List of Western Australian state by-elections

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The list of Western Australia state by-elections includes every by-election held in the Australian state of Western Australia. By-elections occur whenever there is a vacancy in the Legislative Assembly (or, historically, the Legislative Council), although an imminent state election may allow the vacancy to remain until the dissolution of parliament.

Section 67 of the Electoral Act 1907 requires the Speaker to issue a writ for a by-election to fill the vacancy. This can either take place after a resolution of the House if Parliament is in session, or simply upon the cause being established by the Speaker acting alone if the Parliament is in adjournment for more than 7 days.[1]

Causes[edit]

A by-election occurs whenever there is a vacancy in the Legislative Assembly. Vacancies can occur for the following reasons, according to Section 38 of the Constitution Acts Amendment Act 1899.[2]

The member:

  • Is no longer eligible to sit—for example, leaving the State.[3] This historically occurred more frequently when times were less economically stable, and people would move to another state or country where they could work or conduct business.
  • Has been convicted for an offence for which the penalty was imprisonment for life, or for more than five years (Section 32). This last happened to John Marquis Hopkins when he was convicted for fraud in 1910, necessitating a by-election in his seat of Beverley.
  • Becomes an undischarged bankrupt. This last happened in 1936 when Independent candidate Thomas Hughes won East Perth against the incumbent member in the 1936 election. However it was found that he was an undischarged bankrupt at the time of the nomination and poll (although had since resolved his affairs), and the election was declared void. He won the resulting by-election.
  • Is elected to either the Federal Parliament or the parliament of another state or territory (Section 34). In practice, this is never necessary, as the other Parliament usually requires resignation from the Western Australian parliament in order to nominate as a candidate. This last occurred in the Legislative Assembly in 2001 when Hendy Cowan, the member for Merredin, resigned to unsuccessfully contest a seat in the Australian Senate.
  • Is appointed as a judge or magistrate in a Western Australian court or as a chairman (or in some cases member) of another state board or tribunal (Section 34). This provision has never been acted upon, although numerous members have resigned over time to take up such an appointment—for example, Ron Davies resigned in Victoria Park in 1986 to become Agent-General for Western Australia in London, whilst Deputy Premier Herb Graham resigned in Balcatta in 1973 to become chairman of the Licensing Board.
  • "Holds an office or place in the service of the Crown" at the time at which they take up their seat (Section 36-37). This has never been used at state level, although it has occurred in other States and in the Federal Parliament (for example, the circumstances leading to the federal Lindsay by-election in 1996.)
  • Becomes "of unsound mind".
  • Pledges allegiance to a foreign power after their election. This does not apply to members who are already dual citizens at the time of their election, unlike the equivalent section in the Federal Constitution.
  • Fails to attend the House for one entire session without the permission of the House. The last time this caused a by-election was in 1915 when Joseph Gardiner, the Labor member for Roebourne, disappeared, necessitating a by-election in which an Opposition candidate was victorious, wiping out the Government's one-seat majority.

Additional reasons not within Section 38 include:

  • Death. This last occurred in January 2008, when Trevor Sprigg, the member for Murdoch, died suddenly and a by-election had to be called.
  • Resignation, "by writing under his hand, addressed to the Speaker" (Section 25). This last occurred in September 2014, when Troy Buswell, the member for Vasse, resigned from the Parliament, necessitating a by-election.
  • A Court of Disputed Returns voids the results.[4] The last time a by-election took place for this reason was in 1983, when Gavan Troy, the Labor candidate, narrowly defeated incumbent Liberal member Tom Herzfeld in Mundaring. The seat was won by Troy by a larger margin at the resulting by-election.

Ministerial by-elections[edit]

Until a constitutional amendment in 1947,[5] it was necessary for members who were appointed as a Minister to resign their seat and contest their seat at a ministerial by-election. This was because the Ministers became members of the Executive Council, which reported to the Governor of Western Australia and was therefore deemed an "office of profit" under the Crown. Most ministerial by-elections were a formality with the Minister being re-elected unopposed, but on two occasions, in 1901 and 1917, Ministers were defeated at the by-elections, in the former case directly causing the fall of the Morgans Ministry.

