List of United States presidential candidates by number of votes received

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Following is a list of United States presidential candidates by number of votes received. Elections have tended to have more participation in each successive election, due to the increasing population of the United States, and, in some instances, expansion of the right to vote to larger segments of society. Prior to the election of 1824, most states did not have a popular vote. In the election of 1824, only 18 of the 24 states held a popular vote, but by the election of 1828, 22 of the 24 states held a popular vote. Minor candidates are excluded if they received fewer than 100,000 votes, or less than .1% of the vote in their election year.

Candidate Year Party Popular vote Notes
Biden,Joe Biden 2020 Democratic 81,268,924[1] Winner.
Biden,Donald Trump 2020 Republican 74,216,154[1] Runner-up.
Obama,Barack Obama 2008 Democratic 69,498,516[2] Winner.
Obama,Barack Obama 2012 Democratic 65,915,795[3] Winner.
Clinton, HHillary Clinton 2016 Democratic 65,853,514[4] Runner-up. Won the popular vote, but lost the Electoral College.
Trump,Donald Trump 2016 Republican 62,984,828[4] Winner. Lost the popular vote, but won the Electoral College.
Bush, WGeorge W. Bush 2004 Republican 62,040,610[5] Winner.
Romney,Mitt Romney 2012 Republican 60,933,504[3] Runner-up.
McCain,John McCain 2008 Republican 59,948,323[2] Runner-up.
Kerry,John Kerry 2004 Democratic 59,028,444[5] Runner-up.
Reagan,Ronald Reagan 1984 Republican 54,455,472[6] Winner.
Gore,Al Gore 2000 Democratic 50,999,897[7] Runner-up. Won the popular vote, but lost the Electoral College.
Bush, WGeorge W. Bush 2000 Republican 50,456,002[7] Winner. Lost the popular vote, but won the Electoral College.
Bush, HGeorge H. W. Bush 1988 Republican 48,886,597[8] Winner.
Clinton, BBill Clinton 1996 Democratic 47,401,185[9] Winner.
Nixon,Richard Nixon 1972 Republican 47,168,710[10] Winner.
Clinton, BBill Clinton 1992 Democratic 44,909,889[11] Winner.
Reagan,Ronald Reagan 1980 Republican 43,903,230[12] Winner.
Johnson, LLyndon B. Johnson 1964 Democratic 43,127,041[13] Winner.
Dukakis,Michael Dukakis 1988 Democratic 41,809,074[8] Runner-up.
Carter,Jimmy Carter 1976 Democratic 40,831,881[14] Winner.
Dole,Bob Dole 1996 Republican 39,197,469[9] Runner-up.
Ford,Gerald Ford 1976 Republican 39,148,634[14] Runner-up.
Bush, HGeorge H. W. Bush 1992 Republican 39,104,550[11] Runner-up.
Mondale,Walter Mondale 1984 Democratic 37,577,352[6] Runner-up.
Eisenhower,Dwight D. Eisenhower 1956 Republican 35,579,180[15] Winner.
Carter,Jimmy Carter 1980 Democratic 35,480,115[12] Runner-up.
Kennedy,John F. Kennedy 1960 Democratic 34,220,984[16] Winner.
Nixon,Richard Nixon 1960 Republican 34,108,157[16] Runner-up.
Eisenhower,Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952 Republican 34,075,529[17] Winner.
Nixon,Richard Nixon 1968 Republican 31,783,783[18] Winner.
Humphrey,Hubert Humphrey 1968 Democratic 31,271,839[18] Runner-up.
McGovern,George McGovern 1972 Democratic 29,173,222[10] Runner-up.
Roosevelt,Franklin D. Roosevelt 1936 Democratic 27,752,648[19] Winner.
Stevenson, IIAdlai Stevenson II 1952 Democratic 27,375,090[17] Runner-up.
Roosevelt,Franklin D. Roosevelt 1940 Democratic 27,313,945[20] Winner.
