List of Vice Presidents of the United States

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The Number One Observatory Circle in Washington, D.C. is the vice president's official residence.

There have been 47 Vice Presidents of the United States since the office came into existence in 1789. Originally, the Vice President was the person who received the second most votes for President of the United States in the Electoral College. However, in the election of 1800, a tie in the electoral college between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr led to the selection of the President by the House of Representatives. To prevent such an event from happening again, the Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution, creating the current system where electors cast a separate ballot for the vice presidency.[1]

The United States Constitution assigns few powers or duties to the vice president. Former Vice President John Nance Garner described the vice presidency in 1960 as "not worth a bucket of warm piss".[2] The Vice President's primary function is to succeed to the presidency if the President dies, resigns, or is impeached and removed from office. Nine vice presidents have ascended to the presidency in this way: eight through the president's death, and one, Gerald Ford, through the president's resignation. In addition, the Vice President serves as the President of the Senate and may choose to cast a tie-breaking vote on decisions made by the Senate. Vice presidents have exercised this latter power to varying extents over the years.[1]

Prior to passage of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, a vacancy in the office of the Vice President could not be filled until the next post-election inauguration. Such vacancies were common; sixteen occurred before the 25th Amendment was ratified–as a result of seven deaths, one resignation (John C. Calhoun, who resigned to become a U.S. Senator), and eight cases in which the vice president succeeded to the presidency. This amendment allowed for a vacancy to be filled with appointment by the President and confirmation by both chambers of the U.S. Congress. Since the Amendment's passage, two vice presidents have been appointed through this process, Gerald Ford in 1973 and Nelson Rockefeller in 1974.[1] To date, 14 vice presidents subsequently became president; all but five due to the incumbent's death or resignation.

The vice presidents have hailed from 21 states. More than half of them have come from just five states, New York (11), Indiana (5), Massachusetts (4), Kentucky (3), and Texas (3). Most vice presidents have been in their 50s or 60s and had political experience prior to assuming the office.[1] The youngest person to become Vice President was John C. Breckinridge at 36 years of age, while the oldest was Alben W. Barkley at 71 years of age. Two vice presidents—George Clinton and John C. Calhoun—served under more than one president.

Vice Presidents[edit]

  Nonpartisan       Federalist       Democratic-Republican       Nullifier       Democratic       Whig       Republican

Vice President Previous service Vice-Presidency[a] Party Election President
Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792).jpg John Adams
1735–1826
(Lived: 90 years)
[3][4][5]
United States Minister
to the
Court of St. James's
1 April 21, 1789[b]

March 4, 1797
Nonpartisan 1
(1788–89)
George Washington[c]
Federalist 2
(1792)
Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg Thomas Jefferson
1743–1826
(Lived: 83 years)
[6][7][8]
1st U.S. Secretary of State 2 March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
Democratic-
Republican
3
(1796)
John Adams[d]
Vanderlyn Burr.jpg Aaron Burr
1756–1836
(Lived: 80 years)
[9]
U.S. Senator
from New York
3 March 4, 1801

March 4, 1805
Democratic-
Republican
4
(1800)
Thomas Jefferson
George Clinton by Ezra Ames.jpg George Clinton
1739–1812
(Lived: 72 years)
[10]
1st & 3rd Governor of New York 4 March 4, 1805

April 20, 1812
(Died in office)
Democratic-
Republican
5
(1804)
6
(1808)
James Madison
Office vacant April 20, 1812 – March 4, 1813[e]
Elbridge-gerry-painting.jpg Elbridge Gerry
1744–1814
(Lived: 70 years)
[11]
9th Governor of Massachusetts 5 March 4, 1813

November 23, 1814
(Died in office)
Democratic-
Republican
7
(1812)
Office vacant November 23, 1814 – March 4, 1817[e]
Daniel D Tompins by John Wesley Jarvis.jpg Daniel D. Tompkins
1774–1825
(Lived: 50 years)
[12]
6th Governor of New York 6 March 4, 1817