List of Legislative Assembly by-elections[edit]

2010–2019[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
39th Vasse 18 October 2014 Troy Buswell   Liberal Libby Mettam   Liberal 3 September 2014 Resignation Yes
38th Armadale 2 October 2010 Alannah MacTiernan   Labor Tony Buti   Labor 19 July 2010 Resignation (Contesting HoR) Yes

2000–2009[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
38th Willagee 28 November 2009 Alan Carpenter   Labor Peter Tinley   Labor 2 October 2009 Resignation Yes
38th Fremantle 16 May 2009 Jim McGinty   Labor Adele Carles   Greens 3 April 2009 Resignation No
37th Murdoch 23 February 2008 Trevor Sprigg   Liberal Christian Porter   Liberal 17 January 2008 Death Yes
37th Peel 3 February 2007 Norm Marlborough   Labor Paul Papalia   Labor 10 November 2006 Resignation Yes
37th Victoria Park 11 March 2006 Dr Geoff Gallop   Labor Ben Wyatt   Labor 16 January 2006 Resignation Yes
36th Merredin 24 November 2001 Hendy Cowan   National Brendon Grylls   National 17 October 2001 Resignation
(contesting Senate)
Yes
36th Nedlands 9 June 2001 Richard Court   Liberal Sue Walker   Liberal 23 February 2001 Resignation Yes

1990–1999[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
34th Kalgoorlie 16 March 1996 Ian Taylor   Labor Megan Anwyl   Labor 4 February 1996 Resignation
(contesting HoR)
Yes
34th Helena 10 September 1994 Gordon Hill   Labor Rhonda Parker   Liberal 4 August 1994 Resignation No
34th Glendalough 19 March 1994 Dr Carmen Lawrence   Labor Michelle Roberts   Labor 14 February 1994 Resignation
(contesting HoR)
Yes
33rd Ashburton 4 April 1992 Pam Buchanan   Independent Fred Riebeling   Labor 3 March 1992 Resignation
(ill health)
Yes[1]
33rd Floreat 20 July 1991 Andrew Mensaros   Liberal Liz Constable   Independent May 1991 Resignation
(ill health)
No
33rd Geraldton 13 April 1991 Jeff Carr   Labor Bob Bloffwitch   Liberal 28 February 1991 Resignation No
33rd Cottesloe 11 August 1990 Bill Hassell   Liberal Colin Barnett   Liberal 28 June 1990 Resignation Yes
33rd Maylands 26 May 1990 Peter Dowding   Labor Judy Edwards   Labor 26 April 1990 Resignation Yes
33rd Fremantle 26 May 1990 David Parker   Labor Jim McGinty   Labor 26 April 1990 Resignation Yes
1 The Independent member for Ashburton, Pam Buchanan, was elected at the 1989 state election as a member of the Labor Party, but resigned on 1 February 1991 to sit as an Independent. As such, the 1992 by-election is noted as a retain for Labor.

1980–1989[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
32nd Dale 7 May 1988 Cyril Rushton   Liberal Fred Tubby   Liberal 25 February 1988 Resignation Yes
32nd Ascot 19 March 1988 Mal Bryce   Labor Eric Ripper   Labor 17 February 1988 Resignation Yes
32nd Balga 19 March 1988 Brian Burke   Labor Ted Cunningham   Labor 17 February 1988 Resignation Yes
32nd Darling Range 24 October 1987 George Spriggs   Liberal Bob Greig   Liberal 3 September 1987 Resignation Yes
32nd Gascoyne 24 October 1987 Ian Laurance   Liberal Dudley Maslen   Liberal 3 September 1987 Resignation Yes
32nd Morley-Swan 9 May 1987 Arthur Tonkin   Labor Frank Donovan   Labor 18 March 1987 Resignation Yes
32nd Narrogin 9 May 1987 Cambell Nalder   National Bob Wiese   National 14 March 1987 Death Yes
32nd Perth 9 May 1987 Terry Burke   Labor Dr Ian Alexander   Labor 18 March 1987 Resignation Yes
32nd Cockburn 7 June 1986 Clive Hughes   Labor Norm Marlborough   Labor 4 April 1986 Death Yes
32nd Victoria Park 7 June 1986 Ron Davies   Labor Dr Geoff Gallop   Labor 16 April 1986 Resignation (appointed
as Agent-General)
Yes
31st Cockburn 17 November 1984 Alexander Taylor   Labor Clive Hughes   Labor 31 August 1984 Resignation Yes
31st Mount Lawley 17 November 1984 Ray O'Connor   Liberal George Cash   Liberal 17 August 1984 Resignation Yes
31st Mundaring 8 October 1983 Gavan Troy   Labor Gavan Troy   Labor 2 September 1983 Voided by Court
of Disputed Returns
Yes
30th Nedlands 13 March 1982 Sir Charles Court   Liberal Richard Court   Liberal 31 January 1982 Resignation Yes
30th Swan 13 March 1982 John Skidmore   Labor Gordon Hill   Labor 31 January 1982 Resignation Yes
30th Kalgoorlie 20 June 1981 Edward Evans   Labor Ian Taylor   Labor 30 April 1981 Death Yes

