List of United States presidential assassination attempts and plots
Assassination attempts and plots on the president of the United States have been numerous, ranging from the early 19th century to the 2010s. Four sitting presidents have been killed: Abraham Lincoln (1865, by John Wilkes Booth), James A. Garfield (1881, by Charles J. Guiteau), William McKinley (1901, by Leon Czolgosz), and John F. Kennedy (1963, by Lee Harvey Oswald). Additionally, two presidents have been injured in attempted assassinations: Theodore Roosevelt (1912 [former president at the time], by John Flammang Schrank) and Ronald Reagan (1981, by John Hinckley Jr.). In all of these cases, the attack weapon used was a firearm.
Although historian James W. Clarke has suggested that most American assassinations were politically motivated actions, carried out by rational men, not all such attacks have been undertaken for political reasons. Some attackers had questionable mental stability, and a few were judged legally insane. Since the vice president has for more than a century been elected from the same political party as the most recent president, the assassination of the president is unlikely to result in major policy changes. This may explain why political groups typically do not make such attacks.
Dwight Eisenhower was shot in shoulder while sleeping in his Whitehouse bedroom. Bullet penetrated 3 walls. Shooter unknown.
JF Kennedy was shot in left temple greeting guests months prior to Dallas shooting. Shooter unknown.
The assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, took place on Good Friday, April 14, 1865, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C., at about 10:15 PM. The assassin, John Wilkes Booth, was a well-known actor and a Confederate sympathizer from Maryland; though he never joined the Confederate Army, he had contacts within the Confederate secret service. In 1864, Booth formulated a plan (very similar to one of Thomas N. Conrad previously authorized by the Confederacy) to kidnap Lincoln in exchange for the release of Confederate prisoners. After attending an April 11, 1865, speech in which Lincoln promoted voting rights for black people, Booth decided to assassinate the president instead. Learning that the president would be attending Ford's Theatre, Booth formulated a plan with co-conspirators to assassinate Lincoln at the theater, as well as Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward at their homes. Lincoln attended the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre. As the president sat in his state box in the balcony watching the play with his wife Mary and two guests, Major Henry Rathbone and his fiancée Clara Harris, Booth entered from behind. He aimed a .44-caliber Derringer pistol at the back of Lincoln's head and fired, mortally wounding him. Rathbone momentarily grappled with Booth, but Booth stabbed him and escaped. An unconscious Lincoln was examined by doctors and taken across the street to the Petersen House. After remaining in a coma for eight hours, Lincoln died at 7:22 AM on April 15.
As he died, his breathing grew quieter, his face more calm. According to some accounts, at his last drawn breath, on the morning after the assassination, he smiled broadly and then expired. Historians, particularly author Lee Davis, have emphasized Lincoln's peaceful appearance when and after he died: "It was the first time in four years, probably, that a peaceful expression crossed his face." Field wrote in a letter to The New York Times: "there was 'no apparent suffering, no convulsive action, no rattling of the throat...[only] a mere cessation of breathing'... I had never seen upon the President's face an expression more genial and pleasing." The president's secretary, John Hay, saw "a look of unspeakable peace came upon his worn features".
Beyond Lincoln's death, the plot failed: Seward was only wounded and Johnson's would-be attacker did not follow through. After being on the run for 12 days, Booth was tracked down and found on April 26, 1865 by Union Army soldiers to a farm in Virginia, some 110 kilometres (70 mi) south of Washington. After refusing to surrender, Booth was fatally shot by Union cavalryman Boston Corbett. Four other conspirators were later hanged for their roles in the conspiracy.
James A. Garfield
The assassination of James A. Garfield, the 20th president of the United States, began at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station in Washington, D.C., at 9:30 AM on Saturday, July 2, 1881, less than four months after he took office. As the president was arriving at the train station, writer and lawyer Charles J. Guiteau shot him twice with a .442 Webley British Bull Dog revolver; one bullet grazed the president's shoulder, and the other pierced his back. For the next eleven weeks, Garfield endured medical malpractice before dying on September 19, 1881, at 10:35 PM, of complications caused by iatrogenic infections, which were contracted by the doctors' relentless probing of his wound with unsterilized fingers and instruments. He had survived for a total of 79 days after being shot.
Guiteau was immediately arrested. After a highly publicized trial lasting from November 14, 1881, to January 25, 1882, he was found guilty and sentenced to death. A subsequent appeal was rejected, and he was executed by hanging on June 30, 1882, in the District of Columbia, two days before the first anniversary of the shooting. Guiteau was assessed during his trial as mentally unbalanced or from the effects of neurosyphilis. He claimed to have shot Garfield out of disappointment at being passed over for appointment as Ambassador to France. He attributed the president's victory in the election to a speech he wrote in support of Garfield.
The assassination of United States president William McKinley took place at 4:07 p.m. on Friday, September 6, 1901, at the Temple of Music in Buffalo, New York. McKinley, attending the Pan-American Exposition, was shot twice in the abdomen at close range by Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist, who was armed with a .32 caliber revolver that was concealed underneath a handkerchief. The first bullet ricocheted off either a button or an award medal on McKinley's jacket and lodged in his sleeve; the second shot pierced his stomach. Although McKinley initially appeared to be recovering, his condition rapidly declined due to gangrene setting in around his wounds and he died on September 14, 1901 at 2:15 a.m.