Goldwater,Barry Goldwater 1964 Republican 27,175,754[13] Runner-up.
Stevenson, IIAdlai Stevenson II 1956 Democratic 26,028,028[15] Runner-up.
Roosevelt,Franklin D. Roosevelt 1944 Democratic 25,612,916[21] Winner.
Truman,Harry S. Truman 1948 Democratic 24,179,347[22] Winner.
Roosevelt,Franklin D. Roosevelt 1932 Democratic 22,821,277[23] Winner.
Willkie,Wendell Willkie 1940 Republican 22,347,744[20] Runner-up.
Dewey,Thomas E. Dewey 1944 Republican 22,017,929[21] Runner-up.
Dewey,Thomas E. Dewey 1948 Republican 21,991,292[22] Runner-up.
Hoover,Herbert Hoover 1928 Republican 21,427,123[24] Winner.
Perot,Ross Perot 1992 Independent 19,743,821[11] Established the Reform Party. Highest vote total of any third-party or independent candidate and highest vote total of anyone to not win electoral votes.
Landon,Alf Landon 1936 Republican 16,679,543[19] Runner-up.
Harding,Warren G. Harding 1920 Republican 16,144,093[25] Winner.
Hoover,Herbert Hoover 1932 Republican 15,761,254[23] Runner-up.
Coolidge,Calvin Coolidge 1924 Republican 15,723,789[26] Winner.
Smith,Al Smith 1928 Democratic 15,015,464[24] Runner-up.
Wallace,George Wallace 1968 American Independent 9,901,118[18] Third-party candidate; last third-party candidate to receive pledged electoral college votes from any state.
Cox,James M. Cox 1920 Democratic 9,139,661[25] Runner-up.
Wilson,Woodrow Wilson 1916 Democratic 9,126,868[27] Winner.
Hughes,Charles Evans Hughes 1916 Republican 8,548,728[27] Runner-up.
Davis,John W. Davis 1924 Democratic 8,386,242[26] Runner-up.
Perot,Ross Perot 1996 Reform 8,085,294[9] Third-party candidate.
Taft,William Howard Taft 1908 Republican 7,678,335[28] Winner.
Roosevelt,Theodore Roosevelt 1904 Republican 7,630,557[29] Winner.
McKinley,William McKinley 1900 Republican 7,228,864[30] Winner.
McKinley,William McKinley 1896 Republican 7,112,138[31] Winner.
Bryan,William Jennings Bryan 1896 Democratic 6,509,052[31] Runner-up. Also endorsed by the Populist Party and the Silver Party.
Bryan,William Jennings Bryan 1908 Democratic 6,408,979[28] Runner-up.
Bryan,William Jennings Bryan 1900 Democratic 6,370,932[30] Runner-up.
Wilson,Woodrow Wilson 1912 Democratic 6,296,284[32] Winner.
Anderson, JJohn B. Anderson 1980 Independent 5,719,850[12] Independent candidate.
Cleveland,Grover Cleveland 1892 Democratic 5,553,898[33] Winner.
Cleveland,Grover Cleveland 1888 Democratic 5,534,488[34] Runner-up. Won the popular vote, but lost the Electoral College.
Harrison, BBenjamin Harrison 1888 Republican 5,443,633[34] Winner. Lost the popular vote, but won the Electoral College.
Harrison, BBenjamin Harrison 1892 Republican 5,176,108[33] Runner-up.
Parker,Alton B. Parker 1904 Democratic 5,083,880[29] Runner-up.
Cleveland,Grover Cleveland 1884 Democratic 4,914,482[35] Winner.
Blaine,James G. Blaine 1884 Republican 4,856,905[35] Runner-up.
La Follette,Robert M. La Follette 1924 Progressive 4,831,706[26] Third-party candidate. Also endorsed by the Socialist Party and the Farmer–Labor Party.
Johnson, GGary Johnson 2016 Libertarian 4,489,235[4] Third-party candidate.
