List of United Kingdom by-elections (1979–2010)
This is a list of parliamentary by-elections in the United Kingdom held between the 1979 and 2010 general elections, with the names of the incumbent and victor and their respective parties. Where seats changed political party at the election, the result is highlighted: blue for a Conservative gain, red for a Labour gain, yellow for an SNP gain, orange for a Liberal, SDP or Liberal Democrat gain and grey for any other gain.
Where the cause of by-election is given as "resignation" or "seeks re-election", this indicates that the incumbent was appointed on his or her own request to an "office of profit under the Crown", either the Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds or the Steward of the Manor of Northstead. Accepting an office of profit under the Crown vacates the member's seat. This process is used because members of the House of Commons are not technically permitted to resign. A member who resigns in this manner may stand for re-election.
There were 14 by-elections in the 2005–2010 Parliament. Eight were in seats held by the governing Labour party, three by the Conservatives, one by the Liberal Democrats, one by an independent and one by the speaker. Eight by-elections were won by the incumbent party, including in Haltemprice and Howden where Conservative David Davis resigned to recontest his seat. Meanwhile, Blaenau Gwent was won by a second independent candidate. Labour lost four seats; two to the Conservatives, one to the Liberal Democrats and one to the SNP. The speaker's seat was regained by Labour, the party speaker Michael Martin represented before he took up the position. Eight by-elections were a result of the death of the incumbent MP - five Labour MPs died, along with one Liberal Democrat, one Conservative and independent MP Peter Law.
At the dissolution of Parliament in 2010 there were three vacancies: North West Leicestershire and Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland, caused by the death of their respective Labour members David Taylor and Ashok Kumar; and Strangford caused by the resignation of the DUP's Iris Robinson. With the close proximity of the 2010 general election, by-elections were not held in these seats. Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland and Strangford were held by Tom Blenkinsop and Jim Shannon respectively, but North West Leicestershire was won by Conservative Andrew Bridgen.
- Gain retained at the 2010 general election.
- Michael Martin had originally been elected as a Labour MP.
- Gain not retained at the 2010 general election.
There were six by-elections in the 2001–2005 Parliament. Each were in seats held by the governing Labour party, four of which were held and two won by the Liberal Democrats. Four by-elections were a result of the death of the incumbent MP.
|Hartlepool||30 September 2004||Peter Mandelson||Labour||Iain Wright||Labour||Resignation on appointment as European Commissioner|
|Birmingham Hodge Hill||15 July 2004||Terry Davis||Labour||Liam Byrne||Labour||Resignation on appointment as Secretary-General of the Council of Europe|
|Leicester South[53 1]||15 July 2004||Jim Marshall||Labour||Parmjit Singh Gill||Liberal Democrat||Death (heart attack)|
|Brent East[53 2]||18 September 2003||Paul Daisley||Labour||Sarah Teather||Liberal Democrat||Death (cancer)|
|Ogmore||14 February 2002||Sir Raymond Powell||Labour||Huw Irranca-Davies||Labour||Death (unknown; probable asthma attack)|
|Ipswich||22 November 2001||Jamie Cann||Labour||Chris Mole||Labour||Death (liver disease)|
- Gain not retained at the 2005 general election.
- Gain retained at the 2005 general election.
|Falkirk West||21 December 2000||Dennis Canavan||Labour/ Independent[52 1]||Eric Joyce||Labour||Resignation following election to the Scottish Parliament|
|West Bromwich West||23 November 2000||Betty Boothroyd||Speaker[52 2]||Adrian Bailey||Labour||Life peerage|
|Preston||23 November 2000||Audrey Wise||Labour||Mark Hendrick||Labour||Death (cancer)|
|Glasgow Anniesland||23 November 2000||Donald Dewar||Labour||John Robertson||Labour||Death (Brain haemorrhage after heart surgery)|
|South Antrim||21 September 2000[52 3]||Clifford Forsythe||UUP||William McCrea||DUP||Death (sudden illness)|
|Tottenham||22 June 2000||Bernie Grant||Labour||David Lammy||Labour||Death (heart attack)|
|Romsey||4 May 2000[52 4]||Michael Colvin||Conservative||Sandra Gidley||Liberal Democrat||Death (accidental fire)|
|Ceredigion||3 February 2000||Cynog Dafis||Plaid Cymru||Simon Thomas||Plaid Cymru||Resignation following election to the Welsh Assembly|
|Kensington and Chelsea||25 November 1999||Alan Clark||Conservative||Michael Portillo||Conservative||Death (cancer)|
|Wigan||23 September 1999||Roger Stott||Labour||Neil Turner||Labour||Death (long illness)|
|Hamilton South||23 September 1999||George Robertson||Labour||Bill Tynan||Labour||Life peerage upon appointment as Secretary-General of NATO|
|Eddisbury||22 July 1999||Alastair Goodlad||Conservative||Stephen O'Brien||Conservative||Appointment as High Commissioner to Australia|
|Leeds Central||10 June 1999||Derek Fatchett||Labour||Hilary Benn||Labour||Death (heart attack)|
|Winchester||20 November 1997||Mark Oaten||Liberal Democrat||Mark Oaten||Liberal Democrat||Void election|
|Beckenham||20 November 1997||Piers Merchant||Conservative||Jacqui Lait||Conservative||Resignation (scandal)|
|Paisley South||6 November 1997||Gordon McMaster||Labour||Douglas Alexander||Labour||Death (suicide)|
|Uxbridge||31 July 1997||Sir Michael Shersby||Conservative||John Randall||Conservative||Death|
- List of United Kingdom by-elections (2010–present)
- List of United Kingdom by-elections (1950–1979)
- United Kingdom by-election records
- United Kingdom Election Results (David Boothroyd)
- United Kingdom Elections (Keele University)
- British Parliamentary By-Elections since 1945
- List of MPs since 1660
- F. W. S. Craig (1984). British parliamentary election results, 1974–1983. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-23-X.
- F. W. S. Craig, British Parliamentary Election Statistics 1832–1987
- F. W. S. Craig (1987). Chronology of British by-elections, 1832–1987. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-31-0.