Members of the crowd, started by James Benjamin Parker, subdued and captured Czolgosz. Afterward, the 4th Brigade, National Guard Signal Corps, and police intervened, beating Czolgosz so severely it was initially thought he might not live to stand trial. On September 24, after a two-day trial, in which the defendant refused to defend himself, Czolgosz was convicted and later sentenced to death. He was executed by the electric chair in Auburn Prison on October 29, 1901. Czolgosz's actions were politically motivated, although it remains unclear what outcome, if any, he believed the shooting would yield.
John F. Kennedy
The assassination of United States president John F. Kennedy took place at 12:30 p.m. (18:30 UTC) on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, during a presidential motorcade in Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was riding with his wife Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally's wife, Nellie when he was fatally shot by former U.S. Marine and American defector Lee Harvey Oswald from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository. He was shot once in the back, the bullet exiting via his throat, and once in the head. Governor Connally was seriously wounded, and bystander James Tague received a minor facial injury from a small piece of curbstone that had fragmented after it was struck by one of the bullets. The motorcade rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital, where President Kennedy was pronounced dead at 1:00 p.m. Oswald was arrested and charged by the Dallas Police Department for the assassination of Kennedy and for the murder of Dallas policeman J. D. Tippit, who was shot dead in a residential neighborhood in the Oak Cliff section of Dallas. On Sunday, November 24, 1963, while being transferred from the city jail to the county jail, Oswald was fatally shot in the basement of Dallas Police Department Headquarters by Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby. Ruby was convicted of Oswald's murder, even though it was later overturned on appeal. In 1967, Ruby died in prison while awaiting a new trial.
In September 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that Kennedy and Tippit were both killed by Oswald, that Oswald had acted entirely alone in both murders, and that Ruby had acted alone in killing Oswald. Nonetheless, polls conducted from 1966 to 2004 found that up to 80% of Americans surveyed have suspected that there was a plot or cover-up to kill President Kennedy. Conspiracy theories have persisted to the present.
Three and a half years after he left office, Theodore Roosevelt ran in the 1912 presidential election as a member of the Progressive Party. While campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on October 14, 1912, John Flammang Schrank, a saloon-keeper from New York who had been stalking him for weeks, shot Roosevelt once in the chest with a .38-caliber Colt Police Positive Special. The 50-page text of his campaign speech titled "Progressive Cause Greater Than Any Individual", folded over twice in Roosevelt's breast pocket, and a metal glasses case slowed the bullet, saving his life. Schrank was immediately disarmed, captured, and might have been lynched had Roosevelt not shouted for Schrank to remain unharmed. Roosevelt assured the crowd he was all right, then ordered police to take charge of Schrank and to make sure no violence was done to him.
Roosevelt, as an experienced hunter and anatomist, correctly concluded that since he was not coughing blood, the bullet had not reached his lung, and he declined suggestions to go to the hospital immediately. Instead, he delivered his scheduled speech with blood seeping into his shirt. He spoke for 84 minutes before completing his speech and accepting medical attention. His opening comments to the gathered crowd were, "Ladies and gentlemen, I don't know whether you fully understand that I have just been shot, but it takes more than that to kill a Bull Moose." Afterwards, probes and an x-ray showed that the bullet had lodged in Roosevelt's chest muscle, but did not penetrate the pulmonary pleurae. Doctors concluded that it would be less dangerous to leave it in place than to attempt to remove it, and Roosevelt carried the bullet with him for the rest of his life. He spent two weeks recuperating before returning to the campaign trail. Despite his tenacity, Roosevelt ultimately lost his bid for reelection to the Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson.
At Schrank's trial, the would-be assassin claimed that William McKinley had visited him in a dream and told him to avenge his assassination by killing Roosevelt. He was found legally insane and was institutionalized until his death in 1943.
March 30, 1981: As Ronald Reagan returned to his limousine after speaking at the Washington Hilton hotel, he and three others were struck by gunfire from would-be assassin John Hinckley Jr. Reagan was seriously wounded by a bullet that ricocheted off the side of the presidential limousine and hit him in the left underarm, breaking a rib, puncturing a lung, and causing serious internal bleeding. Although "close to death" upon arrival at George Washington University Hospital, Reagan was stabilized in the emergency room, then underwent emergency exploratory surgery. He recovered and was released from the hospital on April 11. Besides Reagan, White House press secretary James Brady, Secret Service agent Tim McCarthy, and police officer Thomas Delahanty were also wounded. All three survived, but Brady suffered brain damage and was permanently disabled; Brady's death in 2014 was considered homicide because it was ultimately caused by this injury.
Hinckley was immediately arrested, and later said he had wanted to kill Reagan to impress actress Jodie Foster. He was deemed mentally ill and confined to an institution. Hinckley was released from institutional psychiatric care on September 10, 2016.
