3, 5–7, 6–4, 2–6, 7–5
1899  USA Marion Jones ◊  USA Maud Banks 6–1, 6–1, 7–5
1900  USA Myrtle McAteer ◊  USA Edith Parker 6–2, 6–2, 6–0
1901  USA Elisabeth Moore ‡ (2)  USA Myrtle McAteer 6–4, 3–6, 7–5, 2–6, 6–2
1902  USA Marion Jones ‡ (2)  USA Elisabeth Moore 6–1, 1–0, retired
1903  USA Elisabeth Moore ‡ (3)  USA Marion Jones 7–5, 8–6
1904  USA May Sutton ‡  USA Elisabeth Moore 6–1, 6–2
1905  USA Elisabeth Moore ◊ (4)  USA Helen Homans 6–4, 5–7, 6–1
1906  USA Helen Homans ◊  USA Maud Barger-Wallach 6–4, 6–3
1907  USA Evelyn Sears ◊  USA Carrie Neely 6–3, 6–2
1908  USA Maud Barger-Wallach ‡  USA Evelyn Sears 6–3, 1–6, 6–3
1909  USA Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman ‡  USA Maud Barger-Wallach 6–0, 6–1
1910  USA Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman † (2)  USA Louise Hammond Raymond 6–4, 6–2
1911  USA Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman † (3)  USA Florence Sutton 8–10, 6–1, 9–7
1912  USA Mary Browne ‡  USA Eleonora Sears 6–4, 6–2
1913  USA Mary Browne † (2)  USA Dorothy Green 6–2, 7–5
1914  USA Mary Browne † (3)  USA Marie Wagner 6–2, 1–6, 6–1
1915  NOR Molla Bjurstedt ‡  USA Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman 4–6, 6–2, 6–0
1916  NOR Molla Bjurstedt † (2)  USA Louise Hammond Raymond 6–0, 6–1
1917[e]  NOR Molla Bjurstedt † (3)  USA Marion Vanderhoef 4–6, 6–0, 6–2
1918  NOR Molla Bjurstedt † (4)  USA Eleanor Goss 6–4, 6–3
1919  USA Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman (4)  USA Marion Zinderstein 6–1, 6–2
1920  USA Molla Mallory (5)  USA Marion Zinderstein 6–3, 6–1
1921  USA Molla Mallory (6)  USA Mary Browne 4–6, 6–4, 6–2
1922  USA Molla Mallory (7)  USA Helen Wills 6–3, 6–1
1923  USA Helen Wills  USA Molla Mallory 6–2, 6–1
1924  USA Helen Wills (2)  USA Molla Mallory 6–1, 6–3
1925  USA Helen Wills (3)  GBR Kitty McKane Godfree 3–6, 6–0, 6–2
1926  USA Molla Mallory (8)  USA Elizabeth Ryan 4–6, 6–4, 9–7
1927  USA Helen Wills (4)  GBR Betty Nuthall 6–1, 6–4
1928  USA Helen Wills (5)  USA Helen Jacobs 6–2, 6–1
1929  USA Helen Wills (6)  GBR Phoebe Holcroft Watson 6–4, 6–2
1930  GBR Betty Nuthall  USA Anna McCune Harper 6–1, 6–4