November 23, 1825
Democratic-
Republican
8
(1816)
James Monroe
9
(1820)
George Peter Alexander Healy - John C. Calhoun - Google Art Project.jpg John C. Calhoun
1782–1850
(Lived: 68 years)
[13]
10th U.S. Secretary of War 7 March 4, 1825

December 28, 1832
(Resigned from office)
Democratic-
Republican
10
(1824)
John Quincy Adams
Nullifier[f]
Democratic
11
(1828)
Andrew Jackson[g]
Office vacant December 28, 1832 – March 4, 1833[e]
Francis Alexander - Martin Van Buren - Google Art Project.jpg Martin Van Buren
1782–1862
(Lived: 79 years)
[14][15][16]
United States Minister
to the
Court of St. James's
8 March 4, 1833

March 4, 1837
Democratic 12
(1832)
RichardMentorJohnson.jpg Richard Mentor Johnson
1780–1850
(Lived: 70 years)
[17]
U.S. Representative
for Kentucky's 13th District
9 March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
Democratic 13
(1836)
Martin Van Buren
Johntyler.jpg John Tyler
1790–1862
(Lived: 71 years)
[18][19][20]
U.S. Senator
from Virginia
10 March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
(Succeeded to presidency)
Whig[h] 14
(1840)
William Henry Harrison
(Died in office)
Office vacant April 4, 1841 – March 4, 1845[e] John Tyler
George Mifflin Dallas 1848 crop.png George M. Dallas
1792–1864
(Lived: 72 years)
[21]
U.S. Senator
from Pennsylvania
11 March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
Democratic 15
(1844)
James K. Polk
Millard Fillmore -13th president of the United States.jpg Millard Fillmore
1800–1874
(Lived: 74 years)
[22][23][24]
14th New York State Comptroller 12 March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
(Succeeded to presidency)
Whig 16
(1848)
Zachary Taylor
(Died in office)
Office vacant July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853[e] Millard Fillmore
William R. D. King Vice President.jpg William R. King
1786–1853
(Lived: 67 years)
[25]
U.S. Senator
from Alabama
and President pro tempore of the Senate
13 March 4, 1853[i]

April 18, 1853
(Died in office)
Democratic 17
(1852)
Franklin Pierce
Office vacant April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857[e]
John C Breckinridge-04775-restored.jpg John C. Breckinridge
1821–1875
(Lived: 54 years)
[26]
U.S. Representative
for Kentucky's 8th District
14 March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
Democratic 18
(1856)
James Buchanan
Hannibal Hamlin, photo portrait seated, c1860-65-retouched-crop.jpg Hannibal Hamlin
1809–1891
(Lived: 81 years)
[27]
26th Governor of Maine 15 March 4, 1861

March 4, 1865
Republican 19
(1860)
Abraham Lincoln[j]
(Died in office)
President Andrew Johnson.jpg Andrew Johnson
1808–1875
(Lived: 66 years)
[28][29][30]
U.S. Senator
from Tennessee
16 March 4, 1865

April 15, 1865
(Succeeded to presidency)
Democratic
National Union[k]
20
(1864)
Office vacant April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869[e] Andrew Johnson
Schuyler Colfax portrait.jpg Schuyler Colfax
1823–1885
(Lived: 61 years)
[31]
U.S. Representative
for Indiana's 9th District
and Speaker of the House
17 March 4, 1869

March 4, 1873
Republican 21
(1868)
Ulysses S. Grant
Henry Wilson, US Vice President, photo portrait seated.jpg Henry Wilson
1812–1875
(Lived: 63 years)
[32]
U.S. Senator
from Massachusetts
18 March 4, 1873

