List of VLF-transmitters

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A list of VLF-transmitters and LF-transmitters, which work or worked on frequencies below 100 kHz.

List of VLF transmissions[edit]

Name / Call sign Location Frequency Coordinates Remarks
Project Sanguine 0.076 kHz
ZEVS Murmansk, Russia 0.082 kHz 68°48′48″N 33°45′06″E / 68.813321°N 33.7517427°E / 68.813321; 33.7517427, 68°42′59″N 33°42′28″E / 68.7163557°N 33.7078248°E / 68.7163557; 33.7078248
NOV Alpha Transmitter Novosibirsk Bolotnoye, Bolotninsky District, Russia 11.905 kHz 55°45′22″N 84°26′52.4″E / 55.75611°N 84.447889°E / 55.75611; 84.447889 Alpha-Navigation
KRA Alpha Transmitter Krasnodar Poltavskaya, Russia 12.649 kHz 45°24′12″N 38°09′29″E / 45.40333°N 38.15806°E / 45.40333; 38.15806 Alpha-Navigation, also RJH63
KOM Alpha Transmitter Komsomolskamur Khabarovsk, Russia 12.649 kHz 50°04′24″N 136°36′24″E / 50.07333°N 136.60667°E / 50.07333; 136.60667 Alpha-Navigation
MUR Alpha Transmitter Murmansk Revda, Russia 12.649 kHz 68°02′8″N 34°41′00″E / 68.03556°N 34.68333°E / 68.03556; 34.68333 Alpha-Navigation
ASH Alpha Transmitter Ashkabad Seyda, Turkmenistan 12.649 kHz 39°28′16″N 62°43′07″E / 39.47111°N 62.71861°E / 39.47111; 62.71861 Alpha-Navigation
Trinidad - Omega Station B Chaguaramas, Trinidad 12.0 kHz 10°41′59″N 61°38′18″W / 10.699738°N 61.638386°W / 10.699738; -61.638386 valley span antenna dismantled, station replaced by the Paynesville Liberia Station in 1976
Paynesville - Omega Station B Paynesville, Liberia 12.0 kHz 6°18′20″N 10°39′43″W / 6.305442°N 10.662068°W / 6.305442; -10.662068 1,368-foot (417 m) tower demolished in 2011
Kaneohe - Omega Station C Haiku Valley, Hawaii, USA 11.8 kHz 21°24′17″N 157°49′51″W / 21.404811°N 157.830834°W / 21.404811; -157.830834 5,000-foot (1,500 m) valley span antenna, decommissioned in 1997. Antenna dismantled, deteriorating transmitter building and Haiku Stairs remain
Bratland - Omega Station A Bratland, Norway 12.1 kHz 66°25′10″N 13°07′48″E / 66.419323°N 13.129950°E / 66.419323; 13.129950 11,500-foot (3,500 m) valley span antenna over salt water. dismantled in 2002. Building and helix house remains
LaMoure - Omega Station D LaMoure, North Dakota, USA 12.1 kHz 46°21′58″N 98°20′08″W / 46.365987°N 98.335667°W / 46.365987; -98.335667 now operated by US Navy on 25.2 kHz
Plaine Chabrier - Omega Station E Plaine Chabrier, Reunion Island 12.3 kHz 20°58′27″S 55°17′24″E / 20.974153°S 55.289973°E / -20.974153; 55.289973 1,404-foot (428 m) tower demolished in 1999
Golfo Nuevo - Omega Station F TGolfo Nuevo, Chubut, Argentina 12.9 kHz 43°03′13″S 65°11′27″W / 43.053524°S 65.190763°W / -43.053524; -65.190763 1,201-foot (366 m) tower demolished in 1998
Woodside - Omega Station G Woodside, Victoria, Australia 13.0 kHz 38°28′53″S 146°56′07″E / 38.481268°S 146.935326°E / -38.481268; 146.935326 1,417-foot (432 m) foot tower demolished in 2015
