List of Vice Presidents of the United States

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There have been 47 Vice Presidents of the United States since the office came into existence in 1789. Originally, the Vice President was the person who received the second most votes for President of the United States in the Electoral College. However, in the election of 1800, a tie in the electoral college between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr led to the selection of the President by the House of Representatives. To prevent such an event from happening again, the Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution, creating the current system where electors cast a separate ballot for the vice presidency.[1]

The United States Constitution assigns few powers or duties to the vice president. Former Vice President John Nance Garner described the vice presidency in 1960 as "not worth a bucket of warm piss".[2] The Vice President's primary function is to succeed to the presidency if the President dies, resigns, or is impeached and removed from office. Nine vice presidents have ascended to the presidency in this way: eight through the president's death, and one, Gerald Ford, through the president's resignation. In addition, the Vice President serves as the President of the Senate and may choose to cast a tie-breaking vote on decisions made by the Senate. Vice presidents have exercised this latter power to varying extents over the years.[1]

Prior to passage of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, a vacancy in the office of the Vice President could not be filled until the next post-election inauguration. Such vacancies were common; sixteen occurred before the 25th Amendment was ratified–as a result of seven deaths, one resignation (John C. Calhoun, who resigned to become a U.S. Senator), and eight cases in which the vice president succeeded to the presidency. This amendment allowed for a vacancy to be filled with appointment by the President and confirmation by both chambers of the U.S. Congress. Since the Amendment's passage, two vice presidents have been appointed through this process, Gerald Ford in 1973 and Nelson Rockefeller in 1974.[1] To date, 14 vice presidents subsequently became president; all but five due to the incumbent's death or resignation.

The Twenty-fifth Amendment also established a procedure whereby a Vice President may, if the president is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the office, temporarily assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. George H. W. Bush did so once, on July 13, 1985. Dick Cheney did so twice, on June 29, 2002, and on July 21, 2007.

Vice presidents have hailed from 21 states. More than half of them have come from just five states, New York (11), Indiana (5), Massachusetts (4), Kentucky (3), and Texas (3). Most vice presidents have been in their 50s or 60s and had political experience prior to assuming the office.[1] The youngest person to become Vice President was John C. Breckinridge at 36 years of age, while the oldest was Alben W. Barkley at 71 years of age. Two vice presidents—George Clinton and John C. Calhoun—served under more than one president.

List of vice presidents[edit]

  Pro-Administration       Federalist       Democratic-Republican
  Nullifier       Democratic       Whig       Republican       National Union

Vice Presidents[a] Previous service Party Election President
1 April 21, 1789[b]

March 4, 1797
Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792).jpg John Adams
1735–1826
(Lived: 90 years)
[3][4][5]
United States Minister
to the
Court of St. James's

(1785-1788)
Pro–
Admin.
[c]
1
(1788–89)
George Washington[d]
Federalist 2
(1792)
2 March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg Thomas Jefferson
1743–1826
(Lived: 83 years)
[6][7][8]
1st U.S. Secretary of State
(1790-1793)
Democratic-
Republican
3
(1796)
John Adams[e]
3 March 4, 1801

March 4, 1805
Vanderlyn Burr.jpg Aaron Burr
1756–1836
(Lived: 80 years)
[9]
Member of the New York State Assembly
(1784–1785, 1798–1799)
Democratic-
Republican
4
(1800)
Thomas Jefferson
4 March 4, 1805

April 20, 1812
(Died in office)
George Clinton by Ezra Ames.jpg George Clinton
1739–1812
(Lived: 72 years)
[10]
1st Governor of New York
(1777-1795, 1801-1804)
Democratic-
Republican
5
(1804)
6
(1808)
James Madison
Office vacant April 20, 1812 – March 4, 1813[f]
5 March 4, 1813