November 22, 1875
(Died in office)
Republican 22
(1872)
Office vacant November 22, 1875 – March 4, 1877[e]
VicePresident-WmAlWheeler.jpg William A. Wheeler
1819–1887
(Lived: 67 years)
[33]
U.S. Representative
for New York's 19th District
19 March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
Republican 23
(1876)
Rutherford B. Hayes
Chester Alan Arthur.jpg Chester A. Arthur
1829–1886
(Lived: 57 years)
[34][35][36]
21st Collector of the Port of New York 20 March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
(Succeeded to presidency)
Republican 24
(1880)
James A. Garfield
(Died in office)
Office vacant September 19, 1881 – March 4, 1885[e] Chester A. Arthur
Thomas Andrews Hendricks.jpg Thomas A. Hendricks
1819–1885
(Lived: 66 years)
[37]
16th Governor of Indiana 21 March 4, 1885

November 25, 1885
(Died in office)
Democratic 25
(1884)
Grover Cleveland
Office vacant November 25, 1885 – March 4, 1889[e]
Levi Morton - Brady-Handy portrait - tight 3x4 crop.jpg Levi P. Morton
1824–1920
(Lived: 96 years)
[38]
U.S. Minister to France 22 March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
Republican 26
(1888)
Benjamin Harrison
Adlai Ewing Stevenson I head-on-shoulders.jpg Adlai Stevenson
1835–1914
(Lived: 78 years)
[39]
U.S. Representative
for Illinois' 13th District
23 March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Democratic 27
(1892)
Grover Cleveland
GHobart.jpg Garret Hobart
1844–1899
(Lived: 55 years)
[40]
New Jersey State Senator
and President of the Senate
24 March 4, 1897

November 21, 1899
(Died in office)
Republican 28
(1896)
William McKinley
(Died in office)
Office vacant November 21, 1899 – March 4, 1901[e]
Theodore Roosevelt circa 1902.jpg Theodore Roosevelt
1858–1919
(Lived: 60 years)
[41][42][43]
33rd Governor of New York 25 March 4, 1901

September 14, 1901
(Succeeded to presidency)
Republican 29
(1900)
Office vacant September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1905[e] Theodore Roosevelt
CharlesWFairbanks.jpg Charles W. Fairbanks
1852–1918
(Lived: 66 years)
[44]
U.S. Senator
from Indiana
26 March 4, 1905

March 4, 1909
Republican 30
(1904)
James Sherman, Bain bw photo portrait facing left.jpg James S. Sherman
1855–1912
(Lived: 57 years)
[45]
U.S. Representative
for New York's 27th District
27 March 4, 1909

October 30, 1912
(Died in office)
Republican 31
(1908)
William Howard Taft
Office vacant October 30, 1912 – March 4, 1913[e]
Thomas Riley Marshall headshot.jpg Thomas R. Marshall
1854–1925
(Lived: 71 years)
[46]
27th Governors of Indiana 28 March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Democratic 32
(1912)
Woodrow Wilson
33
(1916)
Calvin Coolidge, bw head and shoulders photo portrait seated, 1919.jpg Calvin Coolidge
1872–1933
(Lived: 60 years)
[47][48][49]
48th Governor of Massachusetts 29 March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
(Succeeded to presidency)
Republican 34
(1820)
Warren G. Harding
(Died in office)
Office vacant August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1925[e] Calvin Coolidge
Chas G Dawes-H&E.jpg Charles G. Dawes
1865–1951
(Lived: 85 years)
[50]
1st Director of the
U.S. Bureau of the Budget
30 March 4, 1925

March 4, 1929
Republican 35
(1924)
Charles Curtis-portrait.jpg Charles Curtis
1860–1936
(Lived: 76 years)
[51]
U.S. Senator
from Kansas
and Senate Majority Leader
31 March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
Republican 36
(1928)
Herbert Hoover
JohnNanceGarner.png John Nance Garner
1868–1967
(Lived: 98 years)
[52]
U.S. Representative
for Texas's 15th District
and Speaker of the House
32 March 4, 1933