1970–1979[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
29th Kimberley 17 December 1977 Alan Ridge   Liberal Alan Ridge   Liberal 7 November 1977 Voided by Court
of Disputed Returns
Yes
28th Greenough 1 November 1975 Sir David Brand   Liberal Reg Tubby   Liberal 21 August 1975 Resignation Yes
27th Balcatta 28 July 1973 Herb Graham   Labor Brian Burke   Labor 30 May 1973 Resignation (appointed
to Licensing Court)
Yes
27th Bunbury 7 April 1973 Maurice Williams   Liberal John Sibson   Liberal 28 February 1973 Resignation (appointed
to Licensing Court)
Yes
27th Blackwood 16 December 1972 David Reid   Country Sandy Lewis   Liberal 26 October 1972 Resignation
(contesting HoR)
No
27th Ascot 13 November 1971 Merv Toms   Labor Mal Bryce   Labor 8 October 1971 Death Yes
26th Albany 6 June 1970 Jack Hall   Labor Wyndham Cook   Labor 14 April 1970 Resignation Yes

1960–1969[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
25th Mount Marshall 2 September 1967 George Cornell   Country Ray McPharlin   Country 6 July 1967 Death Yes
25th Roe 2 September 1967 Tom Hart   Country Bill Young   Country 30 June 1967 Resignation Yes
25th Dale 8 May 1965 Gerald Wild   Liberal Cyril Rushton   Liberal 16 March 1965 Resignation (appointed
as Agent-General)
Yes
24th Bunbury 1 September 1962 George Roberts   Liberal Maurice Williams   Liberal 22 July 1962 Death Yes
24th Darling Range 21 July 1962 Ken Dunn   Liberal Ken Dunn   Liberal 22 June 1962 Voided by Court
of Disputed Returns
Yes
24th Murray 23 June 1962 Sir Ross McLarty   Liberal Henry Runciman   Liberal 7 May 1962 Resignation Yes
23rd Victoria Park 26 August 1961 Hugh Andrew   Labor Ron Davies   Labor 1 July 1961 Death Yes
23rd South Fremantle 12 March 1960 Dick Lawrence   Labor Henry Curran   Labor 25 January 1960 Death Yes

1950–1959[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
22nd Moore 20 September 1958 John Ackland   Country Edgar Lewis   Country 29 July 1958 Death Yes
22nd Pilbara 24 April 1958† Alec Rodoreda   Labor Arthur Bickerton   Labor 11 March 1958 Death Yes
22nd Warren 25 January 1958 Ernest Hoar   Labor Joseph Rowberry   Labor 17 December 1957 Resignation (appointed
as Agent-General)
Yes
21st Bunbury 29 October 1955 Frank Guthrie   Labor George Roberts   Labor 21 September 1955 Death Yes
21st Kimberley 16 May 1953 Aubrey Coverley   Labor John Rhatigan   Labor 19 March 1953 Death Yes
20th Murchison 8 November 1952 William Marshall   Labor Everard O'Brien   Labor 19 August 1952 Death Yes
20th Leederville 9 February 1952 Alexander Panton   Labor Stephen Johnston   Labor 25 December 1951 Death Yes
20th Gascoyne 13 October 1951 Frank Wise   Labor Noel Butcher   Ind. Lib. 9 July 1951 Resignation (appointed
as NT Administrator)
No
20th Boulder 14 September 1951† Charlie Oliver   Labor Arthur Moir   Labor 16 August 1951 Death Yes
20th South Fremantle 14 July 1951 Thomas Fox   Labor Dick Lawrence   Labor 20 April 1951 Death Yes
20th Maylands 17 February 1951 Harry Shearn   Independent Edward Oldfield   Liberal 25 January 1951 Death No