Assassination attempts and plots
January 30, 1835: Just outside the Capitol Building, a house painter named Richard Lawrence attempted to shoot President Andrew Jackson with two pistols, both of which misfired. Lawrence was apprehended after Jackson beat him severely with his cane. Lawrence was found not guilty by reason of insanity and confined to a mental institution until his death in 1861.
February 23, 1861: The Baltimore Plot was an alleged conspiracy by Confederate sympathizers in Maryland to assassinate President-elect Abraham Lincoln en route to his inauguration. Allan Pinkerton's National Detective Agency played a key role in protecting the president-elect by managing Lincoln's security throughout the journey. Although scholars debate whether the threat was real, Lincoln and his advisers took actions to ensure his safe passage through Baltimore.
August 1864: A lone rifle shot fired by an unknown sniper missed Lincoln's head by inches or centimeters (passing through his hat) as he rode in the late evening, unguarded, north from the White House three miles (5 km) to the Soldiers' Home (his regular retreat where he would work and sleep before returning to the White House the following morning). Near 11:00 p.m., Private John W. Nichols of the Pennsylvania 150th Volunteers, the sentry on duty at the gated entrance to the Soldiers' Home grounds, heard the rifle shot and moments later saw the president riding toward him "bareheaded". Lincoln described the matter to Ward Lamon, his old friend and loyal bodyguard.
William Howard Taft
In 1909, William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz planned a summit in El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, a historic first meeting between a U.S. president and a Mexican president and also the first time an American president would cross the border into Mexico. Díaz requested the meeting to show U.S. support for his planned eighth run as president, and Taft agreed to support Díaz in order to protect the several billion dollars of American capital then invested in Mexico. Both sides agreed that the disputed Chamizal strip connecting El Paso to Ciudad Juárez would be considered neutral territory with no flags present during the summit, but the meeting focused attention on this territory and resulted in assassination threats and other serious security concerns. The Texas Rangers, 4,000 U.S. and Mexican troops, U.S. Secret Service agents, FBI agents, and U.S. Marshals were all called in to provide security. An additional 250 private security detail led by Frederick Russell Burnham, the celebrated scout, was hired by John Hays Hammond. Hammond was a close friend of Taft from Yale University and a former candidate for U.S. vice president in the 1908 presidential election who, along with his business partner Burnham, held considerable mining interests in Mexico. On October 16, the day of the summit, Burnham and Private C.R. Moore, a Texas Ranger, discovered a man holding a concealed palm pistol standing at the El Paso Chamber of Commerce building along the procession route. Burnham and Moore captured and disarmed the would-be assassin within only a few feet (around one meter) of Taft and Díaz.
On November 19, 1928, President-elect Hoover embarked on a ten-nation "goodwill tour" of Central and South America. While crossing the Andes Mountains from Chile, an assassination plot by Argentine anarchists was thwarted. The group was led by Severino Di Giovanni, who planned to blow up his train as it crossed the Argentinian central plain. The plotters had an itinerary but the bomber was arrested before he could place the explosives on the rails. Hoover professed unconcern, tearing off the front page of a newspaper that revealed the plot and explaining, "It's just as well that Lou shouldn't see it," referring to his wife. His complimentary remarks on Argentina were well received in both the host country and in the press.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
On February 15, 1933, seventeen days before Roosevelt's first presidential inauguration, Giuseppe Zangara fired five shots at Roosevelt in Miami, Florida. Zangara did not wound the president-elect, but Chicago mayor Anton Cermak was killed and five other people wounded. Zangara pleaded guilty to the murder of Cermak and was executed in the electric chair on March 20, 1933. It has never been conclusively determined who was Zangara's target, and most assumed at first that he had been shooting at the president-elect. Another theory is that the attempt may have been ordered by the imprisoned Al Capone, and that Cermak, who had led a crackdown on the Chicago Outfit and Chicago organized crime more generally, was the true target.
Harry S. Truman
Mid-1947: During the Jewish insurgency in Palestine before the formation of the State of Israel, the Zionist Stern Gang was believed to have sent a number of letter bombs addressed to the president and high-ranking staff at the White House. The Secret Service had been alerted by British intelligence after similar letters had been sent to high-ranking British officials and the Gang claimed credit. The mail room of the White House intercepted the letters and the Secret Service defused them. At the time, the incident was not publicized. Truman's daughter Margaret Truman confirmed the incident in her biography of Truman published in 1972. It had earlier been told in a memoir by Ira R.T. Smith, who worked in the mail room.
November 1, 1950: Two Puerto Rican pro-independence activists, Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola, attempted to kill President Truman at the Blair House, where Truman was living while the White House was undergoing major renovations. In the attack, Torresola mortally wounded White House Policeman Leslie Coffelt, who killed the attacker with a shot to the head. Torresola also wounded White House Policeman Joseph Downs. Collazo wounded another officer, and survived with serious injuries. Truman was not harmed, but he was placed at a huge risk. He commuted Collazo's death sentence after conviction in a federal trial to life in prison. In 1979, President Jimmy Carter commuted it to time served.