January 20, 1941[l]
Democratic 37
(1932)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(Died in office)
38
(1936)
Henry-A.-Wallace-Townsend.jpeg Henry A. Wallace
1888–1965
(Lived: 77 years)
[53]
11th U.S. Secretary of Agriculture 33 January 20, 1941

January 20, 1945
Democratic 39
(1940)
Harry S. Truman.jpg Harry S. Truman
1884–1972
(Lived: 88 years)
[54][55][56]
U.S. Senator
from Missouri
34 January 20, 1945

April 12, 1945
(Succeeded to presidency)
Democratic 40
(1944)
Office vacant April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1949[e] Harry S. Truman
Alben Barkley.jpg Alben W. Barkley
1877–1956
(Lived: 78 years)
[57]
U.S. Senator
from Kentucky
35 January 20, 1949

January 20,1953
Democratic 41
(1948)
Richard Nixon official portrait as Vice President.tiff Richard Nixon
1913–1994
(Lived: 81 years)
[58][59][60]
U.S. Senator
from California
36 January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
Republican 42
(1952)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
43
(1956)
LBJBioguide.jpg Lyndon B. Johnson
1908–1973
(Lived: 64 years)
[61][62]
U.S. Senator
from Texas
and Senate Majority Leader
37 January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
(Succeeded to presidency)
Democratic 44
(1960)
John F. Kennedy
(Died in office)
Office vacant November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1965[e] Lyndon B. Johnson
38 H Humphrey 3x4.jpg Hubert Humphrey
1911–1978
(Lived: 66 years)
[63]
U.S. Senator
from Minnesota
and Senate Majority Whip
38 January 20, 1965

January 20, 1969
Democratic 45
(1964)
Spiro Agnew.jpg Spiro Agnew
1918–1996
(Lived: 77 years)
[64]
55th Governor of Maryland 39 January 20, 1969

October 10, 1973
(Resigned from office)
Republican 46
(1968)
Richard Nixon
(Resigned from office)
47
(1972)
Office vacant October 10 – December 6, 1973[m]
Gerald Ford.jpg Gerald Ford
1913–2006
(Lived: 93 years)
[65][66][67]
U.S. Representative
for Michigan's 5th District
and House Minority Leader
40 December 6, 1973

August 9, 1974
(Succeeded to presidency)
Republican
Office vacant August 9 – December 19, 1974[m] Gerald Ford
Nelson Rockefeller.jpg Nelson Rockefeller
1908–1979
(Lived: 70 years)
[68]
49th Governor of New York 41 December 19, 1974

January 20, 1977
Republican
U.S Vice-President Walter Mondale.jpg Walter Mondale
Born 1928
(88 years old)
[69]
U.S. Senator
from Minnesota
42 January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
Democratic 48
(1976)
Jimmy Carter
George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, official portrait.jpg George H. W. Bush
Born 1924
(92 years old)
[70][71][72]
11th Director of Central Intelligence 43 January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989[n]
Republican 49
(1980)
Ronald Reagan
50
(1984)
Dan Quayle, official DoD photo.JPEG Dan Quayle
Born 1947
(69 years old)
[73]
U.S. Senator
from Indiana
44 January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
Republican 51
(1988)
George H. W. Bush
Al Gore, Vice President of the United States, official portrait 1994.jpg Al Gore
Born 1948
(68 years old)
[74]
U.S. Senator
from Tennessee
45 January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Democratic 52
(1992)
Bill Clinton
53
(1996)
46 Dick Cheney 3x4.jpg Dick Cheney
Born 1941
(75 years old)
[75]
17th U.S. Secretary of Defense 46 January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009[n]
Republican 54
(2000)
George W. Bush
55
(2004)
Official portrait of Vice President Joe Biden.jpg Joe Biden
Born 1942
(73 years old)
[76]
U.S. Senator
from Delaware
47 January 20, 2009

Incumbent
Democratic 56
(2008)
Barack Obama
57
(2012)

Living former vice presidents[edit]

Presently, there are five living former vice presidents. The most recent death of a former vice president was that of Gerald Ford (served 1973–74) on December 26, 2006, aged 93 years, 165 days. The most recently serving vice president to die was Nelson Rockefeller (served 1974–77) on January 26, 1979, aged 70 years, 202 days. Walter Mondale, currently the second oldest living vice president, has the distinction of having the longest post vice presidency in U.S. history, 35 years, 252 days.

