List of United States presidential candidates

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This article is a list of United States presidential candidates. The first U.S. presidential election was held in 1789, followed by the second in 1792. Presidential elections have been held every four years thereafter.


This is a list of candidates under the original wording of the U.S. Constitution, which was in effect from 1788 to 1803.

Year Winning Candidate (party) Vice President (party) Losing Candidate(s) (party)
1789 George Washington (no party) John Adams (no party) John Rutledge, John Hancock, Samuel Huntington, Benjamin Lincoln, John Jay (Federalist); George Clinton (no party)
1792 George Washington (no party) John Adams (no party) George Clinton (no party), Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican), Aaron Burr (Democratic-Republican)
1796 John Adams (Federalist) Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) Federalists: Oliver Ellsworth, John Jay, James Iredell, Samuel Johnston, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney; Democratic-Republicans: Aaron Burr, Thomas Pinckney
1800 Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) Aaron Burr (Democratic-Republican) John Adams, Charles Pinckney, John Jay


This is a list of candidates for the office of President of the United States after the adoption of the 12th Amendment and prior to 1856 who received at least one electoral vote.

Year Winning Candidate (Party) Losing Candidate(s) (Party)
1804 Thomas JeffersonGeorge Clinton (Democratic-Republican) Charles PinckneyRufus King (Federalist)
1808 James MadisonGeorge Clinton (Democratic-Republican) Charles PinckneyRufus King (Federalist), George ClintonJames Monroe (Democratic-Republican)
1812 James MadisonElbridge Gerry (Democratic-Republican) Dewitt ClintonJared Ingersoll (Federalist), Rufus KingWilliam Richardson Davie (Federalist)
1816 James MonroeDaniel D. Tompkins (Democratic-Republican) Rufus KingJohn Eager Howard (Federalist)
1820 James MonroeDaniel D. Tompkins (Democratic-Republican) John Q. AdamsRichard Rush (Democratic-Republican)[citation needed], DeWitt Clinton – None (Democratic-Republican), None – Richard Stockton (Federalist)
1824 John Q. AdamsJohn C. Calhoun (Democratic-Republican) Andrew JacksonJohn C. Calhoun, William H. CrawfordNathaniel Macon, Henry ClayNathan Sanford (Democratic-Republican)
1828 Andrew JacksonJohn C. Calhoun (Democratic) John Q. AdamsRichard Rush (National Republican)
1832 Andrew JacksonMartin Van Buren (Democratic) Henry ClayJohn Sergeant (National Republican), John FloydHenry Lee (Nullifier); William WirtAmos Ellmaker (Anti-Masonic)
1836 Martin Van BurenRichard Mentor Johnson (Democratic) William Henry HarrisonFrancis Granger, Hugh Lawson WhiteJohn Tyler, Daniel WebsterFrancis Granger, W. P. MangumJohn Tyler (Whig)
1840 William Henry HarrisonJohn Tyler (Whig) Martin Van Buren – None (Democratic), James G. BirneyThomas Earle (Liberty)
1844 James K. PolkGeorge M. Dallas (Democratic) Henry ClayTheodore Frelinghuysen (Whig), James G. BirneyThomas Morris (Liberty)
1848 Zachary TaylorMillard Fillmore (Whig) Lewis CassWilliam Orlando Butler (Democratic), Martin Van BurenCharles Francis Adams Sr. (Free Soil). Gerrit SmithCharles C. Foote (Liberty)
1852 Franklin PierceWilliam R. King (Democratic) Winfield ScottWilliam Alexander Graham (Whig), John P. HaleGeorge Washington Julian (Free Soil), Daniel WebsterCharles J. Jenkins (Union), Jacob BroomReynell Coates (American Party). George TroupJohn A. Quitman (Southern Rights)


This is a list of candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States in general elections since 1856. The winning tickets are shown in bold.