John F. Kennedy
December 11, 1960: While vacationing in Palm Beach, Florida, President-elect John F. Kennedy was threatened by Richard Paul Pavlick, a 73-year-old former postal worker driven by hatred of Catholics. Pavlick intended to crash his dynamite-laden 1950 Buick into Kennedy's vehicle, but he changed his mind after seeing Kennedy's wife and daughter bid him goodbye. Pavlick was arrested three days later by the Secret Service after being stopped for a driving violation; police found the dynamite in his car and arrested him. On January 27, 1961, Pavlick was committed to the United States Public Health Service mental hospital in Springfield, Missouri, then was indicted for threatening Kennedy's life seven weeks later. Charges against Pavlick were dropped on December 2, 1963, ten days after Kennedy's assassination in Dallas. Judge Emett Clay Choate ruled that Pavlick was unable to distinguish between right and wrong in his actions, but kept him in the mental hospital. The federal government also dropped charges in August 1964, and Pavlick was eventually released from the New Hampshire State Hospital on December 13, 1966.
April 13, 1972: Arthur Bremer carried a firearm to an event intending to shoot Nixon, but was put off by strong security. A few weeks later, he instead shot and seriously injured the Governor of Alabama, George Wallace, who was paralyzed until his death in 1998. Three other people were unintentionally wounded. Bremer served 35 years in prison for the shooting of Governor Wallace.
Late May 1972: During Nixon's official visit to Tehran, Iran, a "Marxist terrorist group" named People's Mujahedin of Iran blew up a bomb at Reza Shah's mausoleum, where Nixon was scheduled to attend a ceremony just 45 minutes after the explosion.
February 22, 1974: Samuel Byck planned to kill Nixon by crashing a commercial airliner into the White House. He hijacked a DC-9 at Baltimore-Washington International Airport after killing a Maryland Aviation Administration police officer, and was told that it could not take off with the wheel blocks still in place. After he shot both pilots (one later died), an officer named Charles 'Butch' Troyer shot Byck through the plane's door window. He survived long enough to kill himself by shooting.
September 5, 1975: On the northern grounds of the California State Capitol, Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, a follower of Charles Manson, drew a Colt M1911 .45 caliber pistol on Ford when he reached to shake her hand in a crowd. She had four cartridges in the pistol's magazine but none in the firing chamber, and as a result, the gun did not fire. She was quickly restrained by Secret Service agent Larry Buendorf. Fromme was sentenced to life in prison, but was released from custody on August 14, 2009 (two years and eight months after Ford's death in 2006).
September 22, 1975: In San Francisco, California, only 17 days after Fromme's attempt, Sara Jane Moore fired a revolver at Ford from 12 metres (40 ft) away. A bystander, Oliver Sipple, grabbed Moore's arm and the shot missed Ford, striking a building wall and slightly injuring taxi driver John Ludwig. Moore was tried and convicted in federal court, and sentenced to prison for life. She was paroled from a federal prison on December 31, 2007 after serving more than 30 years, one year and five days after Ford's natural death.
Raymond Lee Harvey was an Ohio-born unemployed American drifter. He was arrested by the Secret Service after being found carrying a starter pistol with blank rounds, ten minutes before Carter was to give a speech at the Civic Center Mall in Los Angeles on May 5, 1979. Harvey had a history of mental illness, but police had to investigate his claim that he was part of a four-man operation to assassinate the president. According to Harvey, he fired seven blank rounds from the starter pistol on the hotel roof on the night of May 4 to test how much noise it would make. He claimed to have been with one of the plotters that night, whom he knew as "Julio". (This man was later identified as a 21-year-old illegal immigrant from Mexico, who gave the name Osvaldo Espinoza Ortiz.) At the time of his arrest, Harvey had eight spent rounds in his pocket, as well as 70 unspent blank rounds for the gun. Harvey was jailed on a $50,000 bond, given his transient status, and Ortiz was alternately reported as being held on a $100,000 bond as a material witness or held on a $50,000 bond being charged with burglary from a car. Charges against the pair were ultimately dismissed for a lack of evidence.
George H. W. Bush
April 13, 1993: According to Kuwaiti authorities, fourteen Kuwaiti and Iraqi men believed to be working for Saddam Hussein smuggled bombs into Kuwait, planning to assassinate former president Bush by a car bomb during his visit to Kuwait University three months after he had left office (in January 1993). Kuwaiti officials claimed to have foiled an alleged plot by the Iraqi Intelligence Service and arrested the suspected assassins. Two of the suspects, Wali Abdelhadi Ghazali and Raad Abdel-Amir al-Assadi, retracted their confessions at the trial, claiming that they were coerced. Then-president Bill Clinton responded by launching a cruise missile attack on an Iraqi intelligence building in the Mansour district of Baghdad. The plot was used as one of the justifications for the Iraq Resolution authorizing the 2003 U.S. invasion of the country.
- January 21, 1994: Ronald Gene Barbour, a retired military officer and freelance writer, plotted to kill Clinton while the president was jogging. Barbour returned to Florida a week later without having fired the shots at the president, who was on a state visit to Russia. Barbour was sentenced to five years in prison and was released in 1998.