† Won by acclamation; this date is the date of the return of the writ.

1940–1949[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
19th Hannans 26 February 1949 David Leahy   Labor Herbert McCulloch   Labor 19 December 1948 Death Yes
19th Boulder 4 December 1948 Hon Philip Collier   Labor Charlie Oliver   Labor 18 October 1948 Death Yes
19th Guildford-Midland 13 March 1948 William Johnson   Labor John Brady   Labor 26 January 1948 Death Yes
19th Sussex 7 June 1947 William Willmott   Liberal William Bovell   Liberal 2 May 1947 Death Yes
19th Pilbara 2 August 1947 Bill Hegney   Labor Bill Hegney   Labor 20 June 1947 Voided by
petition
Yes
18th Greenough 27 October 1945 John Newton   Labor David Brand   Liberal 27 September 1945[2] Death
(WWII combat)
No
18th Victoria Park 10 February 1945 Howard Raphael   Labor William Read   Independent 9 December 1944 Death No
18th Avon 1 July 1944 William Telfer   Labor William Telfer   Labor 24 May 1944 Voided by Court
of Disputed Returns
Yes
18th Swan 29 April 1944 Richard Sampson   Country Ray Owen   Ind. Country 16 February 1944 Death No
17th East Perth 14 August 1943 Thomas Hughes   Independent Herb Graham   Labor 15 July 1943 Resignation
(contesting HoR)
No
17th York 21 November 1942 Charles Latham   Country Charles Perkins   Country 7 October 1942 Resignation
(appointed to Senate)
Yes
17th Yilgarn-Coolgardie 9 August 1941 George Lambert   Labor Lionel Kelly   Ind. Country 30 June 1941 Death No
2 At the 1943 election, the Labor candidate for Greenough, John Newton, a farmer from Mingenew who had enlisted in the RAAF as a Flight Lieutenant in 1941 and left for the United Kingdom in 1942, unexpectedly defeated the sitting Country member, William Patrick. On 14 January 1944, he was reported missing after a raid on Germany. On 31 July 1945, a panel of members was appointed to enquire whether a vacancy existed, and on 27 September 1945, the seat was declared vacant. At the resulting by-election on 27 October 1945, Liberal candidate David Brand was successful, becoming the first person to win an Australian election under the new Liberal banner.

1930–1939[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
17th Irwin-Moore 9 September 1939 Claude Barker   Independent Horace Berry   Independent 2 August 1939 Resignation Yes
17th Forrest 20 May 1939 May Holman   Labor Edward Holman   Labor 20 March 1939 Death (car accident) Yes
16th Hannans 5 May 1938 Selby Munsie   Labor David Leahy   Labor 12 March 1938 Death Yes
16th Sussex 12 February 1938 Edmund Brockman   Nationalist William Willmott   Nationalist 4 January 1938 Death Yes
16th East Perth 9 May 1936 Thomas Hughes   Independent Thomas Hughes   Independent 18 April 1936 Resignation Yes
15th Katanning 31 August 1935 Arnold Piesse   Country Arthur Watts   Country 21 July 1935 Death Yes
15th Avon 4 July 1935 Harry Griffiths   Country Ignatius Boyle   Country 23 March 1935 Death Yes
15th South Fremantle 4 July 1935 Alick McCallum   Labor Thomas Fox   Labor 16 March 1935 Resignation Yes
15th Kimberley 29 July 1933 Aubrey Coverley   Labor Aubrey Coverley   Labor 3 July 1933 Voided by Court
of Disputed Returns
Yes
14th Brown Hill-Ivanhoe 14 July 1932† John Lutey   Labor Frederick Smith   Labor 22 June 1932 Death Yes
14th Kanowna 25 June 1932 Thomas Walker   Labor Emil Nulsen   Labor 10 May 1932 Death Yes
14th Roebourne 6 February 1932 Frederick Teesdale   Nationalist John Church   Nationalist 14 December 1931 Death Yes

† Won by acclamation; this date is the date of the return of the writ.