Year Democratic Republican Other
1856 James Buchanan (Pa.) – John C. Breckinridge (Ky.) John Fremont (Calif.) – William Dayton (N.J.) Millard FillmoreAndrew Jackson Donelson (American Party)
1860 Stephen A. Douglas (Ill.) – Herschel Vespasian Johnson (Ga.) Abraham Lincoln (Ill.) – Hannibal Hamlin (Maine) John C. BreckinridgeJoseph Lane (Southern Democratic)
John BellEdward Everett (Constitutional Union)
1864 George McClellan (N.J.) – George Hunt Pendleton (Ohio) Abraham Lincoln (Ill.) – Andrew Johnson (Tenn.) John C. FrémontJohn Cochrane (Radical Democracy)
1868 Horatio Seymour (N.Y.) – Francis Blair (Mo.) Ulysses S. Grant (Ohio) – Schuyler Colfax (Ind.)  
1872 Horace Greeley (N.Y.) – B. Gratz Brown (Mo.) Ulysses S. Grant (Ohio) – Henry Wilson (Mass.) Charles O'ConorJohn Quincy Adams II (Straight Out Democratic)
James BlackJohn Russell (Prohibition)
Victoria WoodhullFrederick Douglass (Equal Rights)
1876 Samuel J. Tilden (N.Y.) – Thomas Hendricks (Ind.) Rutherford B. Hayes (Ohio) – William A. Wheeler (N.Y.) Peter CooperSamuel Fenton Cary (Greenback Labor)
Green Clay SmithGideon T. Stewart (Prohibition)
1880 Winfield Scott Hancock (Pa.) – William English (Ind.) James Garfield (Ohio) – Chester A. Arthur (N.Y.) James B. WeaverBarzillai J. Chambers (Greenback Labor)
Neal DowHenry A. Thompson (Prohibition)
John W. PhelpsSamuel C. Pomeroy (Anti-Masonic)
1884 Grover Cleveland (N.Y.) – Thomas Hendricks (Ind.) James Blaine (Maine) – John A. Logan (Ill.) Benjamin F. ButlerAbsolom M. West (Greenback/Anti-Monopoly)
John P. St. JohnWilliam Daniel (Prohibition)
Belva Ann LockwoodMarietta Stow (Equal Rights)
1888 Grover Cleveland (N.Y.) – Allen G. Thurman (Ohio) Benjamin Harrison (Ind.) – Levi Morton (N.Y.) Clinton B. FiskJohn A. Brooks (Prohibition)
Alson J. StreeterCharles E. Cunningham (Union Labor)
Belva Ann Lockwood – Charles Stuart Wells (Equal Rights)
1892 Grover Cleveland (N.Y.) – Adlai E. Stevenson (Ill.) Benjamin Harrison (Ind.) – Whitelaw Reid (N.Y.) James B. WeaverJames G. Field (Populist)
John BidwellJames B. Cranfill (Prohibition)
Simon WingCharles H. Matchett (Socialist Labor)
1896 William Jennings Bryan (Neb.) – Arthur Sewall (Maine) William McKinley (Ohio) – Garret Hobart (N.J.) John M. Palmer (Ill.) – Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. (Ky.) (National Democratic)
Joshua LeveringHale Johnson (Prohibition)
Charles H. MatchettMatthew Maguire (Socialist Labor)
Charles E. BentleyJames H. Southgate (National Prohibition)
1900 William Jennings Bryan (Neb.) – Adlai E. Stevenson (Ill.) William McKinley (Ohio) – Theodore Roosevelt (N.Y.) John G. WoolleyHenry B. Metcalf (Prohibition)
Eugene V. Debs (Ind.) – Job Harriman (Socialist)
Wharton BarkerIgnatius L. Donnelly (Populist)
Joseph F. MaloneyValentine Remmel (Socialist Labor)
1904 Alton B. Parker (N.Y.) – Henry G. Davis (W.V.) Theodore Roosevelt (N.Y.) – Charles W. Fairbanks (Ind.) Eugene V. Debs (Ind.) – Benjamin Hanford (Socialist)
Silas C. SwallowGeorge Washington Carroll (Prohibition)
Thomas E. WatsonThomas Tibbles (Populist)
Charles H. CorreganWilliam Wesley Cox (Socialist Labor)
1908 William Jennings Bryan (Neb.) – John W. Kern (Ind.) William Howard Taft (Ohio) – James S. Sherman (N.Y.) Eugene V. Debs (Ind.) – Benjamin Hanford (Socialist)
Eugene W. ChafinAaron S. Watkins (Prohibition)
Thomas L. HisgenJohn Temple Graves (Independence)
Thomas E. WatsonSamuel Williams (Populist)
