List of Uralic languages

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Uralic is a language family located in Northern Eurasia, in the countries of Finland, Estonia, Hungary (where Uralic languages are spoken by the majority of the population), in other countries Uralic languages are spoken by a minority of the population, these languages are spoken in far-northern Norway (in most of the Finnmark region and other regions of the far-north), in far-northern Sweden (in some areas of Norrland), and Russia (where Uralic languages are also spoken by a minority of its population, although there is a significant number of speakers in some Federal subjects - republics and autonomous districts or autonomous okrugs of Northern Russia, these languages are spoken in Udmurtia, Komi Republic, Mordvinia, Mari-El, Karelia, in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Taymyr Autonomous Okrug and also in the former area of Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug, now part of the Perm Krai, other areas where Uralic languages are spoken in Russia are for example the Kola Peninsula). In Latvia, in some of the far-northern coastal areas of Courland (Kurzeme) region, an extinct Uralic language was spoken - Livonian.

Uralic languages are spoken by about 25 million people. Main Uralic languages in number of speakers are Hungarian (12-13 million), Finnish (5.4 million) and Estonian (1.1 million), that are also national and official languages of sovereign states.

Geographical distribution of the Uralic languages

Hypothetical ancestors[edit]

Hypothetical relation to other language families and their proto-languages.



Geographical distribution of the Samoyedic languages


Dialects of Mansi (and Khanty).
  Northern Mansi
  Western and Southern Mansi
  Eastern Mansi
Dialects of Khanty (and Mansi):
  Obdorsk (Salekhard) dialect
  Ob dialects
  Southern (Irtysh) Khanty
  Surgut dialects
  Far Eastern (Vakh-Vasyugan) dialects

(Khanty-Mansi dialect continuum)

  • Proto-Ob-Ugric
    • Mansi (Vogul) (Maan’s’i Latyŋ) (a group of related languages, not a single language)
      • Southern Mansi (Tavdin) (all extinct)
        • Chusovaya (spoken in the western slopes of the Ural Mountains, to the east of Kama river, in the European side)
        • Tagil
        • Tura
        • Tavda
      • Core Mansi
        • Central Mansi
          • Western Mansi (all extinct)
            • Vishera (spoken in the western slopes of the Ural Mountains, to the east of Kama river, in the European side)
            • Pelym
            • North Vagilsk
            • South Vagilsk
            • Lower Lozva
            • Middle Lozva
          • Eastern Mansi (Kondin)
            • Lower Konda
            • Middle Konda
            • Upper Konda
            • Jukonda
        • Northern Mansi (base of the standard and literary Mansi language)
          • Upper Lozva
          • Sosva
          • Sygva
          • Ob
    • Khanty (Ostyak) (Hantĭ jasaŋ / Khantõ Yasõŋ/ Kantõk Yasõŋ) (a group of related languages, not a single language)
      • Western Khanty
        • Northern Khanty
          • Obdorsk/Obdorian (Salekhard Khanty)
          • Berjozov (Synja, Muzhi, Shurishkar), Kazym, Sherkal (Ob dialects)
        • Transitional Northern-Southern Khanty
          • Atlym
          • Nizyam
        • Southern Khanty (Irtysh Khanty) (all extinct)
          • Upper Demjanka
          • Lower Demjanka
          • Konda
          • Cingali
          • Krasnojarsk
      • Transitional Western-Eastern Khanty
        • Salym
      • Eastern Khanty
        • Surgut (Jugan, Malij Jugan, Pim, Likrisovskoe, Tremjugan, Tromagan)
        • Far Eastern (Vakh, Vasjugan, Verkhne-Kalimsk, Vartovskoe)


The Hungarian dialects in Hungary and other countries according to an older Hungarian distribution

Permic (Bjarmian)[edit]

Geographical distribution of Permic languages.