Garfield,James A. Garfield 1880 Republican 4,453,337[36] Winner.
Hancock,Winfield Scott Hancock 1880 Democratic 4,444,976[36] Runner-up.
Tilden,Samuel J. Tilden 1876 Democratic 4,288,546[37] Runner-up. Won the popular vote, but lost the Electoral College.
Roosevelt,Theodore Roosevelt 1912 Progressive 4,122,721[32] Runner-up.
Hayes,Rutherford B. Hayes 1876 Republican 4,034,142[37] Winner. Lost the popular vote, but won the Electoral College.
Grant,Ulysses S. Grant 1872 Republican 3,597,439[38] Winner.
Taft,William Howard Taft 1912 Republican 3,486,242[32] Only post-Civil War election in which a candidate from one of the two major parties came in third place.
Grant,Ulysses S. Grant 1868 Republican 3,013,790[39] Winner.
Nader,Ralph Nader 2000 Green 2,882,955[7] Third-party candidate.
Greeley,Horace Greeley 1872 Liberal Republican 2,834,761[38] Runner-up. Also endorsed by the Democratic Party.
Seymour,Horatio Seymour 1868 Democratic 2,708,744[39] Runner-up.
Lincoln,Abraham Lincoln 1864 National Union 2,211,317[40] Winner. Lincoln was the only member of the National Union party elected president.
Jorgensen,Jo Jorgensen 2020 Libertarian 1,865,724[1] Third-party candidate.
Lincoln,Abraham Lincoln 1860 Republican 1,855,993[41] Winner. Lincoln was the first member of the Republican party elected president.[42]
Buchanan, JJames Buchanan 1856 Democratic 1,835,140[43] Winner.
McClellan, JGeorge B. McClellan 1864 Democratic 1,812,807[40] Runner-up.
Pierce,Franklin Pierce 1852 Democratic 1,605,943[44] Winner.
Stein,Jill Stein 2016 Green 1,457,226[4] Third-party candidate.
Scott,Winfield Scott 1852 Whig 1,386,942[44] Runner-up.
Douglas,Stephen A. Douglas 1860 Northern Democratic 1,380,202[41] Runner-up.[42]
Taylor,Zachary Taylor 1848 Whig 1,360,235[45] Winner; Taylor was the last member of the Whig party elected president.
Fremont,John C. Frémont 1856 Republican 1,342,345[43] Runner-up.
Polk,James K. Polk 1844 Democratic 1,339,570[46] Winner.
Clay,Henry Clay 1844 Whig 1,300,004[46] Runner-up.
Johnson, GGary Johnson 2012 Libertarian 1,275,971[3] Third-party candidate.
Harrison, WWilliam Henry Harrison 1840 Whig 1,275,583[47] Winner. Harrison was the first member of the Whig party elected president.
Cass,Lewis Cass 1848 Democratic 1,223,460[45] Runner-up.
Thurmond,Strom Thurmond 1948 Dixiecrat 1,175,930[22] Third-party candidate.
Wallace,Henry A. Wallace 1948 Progressive 1,157,328[22] Third-party candidate.
Van Buren,Martin Van Buren 1840 Democratic 1,128,854[47] Runner-up.
Schmitz,John G. Schmitz 1972 American Independent 1,100,868[10] Independent candidate.
Weaver,James B. Weaver 1892 Populist 1,041,028[33] Third-party candidate.
Clark,Ed Clark 1980 Libertarian 921,128[12] Third-party candidate.
Debs,Eugene V. Debs 1920 Socialist 913,693[25] Third-party candidate.
Debs,Eugene V. Debs 1912 Socialist 901,551[32] Third-party candidate.
Lemke,William Lemke 1936 Union 892,378[19] Third-party candidate.
Thomas,Norman Thomas 1932 Socialist 884,885[23] Third-party candidate.
Fillmore,Millard Fillmore 1856 American 873,053[43] Third-party candidate. Also endorsed by the Whig Party.