- September 12, 1994: Frank Eugene Corder flew a stolen single-engine Cessna 150 onto the White House lawn and crashed into a tree. Corder, a truck driver from Maryland who reportedly had alcohol problems, allegedly tried to hit the White House. He was killed in the crash and was the only fatality. The president and first family were not in residence at the time.
- October 29, 1994: Francisco Martin Duran fired at least 29 shots with a 7.62×39mm Type 56 semi-automatic rifle at the White House from a fence overlooking the North Lawn, thinking that Clinton was among the men in dark suits standing there (Clinton was inside). Three tourists, Harry Rakosky, Ken Davis and Robert Haines, tackled Duran before he could injure anyone. Found to have a suicide note in his pocket, Duran was sentenced to 40 years in prison.
- November 1994: Osama bin Laden recruited Ramzi Yousef, the mastermind of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, to commit an assassination against President Clinton. However, Yousef decided that security would be too effective and decided to target Pope John Paul II instead.
- 1996: During his visit to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in Manila, Clinton's motorcade was rerouted before it was to drive over a bridge. Service officers had intercepted a message suggesting that an attack was imminent, and Lewis Merletti, the director of the Secret Service, ordered the motorcade to be re-routed. An intelligence team later discovered a bomb under the bridge. Subsequent U.S. investigation "revealed that [the plot] was masterminded by a Saudi terrorist living in Afghanistan named Osama bin Laden".
- October 2018: A package containing a pipe bomb addressed to wife Hillary Clinton and sent to their home in Chappaqua, New York was intercepted by the Secret Service. It was one of several mailed to other Democratic leaders in the same week, including former president Barack Obama. Bill Clinton was at the Chappaqua home when the package was intercepted, while Hillary was in Florida campaigning for Democrats in the 2018 midterm elections. Fingerprint DNA revealed that the package was sent by Florida resident Cesar Sayoc, who was captured two days after the package was intercepted. Prosecutors sought a life sentence for Sayoc, but the judge instead sentenced him to 20 years in prison.
George W. Bush
May 10, 2005: While President Bush was giving a speech in the Freedom Square in Tbilisi, Georgia, Vladimir Arutyunian threw a live Soviet-made RGD-5 hand grenade toward the podium. The grenade had its pin pulled, but did not explode because a red tartan handkerchief was wrapped tightly around it, preventing the safety lever from detaching. After escaping that day, Arutyunian was arrested in July 2005. During his arrest, he killed an Interior Ministry agent. He was convicted in January 2006 and given a life sentence.
- December 2008: A United States Marine, 20 year old Kody Brittingham, wrote that he had taken an oath to “protect against all enemies, both foreign and domestic.” In a signed “letter of intent,” he identified President Obama as a “domestic enemy” and the target of Brittingham’s planned assassination plot. In June 2010, he was sentenced to 100 months in federal prison.
- April 2009: A plot to assassinate President Obama at the Alliance of Civilizations summit in Istanbul, Turkey was discovered after a man of Syrian origins carrying forged Al-Jazeera TV press credentials was found. The man confessed to the Turkish security services details of his plan to kill Obama with a knife. He alleged that he had three accomplices.
- November 2011: Oscar Ramiro Ortega-Hernandez hit the White House with several rounds fired from a semi-automatic rifle. No one was injured. A window was broken. He was sentenced to 25 years in prison.
- April 2013: Another attempt was made when a letter laced with ricin, a toxin, was sent to President Obama.
- October 2018: A package that contained a pipe bomb was sent to former President Obama at his home in Washington, D.C. The package was intercepted by Secret Service.
- September 2017: Gregory Lee Leingang attempted to assassinate President Donald Trump in Mandan, North Dakota by flipping the presidential limousine with a stolen forklift. He pleaded guilty to the attempted attack.
- November 2017: A man affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant was arrested by the Philippine National Police in Rizal Park for reportedly planning to assassinate President Trump during the ASEAN Summit.
Deaths rumored to have been assassinations
In June 1923, President Warren G. Harding set out on a cross-country "Voyage of Understanding", planning to meet with citizens and explain his policies. During this trip, he became the first president to visit Alaska, which was then a U.S. territory.
Rumors of corruption in the Harding administration were beginning to circulate in Washington, D.C., by 1923, and Harding was profoundly shocked by a long message he received while in Alaska, apparently detailing illegal activities by his own cabinet that were allegedly unknown to him. At the end of July, while traveling south from Alaska through British Columbia, he developed what was thought to be a severe case of food poisoning. He gave the final speech of his life to a large crowd at the University of Washington Stadium (now Husky Stadium) at the University of Washington campus in Seattle, Washington. A scheduled speech in Portland, Oregon, was canceled. The president's train proceeded south to San Francisco. Upon arriving at the Palace Hotel, he developed pneumonia. Harding died in his hotel room of either a heart attack or a stroke at 7:35 p.m. (19:35) on August 2, 1923. The formal announcement, printed in The New York Times of that day, stated: "A stroke of apoplexy was the cause of death." He had been ill exactly one week.