Living as of September 2016
Vice President Vice-Presidency[a] Date of birth
Walter Mondale 42 1977–1981 (1928-01-05) January 5, 1928 (age 88)
George H. W. Bush 43 1981–1989 (1924-06-12) June 12, 1924 (age 92)
Dan Quayle 44 1989–1993 (1947-02-04) February 4, 1947 (age 69)
Al Gore 45 1993–2001 (1948-03-31) March 31, 1948 (age 68)
Dick Cheney 46 2001–2009 (1941-01-30) January 30, 1941 (age 75)

Subsequent public service[edit]

Twenty–five vice presidents held other high U.S. state or federal government positions after leaving the vice presidency. Fourteen went on to become President of the United States (9 of them following their predecessor's death or resignation), and 4 served in the United States Senate. Several served as U.S. Cabinet members, ambassadors of the United States abroad, or in U.S. state government.

Vice President Vice-Presidency[a] Subsequent service
John Adams 1789–1797 2nd President of the United States (1797–1801)
Thomas Jefferson 1797–1801 3rd President of the United States (1801–1809)
John C. Calhoun 1825–1832 U.S. Senator from South Carolina (1832–1843 and 1845–1850); 16th U.S. Secretary of State (1844–1845)
Martin Van Buren 1833–1837 8th President of the United States (1837–1841)
Richard M. Johnson 1837–1841 Kentucky House of Representatives (1841–1843 and 1850)
John Tyler 1841 10th President of the United States (1841–1845)
George M. Dallas 1845–1849 United States Minister to the Court of St. James's (1856–1861)
Millard Fillmore 1849–1850 12th President of the United States (1850–1853)
John C. Breckinridge 1857–1861 U.S. Senator from Kentucky (1861)
Hannibal Hamlin 1861–1865 U.S. Senator from Maine (1869–1881); U.S. Minister to Spain (1881–1882)
Andrew Johnson 1865 17th President of the United States (1865–1869); U.S. Senator from Tennessee (1875)
Chester A. Arthur 1881 21st President of the United States (1881–1885)
Levi P. Morton 1889–1893 31st Governor of New York (1895–1896)
Theodore Roosevelt 1901 26th President of the United States (1901–1909)
Calvin Coolidge 1921–1923 30th President of the United States (1923–1929)
Charles G. Dawes 1925–1929 United States Minister to the Court of St. James's (1929–1931)
Henry A. Wallace 1940–1945 10th U.S. Secretary of Commerce (1945–1946)
Harry S. Truman 1945 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953)
Alben W. Barkley 1949–1953 U.S. Senator from Kentucky (1955–1956)
Richard Nixon 1953–1961 37th President of the United States (1969–1974)
Lyndon B. Johnson 1961–1963 36th President of the United States (1963–1969)
Hubert H. Humphrey 1965–1969 U.S. Senator from Minnesota (1971–1978)
Gerald Ford 1973–1974 38th President of the United States (1974–1977)
Walter F. Mondale 1977–1981 U.S. Ambassador to Japan (1993–1996)
George H. W. Bush 1981–1989 41st President of the United States (1989–1993)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c A vice–presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. For example, John Adams served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first vice president (not the first and second). Likewise, George Clinton is counted as the fourth and John Calhoun as the seventh, even though each one's consecutive terms in office were served under more than one president. Following the resignation of 39th vice president Spiro Agnew, Gerald Ford became the 40th vice president even though he was chosen to serve out the remainder of Agnew's second term. Then, when Ford succeeded to the presidency later in that same term, Nelson Rockefeller became the 41st vice president and served out the remainder of the term.
  2. ^ Due to logistical delays, John Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations of the new government under the Constitution. As a result, his first term was only 1,413 days long, and was the shortest term for a U.S. vice president who neither died in office nor resigned.
  3. ^ George Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, he was, and remains, the only U.S. president never to be affiliated with a political party.
  4. ^ The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and resulted in a situation where the persons elected president and vice president belonged to opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, February 10, 1967, an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could not be filled.
  6. ^ John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the political coalition emerging around Jackson.
  7. ^ Andrew Jackson's supporters from the former Democratic-Republican Party, which had largely collapsed by the mid-1820s, began calling themselves democrats during his first term in office, thus marking the evolution of Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party into the modern Democratic Party.