(Permic dialect continuum)

  • Proto-Permic
    • Udmurt (Votyak) (Udmurt kyl)
      • Southern Udmurt
      • Northern Udmurt (spoken along Cheptsa River)
      • Besermyan (spoken by the strongly Turkified Besermyans)
    • Komi (Komi kyv / Komi kɨv) (a group of related languages, not a single language)
      • Komi-Permyak (ˈPerem ˈKomi kɨv)
        • Southern
          • (/v/ type: вым /vɨm/, вӧв /vɘv/, вӧвтӧг /vɘvtɘg/, вӧвӧн /vɘvɘn/)
            • Kudymkar-Inva
            • Lower Inva
          • Southern (/l/ type: лым /lɨm/, вӧл /vɘl/, вӧлтӧг /vɘltɘg/, вӧлӧн /vɘlɘn/)
            • On
            • Nerdva
        • Northern
          • (/l/ type: лым /lɨm/ "snow", вӧл /vɘl/ "a horse", вӧлтӧг /vɘltɘg/ "without a horse", вӧлӧн /vɘlɘn/ "with a horse, on a horse")
            • Upper Lupya
            • Mysy (former rural council)
            • Kosa-Kama
            • Kochevo
            • Zyuzdino (Afanasyevo)
            • Yazva
      • Komi-Yodyak (Yodzyak, Komi-Jazva) (Komi-Yodz kyl)
      • Komi-Zyryan (Komi, Komi-Zyrian, Zyrian) (basis of the standard and literary language) (Komi kyv / Komi kɨv)
        • Prisyktyvkarsky
        • Lower Vychegdan
        • Central Vychegdan
        • Luzsko-letsky
        • Upper Sysolan
        • Upper Vychegdan
        • Pechoran
        • Izhemsky
        • Vymsky
        • Udorsky


The four main dialects of Mari.
  Hill Mari
  North-Western Mari
  Meadow Mari
  Eastern Mari

(Mari dialect continuum)

  • Proto-Mari
    • Mari (Cheremis) (Marii jõlme) (a group of related languages, not a single language)
      • Eastern-Meadow Mari
      • Transitional Meadow Mari-Hill Mari
        • Northwestern Mari (Jůtnṳ̊mäl-käsvel Mare jÿlmÿ)
          • Yaransk dialectthe largest by number of speakers and spread territory, Northwestern Mari standardized variety
            • Kiknur subdialect
            • Tuzha subdialect
            • Sanchursk subdialect
          • Tonshaevo dialect
          • Lipsha dialect
          • Sharanga dialectthe closest to Hill Mari
      • Hill Mari/Western Mari (Kyryk Mary jÿlmÿ)
        • Kozymodemyan
        • Yaran


Mordvinic languages in Mordovia
Blue: Erzya
  • Proto-Mordvinic
    • Erzya (Erzänj kelj)
      • Central group (E-I)
      • Western group (E-II)
      • Northern group (E-III)
      • Southeastern group (E-IV)
      • Far Western group (E-V)
    • Moksha (Mokšenj kälj)
      • Central group (M-I)
      • Western group (M-II)
      • South-Eastern group (M-III)


Geographical distribution of Finnic languages.
Map of Finnish dialects
North Estonian and South Estonian languages.

(Finnic dialect continuum)