August GillhausDonald L. Munro (Socialist Labor)
1912 Woodrow Wilson (N.J.) – Thomas R. Marshall (Ind.) William Howard Taft (Ohio) – Nicholas M. Butler (N.Y.) Theodore Roosevelt (N.Y.) – Hiram W. Johnson (Calif.) (Progressive)
Eugene V. Debs (Ind.) – Emil Seidel (Socialist)
Eugene W. ChafinAaron S. Watkins (Prohibition)
Arthur E. ReimerAugust Gillhaus (Socialist Labor)
1916 Woodrow Wilson (N.J.) – Thomas R. Marshall (Ind.) Charles Evans Hughes (N.Y.) – Charles W. Fairbanks (Ind.) Allan L. BensonGeorge R. Kirkpatrick (Socialist)
J. Frank HanlyIra Landrith (Prohibition)
Arthur E. ReimerCaleb Harrison (Socialist Labor)
None – John M. Parker (Progressive)
1920 James M. Cox (Ohio) – Franklin D. Roosevelt (N.Y.) Warren G. Harding (Ohio) – Calvin Coolidge (Mass.) Eugene V. Debs (Ind.) – Seymour Stedman (Socialist)
Parley P. ChristensenMax S. Hayes (Farmer-Labor)
Aaron WatkinsD. Leigh Colvin (Prohibition)
James E. Ferguson – William Hough (American)
William Wesley CoxAugust Gillhaus (Socialist Labor)
1924 John W. Davis (W.V.) – Charles W. Bryan (Neb.) Calvin Coolidge (Mass.) – Charles G. Dawes (Ill.) Robert M. La Follette, Sr.Burton K. Wheeler (Progressive)
Herman P. FarisMarie C. Brehm (Prohibition)
William Z. FosterBenjamin Gitlow (Communist)
Frank T. JohnsVerne L. Reynolds (Socialist Labor)
1928 Al Smith (N.Y.) – Joseph Taylor Robinson (Ark.) Herbert Hoover (Calif.) – Charles Curtis (Kan.) Norman ThomasJames H. Maurer (Socialist)
William Z. FosterBen Gitlow (Communist)
Verne L. Reynolds – Jeremiah D. Crowley (Socialist Labor)
William F. Varney – James Edgerton (Prohibition)
1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt (N.Y.) – John Nance Garner (Tex.) Herbert Hoover (Calif.) – Charles Curtis (Kan.) Norman ThomasJames H. Maurer (Socialist)
William Z. FosterJames W. Ford (Communist)
William D. Upshaw – Frank S. Regan (Prohibition)
William Hope Harvey – Frank Hemenway (Liberty
Verne L. ReynoldsJohn W. Aiken (Socialist Labor)
Jacob S. Coxey Sr. – Julius Reiter (Farmer-Labor)
1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt (N.Y.) – John Nance Garner (Tex.) Alf Landon (Kan.) – Frank Knox (Ill.) William LemkeThomas C. O'Brien (Union)
Norman Thomas – George A. Nelson (Socialist)
Earl BrowderJames W. Ford (Communist)
D. Leigh ColvinClaude A. Watson (Prohibition)
John W. Aiken – Emil F. Teichert (Socialist Labor)
1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt (N.Y.) – Henry A. Wallace (Iowa) Wendell Willkie (Ind.) – Charles L. McNary (Ore.) Norman ThomasMaynard C. Krueger (Socialist)
Roger W. Babson – Edgar V. Moorman (Prohibition)
Earl BrowderJames W. Ford (Communist)
John W. Aiken – Aaron M. Orange (Socialist Labor)
1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt (N.Y.) – Harry S. Truman (Mo.) Thomas E. Dewey (N.Y.) – John W. Bricker (Ohio) Norman ThomasDarlington Hoopes (Socialist)
Claude A. WatsonAndrew N. Johnson (Prohibition)
Edward A. Teichert – Arla Arbaugh (Socialist Labor)
1948 Harry S. Truman (Mo.) – Alben W. Barkley (Ky.) Thomas E. Dewey (N.Y.) – Earl Warren (Calif.) Strom ThurmondFielding L. Wright (States' Rights)
Henry A. WallaceGlen H. Taylor (Progressive)
Norman ThomasTucker P. Smith (Socialist)
Claude A. Watson – Dale Learn (Prohibition)
Edward A. Teichert – Stephen Emery (Socialist Labor)
1952 Adlai Stevenson II (Ill.) – John Sparkman (Ala.) Dwight D. Eisenhower (K.S.) – Richard Nixon (Calif.) Vincent HallinanCharlotta Bass (Progressive)