Naval physicians surmised that Harding had suffered a heart attack. The Hardings' personal medical advisor, homeopath and Surgeon General Charles E. Sawyer, disagreed with the diagnosis. His wife, Florence Harding, refused permission for an autopsy, which soon led to speculation that the president had been the victim of a plot, possibly carried out by his wife, as Harding apparently had been unfaithful to the first lady. Gaston B. Means, an amateur historian and gadfly, noted in his book The Strange Death of President Harding (1930) that the circumstances surrounding his death led to suspicions that he had been poisoned. A number of individuals attached to him, both personally and politically, would have welcomed Harding's death, as they would have been disgraced in association by Means' assertion of Harding's "imminent impeachment".
- Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, Democratic presidential candidate, on June 5, 1968
- Attempted assassination of George Wallace, Democratic presidential candidate, on May 15, 1972
- Attempted assassination of Thomas R. Marshall, vice president, on July 2, 1915
- Curse of Tippecanoe
- Kennedy curse
- List of assassinated and executed heads of state and government
- List of incidents of political violence in Washington, D.C.
- List of White House security breaches
- Threatening the president of the United States
- Clarke, J. W. (1982). American Assassins: The Darker Side of Politics. Princeton University Press.
- E.g., Assassinations, presidential Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Answers.com. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
- E.g., Ben Dennison, "The 6 Most Utterly Insane Attempts to Kill a US President" Archived February 9, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Cracked, October 21, 2008. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
- "Praying for God to Kill the President", TFN Insider, Texas Freedom Network, Retrieved February 23, 2010.
- Lawrence Zelic Freedman (March 1983). "The Politics of Insanity: Law, Crime, and Human Responsibility". Political Psychology. 4 (1): 171–178. doi:10.2307/3791182. JSTOR 3791182.
- Donald (1996), pp. 586–587.
- Donald (1996), p. 587.
- Harrison (2000), pp. 3–4.
- Donald (1996), pp. 594–597.
- "Lincoln Papers: Lincoln Assassination: Introduction". Memory.loc.gov. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013. Retrieved October 14, 2013.
- Tarbell, Ida Minerva (1920). The Life of Abraham Lincoln. 4. p. 40. ISBN 9781582181257.
- Fox, Richard (2015). Lincoln's Body: A Cultural History. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393247244.
- Smith, Adam (July 8, 2015). "With a smile on his face" – via content.The Times Literary Supplement.co.uk.
- "Now He Belongs to the Ages - BackStory with the American History Guys".
Abraham Lincoln died, according to press reports, with a smile on his face. “I had never seen upon the president's face an expression more genial and pleasings,” wrote a New York Times reporter.
- Abel, E. Lawrence (2015). A Finger in Lincoln's Brain: What Modern Science Reveals about Lincoln, His Assassination, and Its Aftermath. ABC-CLIO. Chapter 14.
- "President Lincoln's Thoughts on April 14, 1865".
When he finally gave up the struggle for life at 7:22 A.M., his face was fixed in a smile, according to one bedside witness, treasury official, a smile that seemed almost an effort of life. Lincoln has passed on smoothly and contentedly, his facial expression suggesting that inner peace that prevailed as his final state of mind.
- Assassinations That Changed The World, History Channel
- Fox, Richard (2015). Lincoln's Body: A Cultural History. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393247244.
- "OUR GREAT LOSS; The Assassination of President Lincoln.DETAILS OF THE FEARFUL CRIME.Closing Moments and Death of the President.Probable Recovery of Secretary Seward. Rumors of the Arrest of the Assassins.The Funeral of President Lincoln to Take Place Next Wednesday. Expressions of Deep Sorrow Through-out the Land. OFFICIAL DISPATCHES. THE ASSASSINATION. Further Details of the Murder Narrow Recape of Secretary Stanton Measures Taken is Prevent the Escape of the Assassin of the President. LAST MOMENTS OF THE PRESIDENT. Interesting Letter from Maunsell B. Field Esq. THE GREAT CALAMITY". The New York Times. April 17, 1865. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "'NOW HE BELONGS TO THE AGES' ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S ASSASSINATION".
Abraham Lincoln died, according to press reports, with a smile on his face. “I had never seen upon the president’s face an expression more genial and pleasing,” wrote a New York Times reporter.
- Hay, John (1915). The Life and Letters of John Hay Volume 1 (quote's original source is Hay's diary which is quoted in "Abraham Lincoln: A History", Volume 10, Page 292 by John G. Nicolay and John Hay). Houghton Mifflin Company.
- Millard (2011), pp. 189, 312 harvp error: no target: CITEREFMillard2011 (help)
- Peskin, Allan (1978). Garfield. Kent State University Press. p. 588. ISBN 0-87338-210-2.
- Stokes 1979, pp. 21. sfn error: no target: CITEREFStokes1979 (help)
- "Lee Harvey Oswald". Biography.com. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
- "Doctors attending to Kennedy reported". November 1963. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
- Gary Langer (November 16, 2003). "John F. Kennedy's Assassination Leaves a Legacy of Suspicion" (PDF). ABC News. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 26, 2011. Retrieved May 16, 2010.