November 23, 1814
(Died in office)
Elbridge-gerry-painting.jpg Elbridge Gerry
1744–1814
(Lived: 70 years)
[11]
9th Governor of Massachusetts
(1810-1812)
Democratic-
Republican
7
(1812)
Office vacant November 23, 1814 – March 4, 1817[f]
6 March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
Daniel D Tompins by John Wesley Jarvis.jpg Daniel D. Tompkins
1774–1825
(Lived: 50 years)
[12]
6th Governor of New York
(1807-1817)
Democratic-
Republican
8
(1816)
James Monroe
9
(1820)
7 March 4, 1825

December 28, 1832
(Resigned from office)
George Peter Alexander Healy - John C. Calhoun - Google Art Project.jpg John C. Calhoun
1782–1850
(Lived: 68 years)
[13]
10th U.S. Secretary of War
(1817-1825)
Democratic-
Republican
10
(1824)
John Quincy Adams
Nullifier[g]
Democratic
11
(1828)
Andrew Jackson[h]
Office vacant December 28, 1832 – March 4, 1833[f]
8 March 4, 1833

March 4, 1837
Francis Alexander - Martin Van Buren - Google Art Project.jpg Martin Van Buren
1782–1862
(Lived: 79 years)
[14][15][16]
United States Minister
to the
Court of St. James's

(1831-1832)
Democratic 12
(1832)
9 March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
RichardMentorJohnson.jpg Richard Mentor Johnson
1780–1850
(Lived: 70 years)
[17]
U.S. Representative
for Kentucky's 13th District
(1833-1837)
Democratic 13
(1836)
Martin Van Buren
10 March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
(Succeeded to presidency)
Johntyler.jpg John Tyler
1790–1862
(Lived: 71 years)
[18][19][20]
U.S. Senator
from Virginia
(1827-1836)
Whig[i] 14
(1840)
William Henry Harrison
(Died in office)
Office vacant April 4, 1841 – March 4, 1845[f] John Tyler
11 March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
George Mifflin Dallas 1848 crop.png George M. Dallas
1792–1864
(Lived: 72 years)
[21]
United States Minister to Russia
(1837-1839)
Democratic 15
(1844)
James K. Polk
12 March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
(Succeeded to presidency)
Millard Fillmore -13th president of the United States.jpg Millard Fillmore
1800–1874
(Lived: 74 years)
[22][23][24]
14th New York State Comptroller
(1848-1849)
Whig 16
(1848)
Zachary Taylor
(Died in office)
Office vacant July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853[f] Millard Fillmore
13 March 4, 1853[j]

April 18, 1853
(Died in office)
William R. D. King Vice President.jpg William R. King
1786–1853
(Lived: 67 years)
[25]
U.S. Senator
from Alabama
(1819-1844 & 1848-1852)
President pro tempore
(1850-1852)
Democratic 17
(1852)
Franklin Pierce
Office vacant April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857[f]
14 March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
John C Breckinridge-04775-restored.jpg John C. Breckinridge
1821–1875
(Lived: 54 years)
[26]
U.S. Representative
for Kentucky's 8th District
(1851-1855)
Democratic 18
(1856)
James Buchanan
15 March 4, 1861

March 4, 1865
Hannibal Hamlin, photo portrait seated, c1860-65-retouched-crop.jpg Hannibal Hamlin
1809–1891
(Lived: 81 years)
[27]
U.S. Senator
from Maine
(1848-1857, 1857-1861)
Republican 19
(1860)
Abraham Lincoln[k]
(Died in office)
16 March 4, 1865

April 15, 1865
(Succeeded to presidency)
President Andrew Johnson.jpg Andrew Johnson
1808–1875
(Lived: 66 years)
[28][29][30]
15th Governor of Tennessee
(1853-1857,1862-1865)
National Union
Democratic[l]
20
(1864)
Office vacant April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869[f] Andrew Johnson
17 March 4, 1869

March 4, 1873
Schuyler Colfax portrait.jpg Schuyler Colfax
1823–1885
(Lived: 61 years)
[31]
U.S. Representative
for Indiana's 9th District
(1855-1869)
Speaker of the House
(1863-1869)
Republican 21
(1868)
Ulysses S. Grant
18 March 4, 1873