Stuart HamblenEnoch A. Holtwick (Prohibition)
Eric HassGeorgia Cozzini (Socialist Labor)
Darlington HoopesSamuel H. Friedman (Socialist)
1956 Adlai Stevenson II (Ill.) – Estes Kefauver (Tenn.) Dwight D. Eisenhower (K.S.) – Richard Nixon (Calif.) T. Coleman AndrewsThomas H. Werdel (States' Rights)
Eric HassGeorgia Cozzini (Socialist Labor)
Enoch A. Holtwick – Edwin M. Cooper (Prohibition)
Darlington HoopesSamuel H. Friedman (Socialist)
1960 John F. Kennedy (Mass.) – Lyndon B. Johnson (Tex.) Richard Nixon (Calif.) – Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (Mass.) Eric HassGeorgia Cozzini (Socialist Labor)
Rutherford DeckerE. Harold Munn (Prohibition)
Orval FaubusJohn G. Crommelin (National States' Rights)
1964 Lyndon B. Johnson (Tex.) – Hubert Humphrey (Minn.) Barry Goldwater (Ariz.) – William E. Miller (N.Y.) Eric HassHenning A. Blomen (Socialist Labor)
Clifton DeBerryEd Shaw (Socialist Workers)
E. Harold MunnMark R. Shaw (Prohibition)
John KasperJ. B. Stoner (National States' Rights)
1968 Hubert Humphrey (Minn.) – Edmund Muskie (Maine) Richard Nixon (Calif.) – Spiro Agnew (Md.) George WallaceCurtis LeMay (American Independent)
Henning A. Blomen – George Sam Taylor (Socialist Labor)
Eldridge Cleaver – various (Peace & Freedom)
Fred HalsteadPaul Boutelle (Socialist Workers)
E. Harold Munn – Rolland E. Fisher (Prohibition)
Charlene Mitchell – Michael Zagarell (Communist)
1972 George McGovern (S.D.) – Sargent Shriver (Md.) Richard Nixon (Calif.) – Spiro Agnew (Md.) John G. SchmitzThomas J. Anderson (American Independent)
Linda JennessAndrew Pulley (Socialist Workers)
Benjamin SpockJulius Hobson (People's Party)
Louis Fisher – Genevieve Gundersen (Socialist Labor)
Gus HallJarvis Tyner (Communist)
E. Harold Munn – Marshall Uncapher (Prohibition)
John HospersTonie Nathan (Libertarian)
1976 Jimmy Carter (Ga.) – Walter Mondale (Minn.) Gerald Ford (Mich.) – Bob Dole (Kan.) Eugene McCarthy – (various) (Independent)
Roger MacBrideDavid Bergland (Libertarian)
Lester MaddoxWilliam Dyke (American Independent)
Thomas J. Anderson – Rufus Shackelford (American)
Peter CamejoWillie Mae Reid (Socialist Workers)
Gus HallJarvis Tyner (Communist)
Margaret WrightBenjamin Spock (People's Party)
Lyndon LaRouche – Ronald Wayne Evans (Labor)
Ben BubarEarl Dodge (Prohibition)
Jules Levin – Constance Blomen (Socialist Labor)
Frank ZeidlerJ. Quinn Brisben (Socialist)
1980 Jimmy Carter (Ga.) – Walter Mondale (Minn.) Ronald Reagan (Calif.) – George H. W. Bush (Tex.) John B. AndersonPatrick J. Lucey (Independent)
Ed ClarkDavid H. Koch (Libertarian)
Barry CommonerLaDonna Harris (Citizens)
Gus HallAngela Davis (Communist)
John Rarick – Eileen Shearer(American Independent)
Ben BubarEarl Dodge (Prohibition)
David McReynoldsDiane Drufenbrock (Socialist)
Percy L. Greaves Jr. – Frank L. Varnum (American)
1984 Walter Mondale (Minn.) – Geraldine Ferraro (N.Y.) Ronald Reagan (Calif.) – George H. W. Bush (Tex.) David BerglandJames A. Lewis (Libertarian)
Lyndon LaRoucheBilly Davis (Independent)
Sonia JohnsonRichard Walton Citizens)
Bob RichardsMaureen Kennedy Salaman (Populist)
Dennis L. Serrette – Nancy Ross (New Alliance)
Gus HallAngela Davis (Communist)
Earl Dodge – Warren C. Martin (Prohibition)
1988 Michael Dukakis (Mass.) – Lloyd Bentsen (Tex.) George H. W. Bush (Tex.) – Dan Quayle (Ind.) Ron PaulAndre Marrou (Libertarian)
Lenora Fulani – (various) (New Alliance)