  8. ^ John Tyler, a former Democrat, ran for vice president on the Whig Party ticket with Harrison in 1840. Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841.
  9. ^ Ill with tuberculosis, William King traveled to Cuba after the 1852 election in an effort to regain his health, and was not able to be in Washington to take his oath of office on March 4, 1853. By a Special Act of Congress, he was allowed to take the oath outside the United States, and was sworn in on March 24, 1853 near Matanzas, Cuba. He is the only vice president to be sworn in in a foreign country.
  10. ^ When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.
  11. ^ Democrat Andrew Johnson ran for Vice President on the National Union Party ticket with Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1864. Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.
  12. ^ The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified on January 23, 1933, moved Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20, beginning in 1937. As a result, John Nance Garner's first term in office was 1 month and 12 days shorter than a normal term.
  13. ^ a b The Twenty-fifth Amendment established a process whereby an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency is filled by presidential appointment.
  14. ^ a b The Twenty-fifth Amendment established a procedure whereby a Vice President may, if the president is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the office, temporarily assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. George H. W. Bush did so once, on July 13, 1985. Dick Cheney did so twice, on June 29, 2002, and on July 21, 2007.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Vice President of the United States (President of the Senate)". United States Senate. Retrieved June 10, 2009. 
  2. ^ Blumenthal, Sidney (June 28, 2007). "The imperial vice presidency". Salon.com. Retrieved September 22, 2007. 
  3. ^ "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  4. ^ "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  5. ^ "Life Portrait of John Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  6. ^ "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  7. ^ "Thomas Jefferson – Democratic-Republican Party – 3rd President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Life Portrait of Thomas Jefferson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  9. ^ "Aaron Burr (1801-1805) - Vice President". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  10. ^ "George Clinton (1805-1809) - Vice President". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  11. ^ "Elbridge Gerry (1813-1814) - Vice President". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  12. ^ "Daniel D. Tompkins (1817-1825) - Vice President". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  13. ^ "John C. Calhoun (1825-1829) - Vice President". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  14. ^ "Biography of Martin Van Buren". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  15. ^ "Martin Van Buren – Democratic-Republican, Democratic, and Free Soil Party – 8th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  16. ^ "Life Portrait of Martin Van Buren". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  17. ^ "Richard M. Johnson (1837–1841) - Vice President". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  18. ^ "Biography of John Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  19. ^ "John Tyler – No Party – 10th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  20. ^ "Life Portrait of John Tyler". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  21. ^ "George M. Dallas (1845–1849) - Vice President". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  22. ^ "Biography of Millard Fillmore". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Millard Filmore – WHIG Party – 13th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  24. ^ "Life Portrait of Millard Fillmore". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  25. ^ "William R. D. King (1853) - Vice President". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  26. ^ "John C. Breckinridge (1857–1861) - Vice President". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  27. ^ "Hannibal Hamlin (1861–1865) - Vice President". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  28. ^ "Biography of Andrew Johnson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Andrew Johnson – National Union Party – 17th President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Life Portrait of Andrew Johnson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
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