November 22, 1875
(Died in office)
Henry Wilson, US Vice President, photo portrait seated.jpg Henry Wilson
1812–1875
(Lived: 63 years)
[32]
U.S. Senator
from Massachusetts
(1855-1873)
Republican 22
(1872)
Office vacant November 22, 1875 – March 4, 1877[f]
19 March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
VicePresident-WmAlWheeler.jpg William A. Wheeler
1819–1887
(Lived: 67 years)
[33]
U.S. Representative
for New York's 19th District
(1875-1877)
Republican 23
(1876)
Rutherford B. Hayes
20 March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
(Succeeded to presidency)
Chester Alan Arthur.jpg Chester A. Arthur
1829–1886
(Lived: 57 years)
[34][35][36]
21st Collector of the Port of New York
(1871-1878)
Republican 24
(1880)
James A. Garfield
(Died in office)
Office vacant September 19, 1881 – March 4, 1885[f] Chester A. Arthur
21 March 4, 1885

November 25, 1885
(Died in office)
Thomas Andrews Hendricks.jpg Thomas A. Hendricks
1819–1885
(Lived: 66 years)
[37]
16th Governor of Indiana
(1873-1877)
Democratic 25
(1884)
Grover Cleveland
Office vacant November 25, 1885 – March 4, 1889[f]
22 March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
Levi Morton - Brady-Handy portrait - tight 3x4 crop.jpg Levi P. Morton
1824–1920
(Lived: 96 years)
[38]
U.S. Minister to France
(1881-1885)
Republican 26
(1888)
Benjamin Harrison
23 March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Adlai Ewing Stevenson I head-on-shoulders.jpg Adlai Stevenson
1835–1914
(Lived: 78 years)
[39]
U.S. Representative
for Illinois' 13th District
(1875-1877, 1879-1881)
Democratic 27
(1892)
Grover Cleveland
24 March 4, 1897

November 21, 1899
(Died in office)
GHobart.jpg Garret Hobart
1844–1899
(Lived: 55 years)
[40]
New Jersey State Senator
(1877-1882)
President of the Senate
(1881-1882)
Republican 28
(1896)
William McKinley
(Died in office)
Office vacant November 21, 1899 – March 4, 1901[f]
25 March 4, 1901

September 14, 1901
(Succeeded to presidency)
Theodore Roosevelt circa 1902.jpg Theodore Roosevelt
1858–1919
(Lived: 60 years)
[41][42][43]
33rd Governor of New York
(1899-1900)
Republican 29
(1900)
Office vacant September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1905[f] Theodore Roosevelt
26 March 4, 1905

March 4, 1909
CharlesWFairbanks.jpg Charles W. Fairbanks
1852–1918
(Lived: 66 years)
[44]
U.S. Senator
from Indiana
(1897-1905)
Republican 30
(1904)
27 March 4, 1909

October 30, 1912
(Died in office)
James Sherman, Bain bw photo portrait facing left.jpg James S. Sherman
1855–1912
(Lived: 57 years)
[45]
U.S. Representative
for New York's 27th District
(1903-1909)
Republican 31
(1908)
William Howard Taft
Office vacant October 30, 1912 – March 4, 1913[f]
28 March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Thomas Riley Marshall headshot.jpg Thomas R. Marshall
1854–1925
(Lived: 71 years)
[46]
27th Governor of Indiana
(1909-1913)
Democratic 32
(1912)
Woodrow Wilson
33
(1916)
29 March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
(Succeeded to presidency)
Calvin Coolidge, bw head and shoulders photo portrait seated, 1919.jpg Calvin Coolidge
1872–1933
(Lived: 60 years)
[47][48][49]
48th Governor of Massachusetts
(1919-1921)
Republican 34
(1920)
Warren G. Harding
(Died in office)
Office vacant August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1925[f] Calvin Coolidge
30 March 4, 1925