David Duke – (various) (Populist)
Earl DodgeGeorge Ormsby (Prohibition)
Willa KenoyerRon Ehrenreich (Socialist)
1992 Bill Clinton (Ark.) – Al Gore (Tenn.) George H. W. Bush (Tex.) – Dan Quayle (Ind.) Ross PerotJames Stockdale (Independent)
Andre MarrouNancy Lord (Libertarian)
Bo Gritz – Cy Minett (Populist)
Lenora FulaniMaria Elizabeth Muñoz (New Alliance)
Howard PhillipsAlbion W. Knight Jr. (Taxpayers)
Earl DodgeGeorge Ormsby (Prohibition)
J. Quinn BrisbenBarbara Garson (Socialist)
1996 Bill Clinton (Ark.) – Al Gore (Tenn.) Bob Dole (Kan.) – Jack Kemp (N.Y.) Ross PerotPatrick Choate (Reform)
Ralph NaderWinona LaDuke (Green)
Harry BrowneJo Jorgensen (Libertarian)
Howard PhillipsHerb Titus (Taxpayers)
John HagelinMichael Tompkins (Natural Law)
Earl DodgeRachel Bubar Kelly (Prohibition)
Mary Cal HollisEric Chester (Socialist)
Diane Beall Templin – Gary Van Horn (American)
2000 Al Gore (Tenn.) – Joe Lieberman (Conn.) George W. Bush (Tex.) – Dick Cheney (Wyo.) Ralph NaderWinona LaDuke (Green)
Pat BuchananEzola Foster (Reform)
Harry BrowneArt Olivier (Libertarian)
Howard PhillipsCurtis Frazier (Constitution)
John HagelinNat Goldhaber (Natural Law)
Earl DodgeDean Watkins (Prohibition)
David McReynoldsMary Cal Hollis (Socialist)
2004 John Kerry (Mass.) – John Edwards (N.C.) George W. Bush (Tex.) – Dick Cheney (Wyo.) Ralph NaderPeter Camejo (Independent/Reform)
Michael BadnarikRichard Campagna (Libertarian)
Michael PeroutkaChuck Baldwin (Constitution)
David CobbPat LaMarche (Green)
Gene Amondson – Leroy Pletten (Prohibition)
Walt BrownMary Alice Herbert (Socialist)
2008 Barack Obama (IL.) – Joe Biden (Del.) John McCain (Ariz.) – Sarah Palin (Alaska) Ralph NaderMatt Gonzalez (Independent)
Bob BarrWayne Allyn Root (Libertarian)
Chuck BaldwinDarrell Castle (Constitution)
Cynthia McKinneyRosa Clemente (Green)
Alan KeyesWiley Drake (America's Independent)
Gene Amondson – Leroy Pletten (Prohibition)
Brian MooreStewart Alexander (Socialist)
Ted WeillFrank McEnulty (Reform)
2012 Barack Obama (IL.) – Joe Biden (Del.) Mitt Romney (Mass.) – Paul Ryan (Wis.) Gary JohnsonJim Gray (Libertarian)
Jill SteinCheri Honkala (Green)
Virgil GoodeJim Clymer (Constitution)
Rocky AndersonLuis J. Rodriguez (Justice)
Jack Fellure – Toby Davis (Prohibition)
Stewart AlexanderAlejandro Mendoza (Socialist))
Tom Hoefling – Robert Ornelas (America's)
Andre Barnett – Ken Cross (Reform)
2016 Hillary Clinton (N.Y.) – Tim Kaine (Va.) Donald Trump (N.Y.) – Mike Pence (Ind.) Gary JohnsonWilliam Weld (Libertarian)
Jill SteinAjamu Baraka (Green)
Evan McMullinMindy Finn (Independent)
Darrell CastleScott Bradley (Constitution)
Rocky De La FuenteMichael Steinberg (American Delta/Reform)
James Hedges – Bill Bayes (Prohibition)
Mimi SoltysikAngela Nicole Walker (Socialist)
Tom Hoefling – Steve Schulin (America's)


  • Vice President James S. Sherman died on 30 October 1912, just days before the election. Even though his name remained on the 1912 presidential ballot, nevertheless he could not be awarded electoral votes. Thus, when the Electoral College met, those electors pledged to Taft voted for educator Nicholas Murray Butler in Sherman's place. Butler had no illusions that he would be elected, as Taft came in third of the then-three major parties, behind Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) and Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive).

See also[edit]