1920–1929[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
13th Irwin 19 November 1929 C. C. Maley   Country H. K. Maley   Country 15 October 1929 Death Yes
13th Mount Leonora 7 November 1928† Thomas Heron   Labor Ernest Cowan   Labor 13 October 1928 Death Yes
13th Williams-Narrogin 3 November 1928† Edward Johnston   Country Victor Doney   Country 3 October 1928 Resignation
(contesting Senate)
Yes
12th Forrest 3 April 1925† John Holman   Labor May Holman   Labor 23 February 1925 Death Yes
11th Forrest 8 December 1923 Peter O'Loghlen   Labor John Holman   Labor 12 November 1923 Death Yes
11th Kalgoorlie 13 January 1923 John Boyland   Independent James Cunningham   Labor 14 December 1922 Death No
11th East Perth 18 November 1922 J. J. Simons   Nationalist[3] Thomas Hughes   Labor 1 November 1922 Resignation No
10th Mount Leonora 20 December 1920 George Foley   National Labor Thomas Heron   Labor 18 November 1920 Resignation
(contesting HoR)
No
3 Simons had been elected as a Labor member in the 1921 state election, but had resigned to sit as an independent and subsequently joined the Nationalist Party. He was a candidate in the by-election, but was defeated.

† Won by acclamation; this date is the date of the return of the writ.

1910–1919[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
10th Albany 31 May 1919 Herbert Robinson   Nationalist John Scaddan   National Labor 2 May 1919 Death No
10th Claremont 14 September 1918 John Stewart   Nationalist Thomas Duff   Nationalist 30 August 1918 Resignation Yes
10th Subiaco 10 November 1917 Bartholomew James Stubbs   Labor Samuel Brown   Nationalist 26 September 1917 Death
(WWI combat)
No
9th Perth 21 July 1917 Sir James Connolly   Nationalist Robert Pilkington   Nationalist June 1917 Resignation Yes
9th Brown Hill-Ivanhoe 21 July 1917 John Scaddan[4]   National Labor John Lutey   Labor 28 June 1917 Ministerial
by-election
No
9th Geraldton 14 April 1917 Edward Heitmann   National Labor Samuel Elliott   Liberal 20 March 1917 Resignation
(contesting HoR)
No
9th Brown Hill-Ivanhoe 7 October 1916 John Lutey[4]   Labor John Scaddan   Labor 15 September 1916 Resignation Yes
9th Brown Hill-Ivanhoe 19 August 1916† John Scaddan[4]   Labor John Lutey   Labor 8 August 1916 Resignation Yes
9th Geraldton 15 August 1916 Charles McDowall   Labor Samuel Elliott   Liberal 13 July 1916 Resignation
(contesting HoR)
No
9th Williams-Narrogin 9 January 1916† Edward Johnston[5]   Independent Edward Johnston   Independent 18 December 1915 Resignation Yes
9th Roebourne 17 November 1915 Joseph Gardiner   Labor William Butcher   Liberal 30 September 1915 Absence
without leave
No
8th Kalgoorlie 4 February 1914 Albert Green   Labor George McLeod   Labor 8 December 1913 Resignation Yes
8th Geraldton 15 November 1913 Bronte Dooley   Labor Samuel Elliott   Liberal 19 October 1913 Death No
8th Cue 12 November 1913† Edward Heitmann   Labor Thomas Chesson   Labor 4 November 1913 Resignation Yes
8th Forrest 3 July 1913 Thomas Moore   Labor Peter O'Loghlen   Labor 17 June 1913 Resignation Yes
8th Forrest 6 May 1913† Peter O'Loghlen   Labor Thomas Moore   Labor 17 April 1913 Resignation
(contesting HoR)
Yes
7th Bunbury 1 March 1911 Sir Newton Moore   Ministerial William Lemen Thomas   Labor 13 February 1911 Resignation (appointed
as Agent-General)
No
7th Beverley 15 August 1910 John Marquis Hopkins   Ministerial Nat Harper   Ministerial 28 July 1910 Disqualified (jailed
for uttering)
Yes
7th Forrest 8 July 1910 Dennis Jones   Labor Peter O'Loghlen   Labor 20 June 1910 Resignation Yes
7th Gascoyne 28 June 1910† William Butcher   Ministerial William Butcher   Ministerial 18 June 1910 Sold land to Crown Yes
7th Fremantle 9 June 1910 James Price   Ministerial William Murphy   Ministerial 21 May 1910 Death Yes
7th Forrest 23 March 1910† Peter O'Loghlen   Labor Dennis Jones   Labor 13 March 1910 Resignation
(contesting HoR)
Yes