- Jarrett Murphy, "40 Years Later: Who Killed JFK?" Archived November 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, CBS News, November 21, 2003.
- "The Bull Moose and related media". Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Remey, Oliver E.; Cochems, Henry F.; Bloodgood, Wheeler P. (1912). The Attempted Assassination of Ex-President Theodore Roosevelt. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: The Progressive Publishing Company. p. 192.
- "Medical History of American Presidents". Doctor Zebra. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- John Gurda. Cream City Chronicles: Stories of Milwaukee's Past. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2016, pp. 189-191.
- "Excerpt", Detroit Free Press, History buff, archived from the original on April 19, 2015, retrieved March 5, 2018.
- "It Takes More Than That to Kill a Bull Moose: The Leader and The Cause". Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
- "Home - Theodore Roosevelt Association". Theodoreroosevelt.org. February 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 29, 2013. Retrieved October 14, 2013.
- "Roosevelt Timeline". Theodore Roosevelt. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- Timeline of Theodore Roosevelt's Life by the Theodore Roosevelt Association at www.theodoreroosevelt.org
- "Justice Story: Teddy Roosevelt survives assassin when bullet hits folded speech in his pocket". Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013. Retrieved October 14, 2013.
- "John Schrank". Classic Wisconsin. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
- "Remembering the Assassination Attempt on Ronald Reagan". CNN. March 30, 2001. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- D'Souza, Dinesh (June 8, 2004). "Purpose". National Review. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2009.
- "Medical examiner rules James Brady's death a homicide". Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 28, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- "John Hinckley Jr. to begin living full-time in Virginia Sept. 10". Fox News. September 12, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- "Trying to Assassinate President Jackson". American Heritage. January 30, 2007. Archived from the original on October 24, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
- Flood, Charles Bracelen (2010). 1864: Lincoln at the Gates of History. Simon & Schuster Lincoln Library. ISBN 1416552286. pp. 266–267.
- Sandburg, Carl (1954). Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years and the War Years One-Volume Edition. Harcourt. pp. 599–600. ISBN 0-15-602611-2.
- Harris 2009, p. 1.
- Harris 2009, p. 2.
- Harris 2009, p. 14.
- Harris 2009, p. 15.
- Hampton 1910
- van Wyk 2003, pp. 440–446.
- "Mr. Taft's Peril; Reported Plot to Kill Two Presidents". Daily Mail. London. October 16, 1909. ISSN 0307-7578.
- Hammond 1935, pp. 565-66.
- Harris 2009, p. 213.
- Jeansonne, Glen (2012). The Life of Herbert Hoover: Fighting Quaker, 1928-1933. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-1-137-34673-5. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- "Travels of President Herbert C. Hoover". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- "The Museum Exhibit Galleries, Gallery 5: The Logical Candidate, The President-Elect". West Branch, Iowa: Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- "National Affairs: Hoover Progress". Time. December 24, 1928. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013.
- "Bohemian National Cemetery: Mayor Anton Cermak". www.graveyards.com. Archived from the original on August 9, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- "Sam 'Momo' Giancana - Live and Die by the Sword". Crime Library. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved May 7, 2007.
- Mayle, Paul D. (1987). Eureka Summit: Agreement in Principle and the Big Three at Tehran, 1943. University of Delaware Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780874132953. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
[...] the Russians had uncovered a plot - German agents in Tehran had learned of Roosevelt's presence and were making plans for acion that was likely to take the form of an assassination attempt on one or more of the Big Three while they were in transit between meetings.
- AP, "Jews Sent Truman Letter Bombs, Book Tells", Tri-City Herald, December 1, 1972, accessed December 11, 2012
- Hibbits, Bernard. "Presidential Pardons". Jurist: The Legal Education Network. University of Pittsburgh School of Law. Archived from the original on November 17, 2007. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
- "Kennedy presidency almost ended before he was inaugurated". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. November 21, 2003. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
- Oliver, Willard; Marion, Nancy E. (2010). Killing the President: Assassinations, Attempts, and Rumored Attempts on U.S. Commanders-in-Chief: Assassinations, Attempts, and Rumored Attempts on U.S. Commanders-in-Chief. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313364754.
- Hunsicker, A. (2007). The Fine Art of Executive Protection: Handbook for the Executive Protection Officer. Universal-Publishers. ISBN 9781581129847.
- Ling, Peter J. (2013). John F. Kennedy. Routledge. ISBN 9781134713257.
- "Man Who Shot George Wallace To Be Freed". CBS. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
- Gibson, Bryan R. (2016), Sold Out? US Foreign Policy, Iraq, the Kurds, and the Cold War, Facts on File Crime Library, Springer, p. 136, ISBN 9781137517159
- "9/11 report notes". 9/11 Commission. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
- "1975 : Ford assassination attempt thwarted". History Channel. Archived from the original on May 2, 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
- "1975: President Ford survives second assassination attempt". History Channel. Archived from the original on January 6, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
- "The Imperial Presidency 1972-1980". Archived from the original on April 22, 1999. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
- "Skid Row Plot: A scheme to kill Carter?" Archived August 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Time May 21, 1979.