Shushi-Wan - Omega Station H Tsushima Island, Japan 12.8 kHz 34°36′53″N 129°27′14″E / 34.614763°N 129.453830°E / 34.614763; 129.453830 1,276-foot (389 m) foot tower dismantled in 1998
GBZ Criggion Criggion, Wales, UK 15.2 kHz 52°43′21″N 3°03′47″W / 52.72246°N 3.06295°W / 52.72246; -3.06295 towers and antenna demolished in 2003. Derelict transmitter building remains
Kahuku Marconi Transmitter Kahuku, Oahu, Hawaii, USA 16.1 kHz 21°42′22″N 157°58′23″W / 21.7062°N 157.9731°W / 21.7062; -157.9731 shut down in 1939, deteriorated transmitter building and support buildings remain
Monte Grande Radio Station Monte Grande, Argentina 17.330 kHz 34°45′27″S 58°30′33″W / 34.757502°S 58.509128°W / -34.757502; -58.509128
Waunfawr Marconi Transmitter Waunfawr, Wales, UK 21.2 kHz 53°07′26″N 4°11′37″W / 53.1239°N 4.1935°W / 53.1239; -4.1935 Closed in 1938, only the transmitter building remains
Table Head Marconi Transmitter Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada 37.5 kHz 46°12′40″N 59°57′09″W / 46.21118°N 59.9525°W / 46.21118; -59.9525 dismantled and moved to Marconi Towers, Nova Scotia in 1904
Marconi Towers Transmitter Marconi Towers, Nova Scotia, Canada 37.5 kHz 46°09′17″N 59°56′44″W / 46.1547273°N 59.9455246°W / 46.1547273; -59.9455246 closed and sold in 1946. Manager's house and ruins remain.
Marion Marconi Transmitter Marion. Massachusetts, USA 25.8 kHz 41°42′47″N 70°46′29″W / 41.7131401°N 70.7748406°W / 41.7131401; -70.7748406 shut down in 1957, towers demolished in 1960. Transmitter and support buildings remain
New Brunswick Marconi Transmitter New Brunswick, New Jersey. USA 21.8 kHz 40°30′55″N 74°29′20″W / 40.51529°N 74.48895°W / 40.51529; -74.48895 shut down in 1948, demolished in 1953. Only the station cottage remains
Bolinas Marconi Transmitter Bolinas, California. USA 19.2 kHz 37°54′47″N 122°43′42″W / 37.913°N 122.72825°W / 37.913; -122.72825 shut down in 1946. Transmitter building, MF and HF transmitters and one cottage remain
RCA Radio Central Rocky Point, New York, USA 18.3 kHz 40°55′26″N 72°56′08″W / 40.92379°N 72.9356°W / 40.92379; -72.9356 last VLF tower demolished in 1977
NSS Annapolis Annapolis, Maryland, USA 21.4 kHz 38°58′40″N 76°27′12″W / 38.977778°N 76.453333°W / 38.977778; -76.453333 shut down in 1996, 1,200-foot (370 m) tower demolished in 1999, three 600-foot (180 m) towers remain
Forestport Tower Forestport, New York, USA 43°26′41″N 75°05′10″W / 43.44485337°N 75.0861464°W / 43.44485337; -75.0861464 1,205-foot (367 m) tower demolished in 1998
Tuckerton Transmitter Tuckerton, New Jersey, USA 22.1 kHz 39°33′31″N 74°22′14″W / 39.558495°N 74.370570°W / 39.558495; -74.370570 shut down 1948, 820-foot (250 m) tower demolished 1955, transmitter building remains
Silver Creek Communications Annex Silver Creek, Nebraska, USA 41°20′46″N 97°43′18″W / 41.3461996°N 97.72176109°W / 41.3461996; -97.72176109 1,226-foot (374 m) tower demolished in 1995. Building remains.