March 4, 1929
Chas G Dawes-H&E.jpg Charles G. Dawes
1865–1951
(Lived: 85 years)
[50]
1st Director of the
U.S. Bureau of the Budget
(1921-1922)
Republican 35
(1924)
31 March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
Charles Curtis-portrait.jpg Charles Curtis
1860–1936
(Lived: 76 years)
[51]
U.S. Senator
from Kansas
(1907-1913, 1915-1929)
President pro tempore
(1911)
Senate Majority Leader
(1925-1929)
Republican 36
(1928)
Herbert Hoover
32 March 4, 1933

January 20, 1941[m]
JohnNanceGarner.png John Nance Garner
1868–1967
(Lived: 98 years)
[52]
U.S. Representative
for Texas's 15th District
(1903-1933)
House Minority Leader
(1929-1931)
Speaker of the House
(1931-1933)
Democratic 37
(1932)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(Died in office)
38
(1936)
33 January 20, 1941

January 20, 1945
Henry-A.-Wallace-Townsend.jpeg Henry A. Wallace
1888–1965
(Lived: 77 years)
[53]
11th U.S. Secretary of Agriculture
(1933-1940)
Democratic 39
(1940)
34 January 20, 1945

April 12, 1945
(Succeeded to presidency)
Harry S. Truman.jpg Harry S. Truman
1884–1972
(Lived: 88 years)
[54][55][56]
U.S. Senator
from Missouri
(1935-1945)
Democratic 40
(1944)
Office vacant April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1949[f] Harry S. Truman
35 January 20, 1949

January 20, 1953
Alben Barkley.jpg Alben W. Barkley
1877–1956
(Lived: 78 years)
[57]
U.S. Senator
from Kentucky
(1927-1949)
Democratic 41
(1948)
36 January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
Richard Nixon official portrait as Vice President.tiff Richard Nixon
1913–1994
(Lived: 81 years)
[58][59][60]
U.S. Senator
from California
(1950-1953)
Republican 42
(1952)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
43
(1956)
37 January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
(Succeeded to presidency)
LBJBioguide.jpg Lyndon B. Johnson
1908–1973
(Lived: 64 years)
[61][62]
U.S. Senator
from Texas
(1949-1961)
Senate Majority Leader
(1955-1961)
Democratic 44
(1960)
John F. Kennedy
(Died in office)
Office vacant November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1965[f] Lyndon B. Johnson
38 January 20, 1965

January 20, 1969
38 H Humphrey 3x4.jpg Hubert Humphrey
1911–1978
(Lived: 66 years)
[63]
U.S. Senator
from Minnesota
(1949-1964)
Democratic 45
(1964)
39 January 20, 1969

October 10, 1973
(Resigned from office)
Spiro Agnew.jpg Spiro Agnew
1918–1996
(Lived: 77 years)
[64]
55th Governor of Maryland
(1967-1969)
Republican 46
(1968)
Richard Nixon
(Resigned from office)
47
(1972)
Office vacant October 10 – December 6, 1973[n]
40 December 6, 1973

August 9, 1974
(Succeeded to presidency)
Gerald Ford.jpg Gerald Ford
1913–2006
(Lived: 93 years)
[65][66][67]
U.S. Representative
for Michigan's 5th District
(1949-1973)
House Minority Leader
(1965-1973)
Republican
Office vacant August 9 – December 19, 1974[n] Gerald Ford
41 December 19, 1974

January 20, 1977
Nelson Rockefeller.jpg Nelson Rockefeller
1908–1979
(Lived: 70 years)
[68]
49th Governor of New York
(1959-1973)
Republican
42 January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
U.S Vice-President Walter Mondale.jpg Walter Mondale
Born 1928
(88 years old)
[69]
U.S. Senator
from Minnesota
(1964-1976)
Democratic 48
(1976)
Jimmy Carter
43 January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, official portrait.jpg George H. W. Bush
Born 1924
(92 years old)
[70][71][72]
11th Director of Central Intelligence
(1976-1977)
Republican 49
(1980)
Ronald Reagan
50
(1984)
44 January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
Dan Quayle, official DoD photo.JPEG Dan Quayle
Born 1947
(69 years old)
[73]
U.S. Senator
from Indiana
(1981-1989)
Republican 51
(1988)
George H. W. Bush
45 January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Al Gore, Vice President of the United States, official portrait 1994.jpg Al Gore
Born 1948
(68 years old)
[74]
U.S. Senator
from Tennessee
(1985-1993)
Democratic 52
(1992)
Bill Clinton
53
(1996)
46 January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
46 Dick Cheney 3x4.jpg Dick Cheney
Born 1941
(75 years old)
[75]
17th U.S. Secretary of Defense
(1989-1993)
Republican 54
(2000)
George W. Bush
55
(2004)
47 January 20, 2009