1931  USA Helen Wills Moody (7)  GBR Eileen Bennett Whittingstall 6–4, 6–1
1932  USA Helen Jacobs  USA Carolin Babcock Stark 6–2, 6–2
1933  USA Helen Jacobs (2)  USA Helen Wills Moody 8–6, 3–6, 3–0, retired
1934  USA Helen Jacobs (3)  USA Sarah Palfrey Cooke 6–1, 6–4
1935  USA Helen Jacobs (4)  USA Sarah Palfrey Cooke 6–2, 6–4
1936  USA Alice Marble  USA Helen Jacobs 4–6, 6–3, 6–2
1937  CHI Anita Lizana  POL Jadwiga Jędrzejowska 6–4, 6–2
1938  USA Alice Marble (2)  AUS Nancye Wynne Bolton 6–0, 6–3
1939  USA Alice Marble (3)  USA Helen Jacobs 6–0, 8–10, 6–4
1940  USA Alice Marble (4)  USA Helen Jacobs 6–2, 6–3
1941  USA Sarah Palfrey Cooke  USA Pauline Betz 7–5, 6–2
1942  USA Pauline Betz  USA Louise Brough 4–6, 6–1, 6–4
1943  USA Pauline Betz (2)  USA Louise Brough 6–3, 5–7, 6–3
1944  USA Pauline Betz (3)  USA Margaret Osborne duPont 6–3, 8–6
1945  USA Sarah Palfrey Cooke (2)  USA Pauline Betz 3–6, 8–6, 6–4
1946  USA Pauline Betz (4)  USA Doris Hart 11–9, 6–3
1947  USA Louise Brough  USA Margaret Osborne duPont 8–6, 4–6, 6–1
1948  USA Margaret Osborne duPont  USA Louise Brough 4–6, 6–4, 15–13
1949  USA Margaret Osborne duPont (2)  USA Doris Hart 6–3, 6–1
1950  USA Margaret Osborne duPont (3)  USA Doris Hart 6–4, 6–3
1951  USA Maureen Connolly  USA Shirley Fry Irvin 6–3, 1–6, 6–4
1952  USA Maureen Connolly (2)  USA Doris Hart 6–3, 7–5
1953  USA Maureen Connolly (3)  USA Doris Hart 6–2, 6–4
1954  USA Doris Hart  USA Louise Brough 6–8, 6–1, 8–6
1955  USA Doris Hart (2)  GBR Patricia Ward Hales 6–4, 6–2
1956  USA Shirley Fry Irvin  USA Althea Gibson 6–3, 6–4
1957  USA Althea Gibson  USA Louise Brough 6–3, 6–2
1958  USA Althea Gibson (2)  USA Darlene Hard 3–6, 6–1, 6–2
1959  BRA Maria Bueno  GBR Christine Truman Janes 6–1, 6–4
1960  USA Darlene Hard  BRA Maria Bueno 6–4, 10–12, 6–4
1961  USA Darlene Hard (2)  GBR Ann Haydon Jones 6–3, 6–4
1962  AUS Margaret Court  USA Darlene Hard 9–7, 6–4
1963  BRA Maria Bueno (2)  AUS Margaret Court 7–5, 6–4
1964  BRA Maria Bueno (3)  USA Carole Caldwell Graebner 6–1, 6–0
1965  AUS Margaret Court (2)  USA Billie Jean King 8–6, 7–5
1966  BRA Maria Bueno (4)  USA Nancy Richey 6–3, 6–1
1967  USA Billie Jean King  GBR Ann Haydon Jones 11–9, 6–4