Breckinridge,John C. Breckinridge 1860 Southern Democratic 848,019[41] Party split.[42]
Van Buren,Martin Van Buren 1836 Democratic 763,291[48] Winner.
McCarthy,Eugene McCarthy 1976 Independent 740,460[14] Independent candidate.
Nader,Ralph Nader 2008 Independent 739,034[2] Independent candidate.
McMullin,Evan McMullin 2016 Independent 732,273[4] Independent candidate.
Jackson,Andrew Jackson 1832 Democratic 702,735[49] Winner.
Nader,Ralph Nader 1996 Green 685,297[9] Third-party candidate.
Jackson,Andrew Jackson 1828 Democratic 642,806[50] Winner. Jackson was the first member of the Democratic party elected president.
Bell,John Bell 1860 Constitutional Union 590,901[41] Party split.[42]
Benson,Allan L. Benson 1916 Socialist 590,524[27] Third-party candidate.
Harrison, WWilliam Henry Harrison 1836 Whig 550,816[48] Runner-up.
Barr,Bob Barr 2008 Libertarian 523,715[2] Third-party candidate.
Adams,John Quincy Adams 1828 National Republican 500,897[50] Runner-up.
Browne,Harry Browne 1996 Libertarian 485,759[9] Third-party candidate.
Clay,Henry Clay 1832 National Republican 484,205[49] Runner-up.
Stein,Jill Stein 2012 Green 469,627[3] Third-party candidate.
Nader,Ralph Nader 2004 Independent 465,151[5] Independent candidate. Also endorsed by the Reform Party.
Buchanan, PPat Buchanan 2000 Reform 448,895[7] Third-party candidate.
Paul, RRon Paul 1988 Libertarian 431,750[8] Third-party candidate.
Debs,Eugene V. Debs 1908 Socialist 420,852[28] Third-party candidate.
Hawkins,Howie Hawkins 2020 Green 405,035[1] Third-party candidate.
Debs,Eugene V. Debs 1904 Socialist 402,810[29] Third-party candidate.
Badnarik,Michael Badnarik 2004 Libertarian 397,265[5] Third-party candidate.
Browne,Harry Browne 2000 Libertarian 384,431[7] Third-party candidate.
Weaver,James B. Weaver 1880 Greenback 308,649[36] Third-party candidate.
Van Buren,Martin Van Buren 1848 Free Soil 291,501[45] Third-party candidate.
Marrou,Andre Marrou 1992 Libertarian 290,087[11] Third-party candidate.
Bidwell,John Bidwell 1892 Prohibition 270,879[33] Third-party candidate.
Thomas,Norman Thomas 1928 Socialist 267,478[24] Third-party candidate.
Christensen,Parley P. Christensen 1920 Farmer–Labor 265,398[25] Third-party candidate.
Swallow,Silas C. Swallow 1904 Prohibition 259,102[29] Third-party candidate.
Chafin,Eugene W. Chafin 1908 Prohibition 254,087[28] Third-party candidate.
Fisk,Clinton B. Fisk 1888 Prohibition 249,819[34] Third-party candidate.
Commoner,Barry Commoner 1980 Citizens 233,052[12] Third-party candidate.
Bergland,David Bergland 1984 Libertarian 228,111[6] Third-party candidate.
Hanly,Frank Hanly 1916 Prohibition 221,302[27] Third-party candidate.
Fulani,Lenora Fulani 1988 New Alliance 217,221[8] Third-party candidate.
Woolley,John G. Woolley 1900 Prohibition 210,864[30] Third-party candidate.
Chafin,Eugene W. Chafin 1912 Prohibition 208,156[32] Third-party candidate.
Castle,Darrell Castle 2016 Constitution 203,091[4] Third-party candidate.
Baldwin,Chuck Baldwin 2008 Constitution 199,750[2] Third-party candidate.