  • Proto-Finnic
    • Inland Finnic
    • Coastal Finnic
      • Gulf of Finland Finnic
        • Central Finnic
          • Estonian (North Estonian) (Eesti keel)
            • Central Estonian
            • Eastern Estonian
            • Insular Estonian
            • Western Estonian (basis of Standard Estonian but not identical)
          • Northeastern coastal Estonian (?) (Kirderannikumurre)
            • Alutaguse dialect
            • Coastal
          • Votic (Vad’d’a tšeeli / Mā tšeeli / Vadyan cheeli/ Vadyaa cheli) (nearly extinct)
            • Eastern Votic (extinct)
            • Western Votic
            • Krevinian (extinct)
        • Northern Finnic
          • Finnish (Suomi / Suomen kieli) (Standard Finnish - Yleiskieli and Colloquial Finnish - Puhekieli - spoken language)
            • Western dialects
              • Southern-Western dialects (Lounaismurteet) (basis of Standard Finnish but not identical)
                • Proper Southern-Western dialects
                  • Southern dialect group (Eastern Uusimaa)
                    • Helsinki
                  • Northern dialect group
              • Southern-Western middle dialects
                • Pori region dialects
                • Ala-Satakunta dialects
                • dialects of Turku highlands
                • Somero region dialects
                • Western Uusimaa dialects
              • Tavastian dialects (Hämäläismurteet)
                • Ylä-Satakunta dialects
                • Heart Tavastian dialects
                • Southern Tavastian dialects
                • Southern-Eastern Tavastian dialects
                  • Hollola dialect group
                  • Porvoo dialect group
                  • Iitti dialect group
              • Southern Botnian (Ostrobothnian) dialects (Eteläpohjalaiset murteet)
              • Middle and Northern Botnian (Ostrobothnian) dialects (Keski- ja Pohjoispohjalaiset murteet)
                • Middle Botnian (Ostrobothnian) dialects
                • Northern Botnian (Ostrobothnian) dialects
              • Peräpohjola dialects (Peräpohjalaiset murteet) Far-Northern dialects
            • Eastern dialects
              • Savonian dialects (Savolaismurteet)
                • Northern Savonian dialects
                • Southern Savonian dialects
                • Middle dialects of Savonlinna region
                • Eastern Savonian dialects or the dialects of North Karelia
                • Kainuu dialects (Sami substrate)
                • Central Finland dialects
                • Päijänne Tavastia dialects
                • Keuruu-Evijärvi dialects
                • Savonian dialects of Värmland (Sweden) (once spoken by the Forest Finns - Metsäsuomalaiset)
              • Southern-Eastern dialects (Kaakkoismurteet) (Karelian Finnish) (Karjalaismurteet) (not confuse with Karelian, a related but different language, although there is some dialect continuum between the two)
                • Proper Southern-Eastern dialects
                • Middle dialects of Lemi region
                • Dialects of Ingria (in Russia) (dialects of Finnish or a distinct but related language)
                • Ingrian (Inkerin kieli / Inkerin Suomen kieli / Ižoran kēli)
                  • Hevaha (extinct)
                  • Lower Luga
                  • Kukkozi dialect (?) (nearly extinct)
                  • Orodezhi (Upper Luga) (extinct)
                  • Soikkola dialect
          • Karelian (Karjala / Kariela / Karjalan Kielii) (not confuse with the Karelian dialect of Finnish although there is some dialect continuum between the two)
          • Ludic (Lüüdi / Lüüdi kiel)
            • Central Ludic
            • Kuuďärv Ludic
          • Veps (Vepsän kelʹ / Vepsän keli / Vepsä / Veps kiel)
            • Northern Veps (Onega Veps)
            • Central Veps
            • Southern Veps
      • Gulf of Riga Finnic
        • Livonian (Līvõ kēļ / Raanda keel) (extinct)
          • Courland Livonian (extinct) (revival attempts)
          • Salaca Livonian (extinct)


Recent distribution of the Sami languages: 1. Southern Sami, 2. Ume Sami, 3. Pite Sami, 4. Lule Sami, 5. Northern Sami, 6. Skolt Sami, 7. Inari Sami, 8. Kildin Sami, 9. Ter Sami. Darkened area represents municipalities that recognize Sami as an official or minority language.