US Open[edit]

A brown haired women in a black jacket and white shirt
Billie Jean King is a four-time champion overall and a three-time champion in the open era, and won three in four-year timespan
A blonde-haired female tennis player with multi-colored shorts and a black shirt, with the tennis racket out in front of her
American Chris Evert won an Open Era record four consecutive titles at the US Open between 1975 and 1978, and a record six overall (shared with Serena Williams) with victories in 1980 and 1982.
A blond-haired women wearing a white shirt
Steffi Graf is a five-time champion.
An African American woman in all white clothing, shirt, bandanna, and skirt, is starting the serve of a tennis ball
Serena Williams is a six-time champion, winning these over a fifteen-year period. She shares the Open Era titles record with Chris Evert.
Year[d] Country Champion Country Runner-up Score
1968  GBR Virginia Wade  USA Billie Jean King 6–4, 6–2
1969  AUS Margaret Court (3)  USA Nancy Richey 6–2, 6–2
1970  AUS Margaret Court (4)  USA Rosemary Casals 6–2, 2–6, 6–1
1971  USA Billie Jean King (2)  USA Rosemary Casals 6–4, 7–6
1972  USA Billie Jean King (3)  AUS Kerry Melville Reid 6–3, 7–5
1973  AUS Margaret Court (5)  AUS Evonne Goolagong Cawley 7–6, 5–7, 6–2
1974  USA Billie Jean King (4)  AUS Evonne Goolagong Cawley 3–6, 6–3, 7–5
1975  USA Chris Evert  AUS Evonne Goolagong Cawley 5–7, 6–4, 6–2
1976  USA Chris Evert (2)  AUS Evonne Goolagong Cawley 6–3, 6–0
1977  USA Chris Evert (3)  AUS Wendy Turnbull 7–6, 6–2
1978  USA Chris Evert (4)  USA Pam Shriver 7–5, 6–4
1979  USA Tracy Austin  USA Chris Evert 6–4, 6–3
1980  USA Chris Evert (5)  TCH[g] Hana Mandlíková 5–7, 6–1, 6–1
1981  USA Tracy Austin (2)  USA Martina Navratilova 1–6, 7–6(7–4), 7–6(7–1)
1982  USA Chris Evert (6)  TCH Hana Mandlíková 6–3, 6–1
1983  USA Martina Navratilova  USA Chris Evert 6–1, 6–3
1984  USA Martina Navratilova (2)  USA Chris Evert 4–6, 6–4, 6–4
1985  TCH[g] Hana Mandlíková  USA Martina Navratilova 7–6(7–3), 1–6, 7–6(7–2)
1986  USA Martina Navratilova (3)  TCH Helena Suková 6–3, 6–2
1987  USA Martina Navratilova (4)  FRG Steffi Graf 7–6(7–4), 6–1
1988  FRG[h] Steffi Graf  ARG Gabriela Sabatini 6–3, 3–6, 6–1
1989  FRG[h] Steffi Graf (2)  USA Martina Navratilova 3–6, 7–5, 6–1
1990  ARG Gabriela Sabatini  FRG Steffi Graf 6–2, 7–6(7–4)
1991  YUG Monica Seles  USA Martina Navratilova 7–6(7–1), 6–1
1992  YUG[i] Monica Seles (2)  ESP Arantxa Sánchez Vicario 6–3, 6–3
1993  GER Steffi Graf (3)  CZE Helena Suková 6–3, 6–3
1994  ESP Arantxa Sánchez Vicario  GER Steffi Graf 1–6, 7–6(7–3), 6–4
1995  GER Steffi Graf (4)  USA Monica Seles 7–6(8-6), 0–6, 6–3
1996  GER Steffi Graf (5)  USA Monica Seles 7–5, 6–4
1997   SUI Martina Hingis  USA Venus Williams 6–0, 6–4
1998  USA Lindsay Davenport   SUI Martina Hingis 6–3, 7–5
1999  USA Serena Williams   SUI Martina Hingis 6–3, 7–6(7–4)
2000  USA Venus Williams  USA Lindsay Davenport 6–4, 7–5
2001  USA Venus Williams (2)  USA Serena Williams 6–2, 6–4
2002  USA Serena Williams (2)  USA Venus Williams 6–4, 6–3
2003  BEL Justine Henin  BEL Kim Clijsters 7–5, 6–1
2004  RUS Svetlana Kuznetsova  RUS Elena Dementieva 6–3, 7–5
2005  BEL Kim Clijsters  FRA Mary Pierce 6–3, 6–1
2006  RUS Maria Sharapova  BEL Justine Henin 6–4, 6–4
2007  BEL Justine Henin (2)  RUS Svetlana Kuznetsova 6–1, 6–3
2008  USA Serena Williams (3)  SRB Jelena Janković 6–4, 7–5
2009  BEL Kim Clijsters (2)  DEN Caroline Wozniacki 7–5, 6–3
2010  BEL Kim Clijsters (3)  RUS Vera Zvonareva 6–2, 6–1
2011  AUS Samantha Stosur  USA Serena Williams 6–2, 6–3
2012  USA Serena Williams (4)  BLR Victoria Azarenka 6–2, 2–6, 7–5
2013  USA Serena Williams (5)  BLR Victoria Azarenka 7–5, 6–7(6–8), 6–1
2014  USA Serena Williams (6)  DEN Caroline Wozniacki 6–3, 6–3
2015  ITA Flavia Pennetta  ITA Roberta Vinci 7–6(7–4), 6–2
2016  GER Angelique Kerber  CZE Karolína Plíšková 6–3, 4–6, 6–4
2017  USA Sloane Stephens  USA Madison Keys 6–3, 6–0