Watkins,Aaron S. Watkins 1920 Prohibition 188,787[25] Third-party candidate.
Thomas,Norman Thomas 1936 Socialist 187,910[19] Third-party candidate.
Phillips,Howard Phillips 1996 Taxpayers 184,656[9] Third-party candidate.
MacBride,Roger MacBride 1976 Libertarian 172,557[14] Third-party candidate.
Maddox,Lester Maddox 1976 American Independent 170,274[14] Third-party candidate.
McKinney,Cynthia McKinney 2008 Green 161,797[2] Third-party candidate.
Anderson, TThomas J. Anderson 1976 American 158,271[14] Third-party candidate.
Hale,John P. Hale 1852 Free Soil 155,210[44] Third-party candidate.
Jackson,Andrew Jackson 1824 Democratic-Republican 151,271[51] Runner-up. Won the popular vote and received the most electoral votes, but lost the electoral college majority and contingent election.[52]
St. John,John St. John 1884 Prohibition 147,482[35] Third-party candidate.
Streeter,Alson Streeter 1888 Union Labor 146,602[34] Third-party candidate.
White,Hugh Lawson White 1836 Whig 146,109[48] The Whig Party fielded two different presidential tickets in different parts of the country.
Peroutka,Michael Peroutka 2004 Constitution 143,630[5] Third-party candidate.
Hallinan,Vincent Hallinan 1952 Progressive 140,746[17] Third-party candidate.
Madison,James Madison 1812 Democratic-Republican 140,431[53] Winner; a limited number of states counted the popular vote
Thomas, NNorman Thomas 1948 Socialist 139,569[22] Third-party candidate.
Palmer,John M. Palmer 1896 National Democratic 134,645[31] Third-party candidate.
Butler,Benjamin Butler 1884 Anti-Monopoly 134,294[35] Third-party candidate. Also endorsed by the Greenback Party.
Clinton,DeWitt Clinton 1812 Democratic-Republican 132,781[53] Runner-up. Also endorsed by much of the Federalist Party. A limited number of states counted the popular vote.
Levering,Joshua Levering 1896 Prohibition 131,312[31] Third-party candidate.
Madison,James Madison 1808 Democratic-Republican 124,732[54][55] Winner; a limited number of states counted the popular vote
Cobb,David Cobb 2004 Green 119,859[5] Third-party candidate.
Thomas,Norman Thomas 1940 Socialist 116,599[20] Third-party candidate.
Watson,Thomas E. Watson 1904 Populist 114,070[29] Third-party candidate.
Hagelin,John Hagelin 1996 Natural Law 113,670[9] Third-party candidate.
Adams,John Quincy Adams 1824 Democratic-Republican 113,142[51] Winner. Lost the popular vote and electoral college, but won the contingent election. Adams was the last member of the Democratic-Republican party elected president and the only member of the National Republican party elected president.[52]
Andrews, TT. Coleman Andrews 1956 States' Rights 108,956[15] Third-party candidate.
Gritz,Bo Gritz 1992 Populist 106,152[11] Third-party candidate.
Jefferson,Thomas Jefferson 1804 Democratic-Republican 104,110[56][57] Winner; a limited number of states counted the popular vote.
Watson,Claude A. Watson 1948 Prohibition 103,708[22] Third-party candidate.
Foster,William Z. Foster 1932 Communist 103,307[23] Third-party candidate.
Wirt,William Wirt 1832 Anti-Masonic 100,715[49] Third-party candidate.

List of presidential candidates by lifetime votes[edit]

The following list indicates lifetime votes received across multiple elections in which the candidate was the nominee of a political party or was otherwise on a presidential ballot. It does include write-in votes that may have been received by candidates in elections in which they were not candidates.