Incumbent
Biden 2013 (cropped).jpg Joe Biden
Born 1942
(74 years old)
[76]
U.S. Senator
from Delaware
(1973-2009)
Democratic 56
(2008)
Barack Obama
57
(2012)

Vice President-elect[edit]

Vice President-elect Previous service Party Election President-elect[o]
48 Beginning
January 20, 2017

(46 days from now)
Mike Pence by Gage Skidmore 6.jpg Mike Pence
Born 1959
(57 years old)
[77][78]
50th Governor of Indiana
(Since 2013)
Republican 58
(2016)
Donald Trump

Living former vice presidents[edit]

Presently, there are five living former vice presidents. The most recent death of a former vice president was that of Gerald Ford (served 1973–1974) on December 26, 2006, aged 93 years, 165 days. The most recently serving vice president to die was Nelson Rockefeller (served 1974–1977) on January 26, 1979, aged 70 years, 202 days. Walter Mondale, currently the second oldest living vice president, has the distinction of having the longest post vice presidency in U.S. history, 35 years, 319 days.

Living as of December 2016
Vice President Vice-Presidency[a] Date of birth
Walter Mondale 42 1977–1981 (1928-01-05) January 5, 1928 (age 88)
George H. W. Bush 43 1981–1989 (1924-06-12) June 12, 1924 (age 92)
Dan Quayle 44 1989–1993 (1947-02-04) February 4, 1947 (age 69)
Al Gore 45 1993–2001 (1948-03-31) March 31, 1948 (age 68)
Dick Cheney 46 2001–2009 (1941-01-30) January 30, 1941 (age 75)

Subsequent public service[edit]

Twenty–five vice presidents held other high U.S. state or federal government positions after leaving the vice presidency. Fourteen went on to become President of the United States (9 of them following their predecessor's death or resignation), and 4 served in the United States Senate. Several served as U.S. Cabinet members, ambassadors of the United States abroad, or in U.S. state government.