† Won by acclamation; this date is the date of the return of the writ.

4 The Labor member for Brown Hill-Ivanhoe and former Premier, John Scaddan, resigned from his seat on 8 August 1916 in order to contest the Canning ministerial by-election against new minister Robert Robinson. On 19 August 1916, Labor candidate John Lutey was elected unopposed to fill the vacancy. However, upon Scaddan's narrow loss in Canning, Lutey resigned from the seat on 15 September 1916 before being sworn in to allow Scaddan to regain his seat, which he did at the resulting by-election on 7 October 1916 against two minor-party candidates. In March 1917, Scaddan and several others left the Labor Party and joined the new National Labor Party. This party formed a coalition with the Nationalists who, under Premier Sir Henry Lefroy, formed a Ministry on 28 June 1917. Scaddan was appointed Minister for Railways, and had to contest a ministerial by-election. John Lutey won the seat at the by-election on 21 July 1917.
5 On 18 December 1915, the Labor member for Williams-Narrogin, Edward Johnston, resigned from the Labor Party and from Parliament. He was returned unopposed as an Independent at the close of nominations for the resulting by-election on 9 January 1916. In mid-1917, he joined the Country Party.

1900–1909[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
7th Katanning 12 November 1909† Frederick Henry Piesse   Ministerial Arnold Piesse   Ministerial 26 October 1909 Resignation Yes
7th Albany 17 September 1909 Edward Barnett   Ministerial William Price   Ministerial Aug/Sep 1909 Resignation Yes
7th Menzies 20 November 1908 Henry Gregory   Ministerial Henry Gregory   Ministerial 4 November 1908 Voided by petition Yes
6th West Perth 2 September 1907 Frederick Illingworth   Ministerial Thomas Draper   NPL (Min.) 13 August 1907 Resignation Yes
6th Mount Leonora 13 November 1906† Patrick Lynch   Labor Julian Stuart   Labor 2 November 1906 Resignation
(contesting Senate)
Yes
6th Geraldton 21 November 1906 Henry Carson   Ministerial Thomas Brown   Labor 26 October 1906 Voided by petition No
6th East Fremantle 13 November 1906 Joseph Holmes   Ministerial William Angwin   Labor 24 October 1906 Voided by petition No
6th Pilbara 23 July 1906 James Isdell   Independent Henry Underwood   Labor 27 June 1906 Resignation No
6th Guildford 16 July 1906 Sir Cornthwaite Rason   Ministerial William Johnson   Labor 27 June 1906 Resignation (appointed
as Agent-General)
No
6th Geraldton 16 July 1906 Arthur Diamond   Ministerial Arthur Davies   Ministerial 22 June 1906 Death Yes
6th Coolgardie 9 July 1906 William Eddy   Ministerial William Eddy   Ministerial 27 April 1906 Voided by petition Yes
5th East Perth 20 October 1904 Walter James   Ministerial John Hardwick   Ministerial 4 October 1904 Resignation (appointed
as Agent-General)
Yes
4th Nelson 11 December 1903 Sir J. G. Lee-Steere   Ministerial John Walter   Ministerial 30 November 1903 Death Yes
4th North Fremantle 26 August 1903 Denis Doherty   Ministerial John Ferguson   Ministerial 13 August 1903 Resignation (left State) Yes
4th York 6 April 1903 Frederick Monger   Ministerial R. G. Burges   Ministerial 24 March 1903 Resignation Yes
4th Pilbara 18 March 1903 Walter Kingsmill   Opposition James Isdell   Independent 12 February 1903 Resignation No