(Sami dialect continuum)

  • Proto-Sami
    • Eastern Sami
    • Western Sami languages
      • Northwestern
        • Northern Sami (Davvisámegiella)
          • Torne Sami
          • Finnmark Sami
          • Sea Sami
        • Northwestern proper
          • Lule Sami (Julevsámegiella)
            • Northern dialects: Sörkaitum, Sirkas and Jåkkåkaska in Sweden, Tysfjord in Norway
            • Southern dialects: Tuorpon in Sweden
            • Forest dialects: Gällivare and Serri in Sweden
          • Pite Sami (Bidumsámegiella)
            • Northern dialects: Luokta-Mávas in Sweden
            • Central dialects: Semisjaur-Njarg in Sweden
            • Southern dialects: Svaipa in Sweden
      • Southwestern
        • Ume Sami (Ubmejesámiengiälla)
          • Northwestern
          • Southeastern
        • Southern Sami (Åarjelsaemien gïele)
          • Åsele dialect (Northern dialect)
          • Jämtland dialect (Southern dialect)

Unclassified Uralic languages (all extinct)[edit]

Uralic languages whose relationship to other languages in the family is unclear

  • Merya (spoken by the Merya, may have been a western branch of the Mari or close to the Mordvinic languages, may have been a transitional language between the Volga and the Baltic Finns)
  • Meshcherian (spoken by the Meshchera, may have been related to the Mordvinic languages or to the Permic languages)
  • Murom (spoken by the Muroma, may have been a language close to the Merya and a transitional language between the Volga and the Baltic Finns)

See also[edit]


  • Abondolo, Daniel M. (editor). 1998. The Uralic Languages. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08198-X.
  • Collinder, Björn. 1955. Fenno-Ugric Vocabulary: An Etymological Dictionary of the Uralic Languages. (Collective work.) Stockholm: Almqvist & Viksell. (Second, revised edition: Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag, 1977.)
  • Collinder, Björn. 1957. Survey of the Uralic Languages. Stockholm.
  • Collinder, Björn. 1960. Comparative Grammar of the Uralic Languages. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell
  • Comrie, Bernhard. 1988. "General Features of the Uralic Languages." In The Uralic Languages, edited by Denis Sinor, pp. 451–477. Leiden: Brill.
  • Décsy, Gyula. 1990. The Uralic Protolanguage: A Comprehensive Reconstruction. Bloomington, Indiana.
  • Hajdu, Péter. 1963. Finnugor népek és nyelvek. Budapest: Gondolat kiadó.
  • Helimski, Eugene. Comparative Linguistics, Uralic Studies. Lectures and Articles. Moscow. 2000. (Russian: Хелимский Е.А. Компаративистика, уралистика. Лекции и статьи. М., 2000.)
  • Laakso, Johanna. 1992. Uralilaiset kansat ('Uralic Peoples'). Porvoo – Helsinki – Juva. ISBN 951-0-16485-2.
  • Korhonen, Mikko. 1986. Finno-Ugrian Language Studies in Finland 1828-1918. Helsinki: Societas Scientiarum Fennica. ISBN 951-653-135-0.
  • Napolskikh, Vladimir. The First Stages of Origin of People of Uralic Language Family: Material of Mythological Reconstruction. Moscow, 1991. (Russian: Напольских В. В. Древнейшие этапы происхождения народов уральской языковой семьи: данные мифологической реконструкции. М., 1991.)
  • Rédei, Károly (editor). 1986–88. Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch ('Uralic Etymological Dictionary'). Budapest.
  • Wickman, Bo (1988). "The History of Uralic Languages". In Sinor, Denis (ed.). The Uralic Languages: Description, History, and Foreign Influences. Leiden: Brill. pp. 792–818. ISBN 978-90-04-07741-6. OCLC 16580570.

External classification[edit]

  • Sauvageot, Aurélien. 1930. Recherches sur le vocabulaire des langues ouralo-altaïques ('Research on the Vocabulary of the Uralo-Altaic Languages'). Paris.

Linguistic issues[edit]

  • Künnap, A. 2000. Contact-induced Perspectives in Uralic Linguistics. LINCOM Studies in Asian Linguistics 39. München: LINCOM Europa. ISBN 3-89586-964-3.
  • Wickman, Bo. 1955. The Form of the Object in the Uralic Languages. Uppsala: Lundequistska bokhandeln.

External links[edit]