Statistics[edit]

In the U.S. National Championships, under the challenge round format, Elisabeth Moore (1896, 1901, 1903, 1905) holds the record for most singles titles with four and Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman (1909–1911) holds the record for most consecutive women's singles titles at three. With four consecutive singles titles each, Molla Bjurstedt Mallory (1915–1918) and Helen Jacobs (1932–1935) hold the record for most consecutive women's singles titles won after the challenge round format was abolished. Bjurstedt Mallory's eight singles titles (1915–1918, 1920–1922, 1926) is the all-time record.[3]

During the US Open, since the inclusion of the professional tennis players, Chris Evert (1975–1978) holds the record for most consecutive women's singles titles at four and the record for most overall titles at six (1975–1978, 1980, 1982) with Serena Williams (1999, 2002, 2008, 2012–2014).[3]

This event has been won without losing a set during the open era by Margaret Court in 1969, Billie Jean King in 1971 and 1972, Evert in 1976, 1977 and 1978, Martina Navratilova in 1983 and 1987, Monica Seles in 1992, Steffi Graf in 1996, Martina Hingis in 1997, Lindsay Davenport in 1998, Venus Williams in 2001, Serena Williams in 2002, 2008 and 2014, and Justine Henin in 2007.

Multiple champions[edit]

Title defended in the challenge round
Player Amateur Era Open Era All-time Years
  Molla Bjurstedt Mallory (USA) (NOR) 8 0 8 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1926
 Helen Wills Moody (USA) 7 0 7 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1931
 Chris Evert (USA) 0 6 6 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1982
 Serena Williams (USA) 0 6 6 1999, 2002, 2008, 2012, 2013, 2014
 Margaret Court (AUS) 2 3 5 1962, 1965, 1969, 1970, 1973
 Steffi Graf (GER)[h] 0 5 5 1988, 1989, 1993, 1995, 1996
 Elisabeth Moore (USA) 4 0 4 1896, 1901, 1903, 1905
 Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman (USA) 4 0 4 1909, 1910, 1911, 1919
 Helen Jacobs (USA) 4 0 4 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935
 Alice Marble (USA) 4 0 4 1936, 1938, 1939, 1940
 Pauline Betz Addie (USA) 4 0 4 1942, 1943, 1944, 1946
 Maria Bueno (BRA) 4 0 4 1959, 1963, 1964, 1966
 Billie Jean King (USA) 1 3 4 1967, 1971, 1972, 1974
 Martina Navratilova (USA) 0 4 4 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987
 Juliette Atkinson (USA) 3 0 3 1895, 1897, 1898
 Mary Browne (USA) 3 0 3 1912, 1913, 1914
 Margaret Osborne duPont (USA) 3 0 3 1948, 1949, 1950
 Maureen Connolly (USA) 3 0 3 1951, 1952, 1953
 Kim Clijsters (BEL) 0 3 3 2005, 2009, 2010
 Bertha Townsend (USA) 2 0 2 1888, 1889
 Mabel Cahill (GBR) 2 0 2 1891, 1892
 Marion Jones (USA) 2 0 2 1899, 1902
 Sarah Palfrey Cooke (USA) 2 0 2 1941, 1945
 Doris Hart (USA) 2 0 2 1954, 1955
 Althea Gibson (USA) 2 0 2 1957, 1958
 Darlene Hard (USA) 2 0 2 1960, 1961
 Tracy Austin (USA) 0 2 2 1979, 1981
  Monica Seles (SCG) (YUG) 0 2 2 1991, 1992
 Venus Williams (USA) 0 2 2 2000, 2001
 Justine Henin (BEL) 0 2 2 2003, 2007