Hawes Radio Relay Facility Hinkley, California, USA 34°55′03″N 117°22′37″W / 34.9174009°N 117.377046654°W / 34.9174009; -117.377046654 1,226-foot (374 m) tower and all buildings demolished in 1986
HWU Rosnay, France 15.1 kHz, 18.3 kHz, 21.75 kHz 46°42′51″N 1°14′40″E / 46.714119°N 1.244309°E / 46.714119; 1.244309
GBR Rugby, UK 15.8 kHz 52°22′02″N 1°11′19″W / 52.367290°N 1.188524°W / 52.367290; -1.188524 shut-down in 2003, demolished in 2007
JXN Gildeskål, Norway 16.4 kHz 66°58′56″N 13°52′21″E / 66.982337°N 13.872471°E / 66.982337; 13.872471 7,759-foot (2,365 m) valley-span antenna
SAQ Grimeton, Sweden 17.2 kHz 57°06′50″N 12°24′16″E / 57.113958°N 12.404425°E / 57.113958; 12.404425 Only active at special occasions (Alexanderson Day)
NAA Cutler, Maine, USA 17.8 kHz, 24.0 kHz 44°38′40″N 67°17′04″W / 44.644506°N 67.284565°W / 44.644506; -67.284565
INS Kattabomman Vijayanarayanam, India 18.2 kHz 8°23′13″N 77°45′02″E / 8.3869497°N 77.7505891°E / 8.3869497; 77.7505891
NBA Summit Naval Radio Station Summit, Canal Zone, Panama 18.6 kHz 9°04′12″N 79°38′00″W / 9.0699425°N 79.6333477°W / 9.0699425; -79.6333477 megawatt naval VLF station, demolished
GQD Anthorn, Cumbria, UK 19.6 kHz 54°54′42″N 3°16′43″W / 54.911683°N 3.278738°W / 54.911683; -3.278738 13 towers, 745-foot (227 m) tall
NWC Exmouth, Western Australia 19.8 kHz 21°48′59″S 114°09′56″E / 21.816325°S 114.16546°E / -21.816325; 114.16546
ICV Tavolara (Sardinia, Italy) 20.27 kHz, 20.76 kHz 40°55′22″N 9°43′55″E / 40.922889°N 9.732052°E / 40.922889; 9.732052 Valley-span antenna
RJH69 Vileyka, Belarus 20.5 kHz 54°27′48″N 26°46′33″E / 54.463204°N 26.775827°E / 54.463204; 26.775827 Time signal transmitter Beta
RJH77 Archangelsk, Russia 20.5 kHz 64°21′38″N 41°34′07″E / 64.360491°N 41.568489°E / 64.360491; 41.568489 Time signal transmitter Beta
RJH99 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia 20.5 kHz 56°10′19″N 43°55′54″E / 56.171945°N 43.931667°E / 56.171945; 43.931667 Time signal transmitter Beta
RJH66 Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan 20.5 kHz 43°02′22″N 73°36′45″E / 43.039444°N 73.6125°E / 43.039444; 73.6125 Time signal transmitter Beta
RAB99 Khabarovsk, Russia 20.5 kHz 48°29′08″N 134°49′24″E / 48.48555°N 134.82333°E / 48.48555; 134.82333 Time signal transmitter Beta
Martanskaya, Russia 44°46′25″N 39°32′50″E / 44.773640°N 39.547262°E / 44.773640; 39.547262
NPM Lualualei, Hawaii, USA 21.4 kHz 21°25′13″N 158°09′14″W / 21.420382°N 158.153912°W / 21.420382; -158.153912 1,503-foot (458 m) tower installed 1972
NPO Sangley Point Naval Radio Statiom Cavite, Philippines 21.5 kHz 14°29′42″N 120°54′29″E / 14.495°N 120.908°E / 14.495; 120.908 Three 600-foot (180 m) VLF towers demolished after World War II
GBZ Skelton, UK 22.1 kHz 54°43′55″N 2°53′00″W / 54.731929°N 2.883359°W / 54.731929; -2.883359
JJI Ebino, Japan 22.2 kHz 32°05′32″N 130°49′45″E / 32.092247°N 130.829095°E / 32.092247; 130.829095
JAP Yosami, Japan 34°58′17″N 137°01′01″E / 34.971474°N 137.017018°E / 34.971474; 137.017018 demolished
Malabar Radio Station Malabar, Indonesia 7°06′59″S 107°36′22″E / 7.116281°S 107.606183°E / -7.116281; 107.606183 valley span-antenna, demolished