- "The Plot to Kill Carter", Newsweek May 21, 1979.
- "Alleged Carter death plot: man charged", The Sydney Morning Herald May 10, 1979.
- "Harvey / "Carter Assassination Plot", CBS News broadcast". Vanderbilt Television News Archive. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- "John Hinckley Jr.: Hunting Carter and Reagan". History on the Net. April 25, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
- Taubman, Philip. "Investigators Think Hinckley Stalked Carter". The New York Times. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
- Von Drehle, David & Smith, R. Jeffrey (June 27, 1993). "U.S. Strikes Iraq for Plot to Kill Bush". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- "The Bush assassination attempt". Department of Justice/FBI Laboratory report. Archived from the original on April 2, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
- "CIA SAYS IRAQI PLOT TO KILL BUSH MAY BE FICTION". Chicago Tribune. May 27, 1993.
- "Unemployed Man Is Charged With Threat to Kill President". The New York Times. February 19, 1994. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017.
- Dowd, Maureen (September 14, 1994). "Crash at the White House: The Overview". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 24, 2009. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
- "Summary Statement of Facts (The September 12, 1994 Plane Crash and The October 29, 1994 Shooting) Background Information on the White House Security Review". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
- Wright, Lawrence (2011). The looming tower : Al-Qaeda and the road to 9/11 (1 ed.). New York. ISBN 978-0-525-56436-2. OCLC 761224415.
- Leonard, Tom (December 22, 2009). "Osama bin Laden came within minutes of killing Bill Clinton". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on December 25, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- 'Act of terror': Bombs sent to CNN, Clintons, Obamas, Holder CNN, October 24, 2018
- "Explosive devices sent to Obama, Clintons; CNN evacuated".
- Jason Hanna; Evan Perez; Scott Glover. "Bomb suspect arrest: What we know about Cesar Sayoc". CNN. Archived from the original on October 26, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- US FBI report into the attack and investigation Archived April 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Bush grenade attacker gets life". CNN. January 11, 2006. Archived from the original on July 4, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
- "The case of the failed hand grenade attack". FBI Press Room. January 11, 2006. Archived from the original on April 11, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
- https://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/06/us/06threat.html. Missing or empty
- "Ex-Marine gets 100 months for threatening Obama". Star News Online. Associated Press. June 15, 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2021.
- Ed Henry (April 6, 2009). "Plot to assassinate Obama foiled in Turkey". CNN. Archived from the original on July 3, 2016. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
- Leonnig, Carol D. (September 27, 2014). "Secret Service fumbled response after gunman hit White House residence in 2011". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 8, 2016. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- "Oscar Ramiro Ortega-Hernandez, man who shot at White House, gets 25 years". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. March 31, 2014. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- "FBI confirms letters to Obama, others contained ricin". CNN. Archived from the original on August 25, 2013. Retrieved October 14, 2013.
- Kennedy, Merrit (October 24, 2018). "Apparent 'Pipe Bombs' Mailed To Clinton, Obama And CNN". NPR. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- ""Potentially destructive devices" sent to Clinton, Obama, CNN prompt massive response". CBS News. October 24, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Bonvillian, Crystal (December 11, 2018). "North Dakota man pleads guilty to using stolen forklift in Trump assassination attempt". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
- Stern, Marlow (October 12, 2018). "How the Secret Service Foiled an Assassination Plot Against Trump by ISIS". The Daily Beast.
- Reeve, W. Paul (July 1995). "President Harding's 1923 Visit to Utah". History Blazer. Archived from the original on May 2, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2015.
- "Harding a Farm Boy Who Rose by Work". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009. Retrieved July 21, 2007.
Nominated for the Presidency as a compromise candidate and elected by a tremendous majority because of a reaction against the policies of his predecessor, Warren Gamaliel Harding, twenty-ninth President of the United States, owed his political elevation largely to his engaging personal traits, his ability to work in harmony with the leaders of his party, and the fact that he typified in himself the average prosperous American citizen.
- Hammond, John Hays (1935). The Autobiography of John Hays Hammond. New York: Farrar & Rinehart. ISBN 978-0-405-05913-1. OCLC 867910. Free at the Internet Archive: Volume 1 and Volume 2.
- Hampton, Benjamin B. (April 1, 1910). "The Vast Riches of Alaska: Will the Morgan-Guggenheim Combination Acquire Them, or Will They Benefit the Whole People?". Hampton's Magazine. Vol. 24 no. 1. pp. 451–468.
- Harris, Charles H., III; Sadler, Louis R. (2009). The Secret War in El Paso: Mexican Revolutionary Intrigue, 1906–1920. Albuquerque, N.M.: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 9780826346520. OCLC 762600819.
- van Wyk, Peter (2003). Burnham: King of Scouts. Victoria, B.C., Canada: Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4120-0901-0. OCLC 52799114.