Champions by country[edit]

Former country ¤
Country Amateur Era Open Era All-time First title Last title
 United States 67 25 92 1887 2017
 Australia 2 4 6 1962 2011
 Germany[h] 0 6 6 1988 2016
 Belgium 0 5 5 2003 2010
 Brazil 4 0 4 1959 1966
 Great Britain[f] 3 1 4 1891 1968
 Norway 4 0 4 1915 1918
 Russia 0 2 2 2004 2006
 Argentina 0 1 1 1990 1990
 Italy 0 1 1 2015 2015
 Serbia and Montenegro[i] ¤ 0 1 1 1992 1992
 Yugoslavia ¤ 0 1 1 1991 1991
 Chile 1 0 1 1937 1937
 Czechoslovakia[g] ¤ 0 1 1 1985 1985
 Spain 0 1 1 1994 1994
  Switzerland 0 1 1 1997 1997

See also[edit]

US Open other competitions

Grand Slam women's singles

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ "Tournament profile - US Open". atpworldtour.com. ATP Tour, Inc. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  2. ^ a b "History of the U.S. National Championships/US Open". usopen.org. IBM, United States Tennis Association. Archived from the original on 2009-07-04. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "History > Women's Singles Championships". usopen.org. IBM, United States Tennis Association. Archived from the original on 2010-02-04. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  4. ^ a b "US National/US Open Championships" (PDF). usta.com. United States Tennis Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-12. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  5. ^ Fendrich, Howard (2008-10-09). "Federer feels 'much better ... than I ever have'". USA Today. Associated Press (AP). Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  6. ^ E.J. Crawford (July 12, 2016). "2016 US Open to feature richest purse in tennis history". United States Tennis Association (USTA). 
  7. ^ Andrew Das (July 12, 2016). "Record Prize Money at U.S. Open". www.nytimes.com. The New York Times. 
  8. ^ "Olympus US Open Series at a glance". usopenseries.com. United States Tennis Association. 2009-05-26. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  9. ^ "Elisabeth Holmes Moore HOF Page". International Tennis Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on June 10, 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  10. ^ a b Collins, Bud (2010). The Bud Collins History of Tennis (2nd ed.). [New York]: New Chapter Press. pp. 453, 465–468. ISBN 978-0942257700. 
  11. ^ Ohnsorg, Roger W. (2011). Robert Lindley Murray: The Reluctant U.S. Tennis Champion; includes "The First Forty Years of American Tennis". Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4269-4514-4. 
  12. ^ a b Axthelm, Pete; Talbert, William F. (1967). Tennis observed: The USLTA men's singles champions, 1881-1966. Barre Publishers. 
  13. ^ a b "History > Year-by-Year History". usopen.org. United States Tennis Association (USTA). Retrieved 2017-02-04. 
  14. ^ "Breaking with tradition". The Age. The Age Company Ltd. 2004-01-25. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  15. ^ Adams, Susan B. (1998-08-30). "The U.S. Open: A Celebration - A Retrospective: The Men; Twin Pillars of Fire and Ice". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  16. ^ "List of Classified Court Surfaces". itftennis.com. ITF Licensing. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  17. ^ Williams, Paul B.; Grupp, George W.; Ferris, John A. (1921). United States Lawn Tennis Association and the World War. United States National Lawn Tennis Association, Robert Hamilton company. OCLC 07888301. Retrieved 2009-09-25. 

External links[edit]