DHO38 Rhauderfehn, Germany 23.4 kHz 53°05′14″N 7°36′31″E / 53.087341°N 7.608652°E / 53.087341; 7.608652 submarine communication
NLK Seattle, Washington (USA) 24.8 kHz 48°12′13″N 121°55′01″W / 48.203633°N 121.916828°W / 48.203633; -121.916828 valley-span antenna
NML La Moure US Navy Transmitter LaMoure, North Dakota, USA 25.2 kHz 46°21′58″N 98°20′08″W / 46.365987°N 98.335667°W / 46.365987; -98.335667 1,148-foot (350 m) tower
NPM Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, USA 26.1 kHz 21°21′00″N 157°57′50″W / 21.35°N 157.964°W / 21.35; -157.964 Three 600-foot (180 m) towers dismantled in 1936. Transmitters moved to Lualualei in 1936
Denizkoy VLF Transmitter TBB Bafa, Turkey 26.7 kHz 37°24′34″N 27°19′31″E / 37.409420°N 27.325273°E / 37.409420; 27.325273 1,247-foot (380 m) tower
NPL Chollas Heights San Diego, California, USA 30.6 kHz 32°44′26″N 117°03′51″W / 32.74063°N 117.0643°W / 32.74063; -117.0643 ceased operations in 1992, towers demolished 1995, Transmitter building remains
TFK Grindavik, Iceland 37.6 kHz 63°51′03″N 22°27′06″W / 63.850833°N 22.451667°W / 63.850833; -22.451667
Sayville Telefunken Wireless Station Sayville, New York, USA 38.4 kHz 40°44′37″N 73°06′12″W / 40.7437°N 73.1033°W / 40.7437; -73.1033 477-foot (145 m) tower demolished. massive concrete guy wire anchors remain.
JJY Mount Otakadoya, Japan 40 kHz 37°22′21″N 140°50′56″E / 37.372557°N 140.849007°E / 37.372557; 140.849007 Time signal
SRC Grimeton, Sweden 40.4 kHz 57°06′50″N 12°24′16″E / 57.113958°N 12.404425°E / 57.113958; 12.404425 Shares antenna with SAQ, used for encrypted messages to Swedish Navy
NAU Naval Communications Station Puerto Rico Aguada, Puerto Rico, USA 40.75 kHz 18°23′56″N 67°10′39″W / 18.398775°N 67.177486°W / 18.398775; -67.177486 1,205-foot (367 m) tower
NAA Arlington Arlington, Virginia, USA 50.0 kHz 38°52′04″N 77°04′45″W / 38.867820°N 77.0791°W / 38.867820; -77.0791 towers removed in 1941, NAA buildings remain
Clifden Marconi Transmitter Derrigimlagh, Clifden, Ireland 54.5 kHz 53°27′03″N 10°02′35″W / 53.4508506°N 10.0430238°W / 53.4508506; -10.0430238 demolished following an attack by Irish republican forces in July 1922. Ruins remain
WWVB Fort Collins, Colorado, USA 60 kHz 40°40′41″N 105°02′49″W / 40.678056°N 105.046944°W / 40.678056; -105.046944 Time signal
JJY Mount Hagane, Japan 60 kHz 33°27′56″N 130°10′32″E / 33.465539°N 130.175516°E / 33.465539; 130.175516 Time signal
MSF Anthorn, Cumbria, UK 60 kHz 54°55′N 3°17′W / 54.91°N 3.28°W / 54.91; -3.28 Time signal
RBU Moscow, Russia 66.666 kHz 55°43′50″N 38°09′09″E / 55.730481°N 38.152471°E / 55.730481; 38.152471 Time signal
RBU Taldom, Russia 66.666 kHz 56°44′00″N 37°39′48″E / 56.733333°N 37.663333°E / 56.733333; 37.663333 Time signal
BPC Pucheng, China 68.5 kHz 34°56′54″N 109°32′34″E / 34.948333°N 109.542778°E / 34.948333; 109.542778 Time signal
HBG Prangins, Switzerland 75 kHz 46°24′30″N 6°15′10″E / 46.408422°N 6.252680°E / 46.408422; 6.252680 Demolished 2012
Globecomm Tower Thule, Greenland 68.9 kHz 76°33′11″N 68°33′03″W / 76.553133°N 68.5507134°W / 76.553133; -68.5507134 1,241-foot (378 m) tower was the tallest structure outside the USA in 1954. Demolished in 1992