Candidate Party Popular vote
Donald Trump Republican 137,208,572
Barack Obama Democratic 135,414,311
Richard Nixon Republican 113,060,650
George W. Bush Republican 112,496,612
Franklin D. Roosevelt Democratic 103,500,786
Ronald Reagan Republican 98,358,702
Bill Clinton Democratic 92,311,074
George H. W. Bush Republican 87,991,147
Joe Biden Democratic 81,283,485
Jimmy Carter Democratic 76,311,996
Dwight D. Eisenhower Republican 69,654,709
Hillary Clinton Democratic 65,853,514
Mitt Romney Republican 60,933,504
John McCain Republican 59,948,323
John Kerry Democratic 59,028,444
Adlai Stevenson II Democratic 53,403,118
Al Gore Democratic 50,999,897
Thomas E. Dewey Republican 44,009,221
Lyndon B. Johnson Democratic 43,127,041
Michael Dukakis Democratic 41,809,074
Bob Dole Republican 39,197,469
Gerald Ford Republican 39,148,634
Walter Mondale Democratic 37,577,352
Herbert Hoover Republican 37,188,377
John F. Kennedy Democratic 34,220,984
Hubert Humphrey Democratic 31,271,839
George McGovern Democratic 29,173,222
Ross Perot Independent 27,829,115
Barry Goldwater Republican 27,175,754
Harry S. Truman Democratic 24,179,347
Wendell Willkie Republican 22,347,744
William Jennings Bryan Democratic 19,288,963
Alf Landon Republican 16,679,543
Warren G. Harding Republican 16,144,093
Grover Cleveland Democratic 16,002,868
Calvin Coolidge Republican 15,723,789
Woodrow Wilson Democratic 15,423,152
Al Smith Democratic 15,015,464
William McKinley Republican 14,341,002
Theodore Roosevelt Republican 11,753,278
William Howard Taft Republican 11,164,577
Benjamin Harrison Republican 10,619,741
George Wallace American Independent 9,901,118
James M. Cox Democratic 9,139,661
Charles Evans Hughes Republican 8,548,728
John W. Davis Democratic 8,386,242
Ulysses S. Grant Republican 6,611,229
Gary Johnson Libertarian 5,765,206
John B. Anderson Independent 5,719,850
Alton B. Parker Democratic 5,083,880
James G. Blaine Republican 4,856,905
Robert M. La Follette Progressive 4,831,706
Ralph Nader Green 4,772,437
James A. Garfield Republican 4,453,337
Winfield Scott Hancock Democratic 4,444,976
Samuel J. Tilden Democratic 4,288,546
Abraham Lincoln Republican 4,067,310
Rutherford B. Hayes Republican 4,034,142
Horace Greeley Liberal Republican 2,834,761
Eugene V. Debs Socialist 2,726,851
Horatio Seymour Democratic 2,708,744
Martin Van Buren Democratic 2,183,646
Jill Stein Green 1,926,853
Jo Jorgensen Libertarian 1,865,720
James Buchanan Democratic 1,835,140
Henry Clay Whig 1,831,740
William Henry Harrison Whig 1,826,399
George B. McClellan Democratic 1,812,807
Norman Thomas Socialist 1,675,458
Franklin Pierce Democratic 1,605,943
Andrew Jackson Democratic 1,496,812
Winfield Scott Whig 1,386,942
Stephen A. Douglas Northern Democratic 1,380,202
Zachary Taylor Whig 1,360,235
James B. Weaver Populist 1,349,677
John C. Frémont Republican 1,342,345
James K. Polk Democratic 1,339,570
Lewis Cass Democratic 1,223,460
Strom Thurmond Dixiecrat 1,175,930
Henry A. Wallace Progressive 1,157,328
John G. Schmitz American Independent 1,100,868
Ed Clark Libertarian 921,128
William Lemke Union 892,378
Millard Fillmore American 873,053
Harry Browne Libertarian 870,190
John C. Breckinridge Southern Democratic 848,019
Eugene McCarthy Independent 796,999
Evan McMullin Independent 732,273
John Quincy Adams National Republican 614,039
John Bell Constitutional Union 590,901
Allan L. Benson Socialist 590,524
Bob Barr Libertarian 523,715
Ron Paul Libertarian 500,380
Eugene W. Chafin Prohibition 462,243
Pat Buchanan Reform 448,895
Howie Hawkins Green 405,034
Michael Badnarik Libertarian 397,265
Howard Phillips Taxpayers 326,045
Lenora Fulani New Alliance 290,843
Andre Marrou Libertarian 290,087
John Bidwell Prohibition 270,879
Parley P. Christensen Farmer–Labor 265,398
James Madison Democratic-Republican 265,163
Silas C. Swallow Prohibition 259,102
Clinton B. Fisk Prohibition 249,819