Vice President Vice-Presidency[a] Subsequent service
John Adams 1 1789–1797 2nd President of the United States (1797–1801)
Thomas Jefferson 2 1797–1801 3rd President of the United States (1801–1809)
John C. Calhoun 7 1825–1832 U.S. Senator from South Carolina (1832–1843 and 1845–1850); 16th U.S. Secretary of State (1844–1845)
Martin Van Buren 8 1833–1837 8th President of the United States (1837–1841)
Richard M. Johnson 9 1837–1841 Kentucky House of Representatives (1841–1843 and 1850)
John Tyler 10 1841 10th President of the United States (1841–1845)
George M. Dallas 11 1845–1849 United States Minister to the Court of St. James's (1856–1861)
Millard Fillmore 12 1849–1850 13th President of the United States (1850–1853)
John C. Breckinridge 14 1857–1861 U.S. Senator from Kentucky (1861)
Hannibal Hamlin 15 1861–1865 U.S. Senator from Maine (1869–1881); U.S. Minister to Spain (1881–1882)
Andrew Johnson 16 1865 17th President of the United States (1865–1869); U.S. Senator from Tennessee (1875)
Chester A. Arthur 20 1881 21st President of the United States (1881–1885)
Levi P. Morton 22 1889–1893 31st Governor of New York (1895–1896)
Theodore Roosevelt 25 1901 26th President of the United States (1901–1909)
Calvin Coolidge 29 1921–1923 30th President of the United States (1923–1929)
Charles G. Dawes 30 1925–1929 United States Minister to the Court of St. James's (1929–1931)
Henry A. Wallace 33 1941–1945 10th U.S. Secretary of Commerce (1945–1946)
Harry S. Truman 34 1945 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953)
Alben W. Barkley 35 1949–1953 U.S. Senator from Kentucky (1955–1956)
Richard Nixon 36 1953–1961 37th President of the United States (1969–1974)
Lyndon B. Johnson 37 1961–1963 36th President of the United States (1963–1969)
Hubert Humphrey 38 1965–1969 U.S. Senator from Minnesota (1971–1978)
Gerald Ford 40 1973–1974 38th President of the United States (1974–1977)
Walter Mondale 42 1977–1981 U.S. Ambassador to Japan (1993–1996)
George H. W. Bush 43 1981–1989 41st President of the United States (1989–1993)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The vice presidents are counted according to uninterrupted periods of time served by the same person. For example, John Adams served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first vice president (not the first and second). Likewise, George Clinton is counted as the fourth and John Calhoun as the seventh, even though each one's consecutive terms in office were served under more than one president. Following the resignation of 39th vice president Spiro Agnew, Gerald Ford became the 40th vice president even though he was chosen to serve out the remainder of Agnew's second term. Then, when Ford succeeded to the presidency later in that same term, Nelson Rockefeller became the 41st vice president and served out the remainder of the term.
  2. ^ Due to logistical delays, John Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations of the new government under the Constitution. As a result, his first term was only 1,413 days long, and was the shortest term for a U.S. vice president who neither died in office nor resigned.
  3. ^ Pro-Administration is a contemporary term used to describe the supporters of the political and economic policies of the Washington Administration prior to the formation of the Federalist and Democratic–Republican parties.
  4. ^ George Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, he was, and remains, the only U.S. president never to be affiliated with a political party.
  5. ^ The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and resulted in a situation where the persons elected president and vice president belonged to opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, February 10, 1967, an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could not be filled.
  7. ^ John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the political coalition emerging around Jackson.
  8. ^ Andrew Jackson's supporters from the former Democratic-Republican Party, which had largely collapsed by the mid-1820s, began calling themselves democrats during his first term in office, thus marking the evolution of Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party into the modern Democratic Party.
  9. ^ John Tyler, a former Democrat, ran for vice president on the Whig Party ticket with Harrison in 1840. Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841.
  10. ^ Ill with tuberculosis, William King traveled to Cuba after the 1852 election in an effort to regain his health, and was not able to be in Washington to take his oath of office on March 4, 1853. By a Special Act of Congress, he was allowed to take the oath outside the United States, and was sworn in on March 24, 1853 near Matanzas, Cuba. He is the only vice president to be sworn in in a foreign country.
  11. ^ When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.
  12. ^ Democrat Andrew Johnson ran for Vice President on the National Union Party ticket with Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1864. Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.
  13. ^ The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified on January 23, 1933, moved Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20, beginning in 1937. As a result, John Nance Garner's first term in office was 1 month and 12 days shorter than a normal term.
  14. ^ a b The Twenty-fifth Amendment established a process whereby an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency is filled by presidential appointment.
  15. ^ Despite winning the most electoral votes in the November 8 election, Donald Trump is yet to be formally declared president-elect by the Electoral College. Electors are due to cast their votes on December 19, where the majority of electors are expected to accordingly formalize his position.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Vice President of the United States (President of the Senate)". United States Senate. Retrieved June 10, 2009. 
  2. ^ Blumenthal, Sidney (June 28, 2007). "The imperial vice presidency". Salon.com. Retrieved September 22, 2007. 
  3. ^ "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  4. ^ "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  5. ^ "Life Portrait of John Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  6. ^ "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  7. ^ "Thomas Jefferson – Democratic-Republican Party – 3rd President – American Presidents". History. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Life Portrait of Thomas Jefferson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  9. ^ "Aaron Burr (1801-1805) - Vice President". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  10. ^ "George Clinton (1805-1809) - Vice President". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
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