BSF Guishan, Taiwan 77.5 kHz 25°00′20″N 121°21′54″E / 25.005556°N 121.365°E / 25.005556; 121.365 Time signal
DCF77 Mainhausen, Germany 77.5 kHz 50°00′51″N 9°00′41″E / 50.014234°N 9.011487°E / 50.014234; 9.011487 most important[according to whom?] time signal in Europe
RKS Liblice 1 Liblice, Czech 50°04′20″N 14°52′51″E / 50.072249°N 14.880810°E / 50.072249; 14.880810 demolished
Podebrady, Czech 50°08′16″N 15°08′40″E / 50.137793°N 15.144331°E / 50.137793; 15.144331
Radom - Wacyn, Poland 51°24′34″N 21°07′02″E / 51.409332°N 21.117214°E / 51.409332; 21.117214
Warsaw, Poland 52°15′59″N 20°52′48″E / 52.266412°N 20.879892°E / 52.266412; 20.879892 destroyed
Goliath Kalbe, Germany 52°40′09″N 11°25′19″E / 52.669218°N 11.421890°E / 52.669218; 11.421890 removed by Russian troops, reinstalled in Russia
Nauen Transmitter Station Nauen, Germany 52°38′53″N 12°54′30″E / 52.647959°N 12.908292°E / 52.647959; 12.908292 872-foot (266 m) tower demolished and all equipment removed by Soviet Army in 1946, transmitter building remains
Eilvese Eilvese, Germany 52°32′47″N 9°24′53″E / 52.546389°N 9.414722°E / 52.546389; 9.414722 820-foot (250 m) tower demolished in 1931
Königs Wusterhausen Königs Wusterhausen, Germany 52°18′15″N 13°36′41″E / 52.304277°N 13.611326°E / 52.304277; 13.611326 demolished
Kamina Kamina, Togo 7°56′00″N 0°51′00″E / 7.933333°N 0.85°E / 7.933333; 0.85 destroyed
Herzogstand Herzogstand, Germany 47°37′44″N 11°19′20″E / 47.628889°N 11.322222°E / 47.628889; 11.322222 experimental station, valley-span antenna, demolished
Gudinge, Sweden 60°31′27″N 18°00′44″E / 60.524275°N 18.012192°E / 60.524275; 18.012192
Ruda, Sweden 57°07′13″N 16°09′11″E / 57.120331°N 16.153111°E / 57.120331; 16.153111
Tving, Sweden 56°16′30″N 15°29′16″E / 56.275050°N 15.487858°E / 56.275050; 15.487858
RNAS Rattray, Crimond, UK 57°37′03″N 1°53′15″W / 57.617467°N 1.887617°W / 57.617467; -1.887617
RNAS Inskip (HMS Nightjar), Inskip, UK 53°49′48″N 2°50′03″W / 53.830074°N 2.834262°W / 53.830074; -2.834262
FTA Saint Assise, France 48°32′42″N 2°34′35″E / 48.544910°N 2.576294°E / 48.544910; 2.576294
La Regine, France 43°23′12″N 2°05′51″E / 43.386781°N 2.097364°E / 43.386781; 2.097364
Kerlouan, France 48°38′16″N 4°21′03″W / 48.637736°N 4.350769°W / 48.637736; -4.350769
Lafayette Radio Station Marcheprime, France 44°42′31″N 0°48′49″W / 44.708611°N 0.813611°W / 44.708611; -0.813611 destroyed by retreating German troops in 1944
Basse-Lande transmitter Brains, France 47°10′15″N 1°41′42″W / 47.170749°N 1.694947°W / 47.170749; -1.694947 destroyed
Torreta de Guardamar Guardamar, Spain 38°04′19″N 0°39′53″W / 38.071871°N 0.664625°W / 38.071871; -0.664625
Dimona, Israel 30°58′33″N 35°05′55″E / 30.975696°N 35.098668°E / 30.975696; 35.098668
Kato Souli, Greece 38°08′43″N 24°01′11″E / 38.145186°N 24.019703°E / 38.145186; 24.019703
Niscemi, Italy 37°07′32″N 14°26′11″E / 37.125654°N 14.436325°E / 37.125654; 14.436325
Mokpo, South Korea 34°40′56″N 126°26′49″E / 34.682222°N 126.446944°E / 34.682222; 126.446944
Datong, China 20.6 kHz 39°56′35″N 113°14′52″E / 39.942959°N 113.247886°E / 39.942959; 113.247886