John Hagelin Natural Law 234,509
Barry Commoner Citizens 233,052
David Bergland Libertarian 228,111
Frank Hanly Prohibition 221,302
John G. Woolley Prohibition 210,864
Darrell Castle Constitution 203,091
Chuck Baldwin Constitution 199,750
William Z. Foster Communist 190,527
Aaron S. Watkins Prohibition 188,787
Claude A. Watson Prohibition 178,466
Thomas Jefferson Democratic-Republican 176,555
Roger MacBride Libertarian 172,557
Lester Maddox American Independent 170,274
Cynthia McKinney Green 161,797
Thomas J. Anderson American 158,271
John P. Hale Free Soil 155,210
John St. John Prohibition 147,482
Alson Streeter Union Labor 146,602
Hugh Lawson White Whig 146,109
Michael Peroutka Constitution 143,630
Thomas E. Watson Populist 142,932
Vincent Hallinan Progressive 140,746
DeWitt Clinton Democratic-Republican 134,674
John M. Palmer National Democratic 134,645
Benjamin Butler Anti-Monopoly 134,294
Joshua Levering Prohibition 131,312
David Cobb Green 119,859
T. Coleman Andrews States' Rights 108,956
Bo Gritz Populist 106,152
William Wirt Anti-Masonic 100,715

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d e f 2008 official Federal Election Commission report.
  3. ^ a b c d 2012 official Federal Election Commission report.
  4. ^ a b c d e f 2016 official Federal Election Commission report.
  5. ^ a b c d e f 2004 Presidential General Election Results.
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  7. ^ a b c d e 2000 Presidential General Election Results by State.
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  9. ^ a b c d e f g 1996 Presidential General Election Results.
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  16. ^ a b Leip, David. "1960 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
  17. ^ a b c Leip, David. "1952 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
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  39. ^ a b Leip, David. "1868 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
  40. ^ a b Leip, David. "1864 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
  41. ^ a b c d Leip, David. "1860 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
  42. ^ a b c d The election of 1860 was a complex realigning election in which the breakdown of the previous two-party alignment culminated in four parties each competing for influence in different parts of the country. The result of the election, with the victory of an ardent opponent of slavery, spurred the secession of eleven states and brought about the American Civil War.
  43. ^ a b c Leip, David. "1856 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
  44. ^ a b c Leip, David. "1852 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
  45. ^ a b c Leip, David. "1848 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
  46. ^ a b Leip, David. "1844 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
  47. ^ a b Leip, David. "1840 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
  48. ^ a b c Leip, David. "1836 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
  49. ^ a b c "Presidential Election of 1832: A Resource Guide (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress)". www.loc.gov.
  50. ^ a b Leip, David. "1828 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
  51. ^ a b Leip, David. "1824 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.
  52. ^ a b No candidate won the Electoral College; the election was thrown to the Congress, which chose John Quincy Adams.
  53. ^ a b U.S. President National Vote. Our Campaigns. (February 10, 2006).
  54. ^ U.S. President National Vote. Our Campaigns. (February 10, 2006).
  55. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu. Archived from the original on May 13, 2018.
  56. ^ U.S. President National Vote. Our Campaigns. (February 10, 2006).
  57. ^ A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787-1825.