4th Hannans 15 October 1902† John Reside   Labor Thomas Bath   Labor 29 September 1902 Death Yes
4th York 16 July 1902 William George   Opposition William Atkins   Independent 1 July 1902 Resignation No
4th East Perth 14 July 1902 George Leake   Opposition Charles Moran   Independent 24 June 1902 Resignation No
4th Claremont 11 June 1902 William Sayer   Ministerial John Foulkes   Opposition 28 May 1902 Resignation No
4th North Perth 5 October 1901 Richard Speight   Opposition George McWilliams   Opposition 19 September 1901 Resignation Yes
4th West Kimberley 23 July 1901 Alexander Forrest   Ministerial Sydney Pigott   Ministerial 20 June 1901 Death Yes
3rd Albany 24 July 1900 George Leake   Opposition John Hassell   Opposition 10 July 1900 Resignation Yes
3rd Geraldton 24 July 1900 Richard Robson   Independent Robert Hutchinson   Opposition 13 June 1900 Resignation No
3rd De Grey 28 May 1900† E. T. Hooley   Ministerial Leonard Darlot   Ministerial 1 May 1900 Resignation (ill health) Yes
3rd Ashburton 24 April 1900† Septimus Burt   Ministerial David Forrest   Ministerial 10 April 1900 Resignation Yes

† Won by acclamation; this date is the date of the return of the writ.

1890–1899[edit]

Parl. By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Vacated Cause Retained
3rd North Murchison 18 September 1899 Henry Kenny   Opposition Frederick Moorhead   Ministerial 25 August 1899 Death No
3rd Geraldton 12 July 1899 George Simpson   Opposition Richard Robson   Independent 27 June 1899 Resignation No
3rd York 26 June 1899† Frederick Monger   Ministerial Frederick Monger   Ministerial 15 June 1899 Resignation Yes
3rd Gascoyne 26 June 1899† George Hubble   Ministerial George Hubble   Ministerial 13 June 1899 Resignation Yes
2nd Fremantle 18 July 1896 William Marmion     John Higham     4 July 1896 Death  
2nd North Fremantle 22 May 1895 William Silas Pearse     Matthew Moss     2 May 1895†† Resignation  
2nd Murray 12 January 1895 William Paterson     William George     4 January 1895 Resignation  
2nd Murchison 15 October 1894† Everard Darlot     E. T. Hooley     18 September 1894 Resignation  
1st East Kimberley 20 April 1893† William Baker     Francis Connor     7 January 1893 Death  
1st York 27 October 1892† Stephen Henry Parker     Frederick Monger     5 October 1892 Resignation  
1st South Fremantle 12 October 1892 David Symon     Elias Solomon     13 September 1892 Resignation  
1st Moore 11 August 1892† George Randell     Henry Lefroy     4 July 1892 Resignation  
1st Perth 12 January 1892 Edward Scott     Thomas Molloy     22 December 1891†† Resignation  
1st Geraldton 10 December 1891† Edward Keane     George Simpson     6 November 1891†† Resignation  
1st Roebourne 16 January 1891† George Leake     Horace Sholl     30 December 1890 Resignation  

† Won by acclamation; this date is the date of the return of the writ. †† This was the date which the writ was issued — the date of the event which caused the by-election is unknown.

Ministerial by-elections[edit]

The following Ministers had to resign their seats and recontest them at a ministerial by-election. Most were unopposed; these are noted in italics in the table.

Parl. Electorate Date Member Party Winner Party Appointed Ministry Retained
19th Murray-Wellington 17 April 1947 Ross McLarty   Liberal 1 April 1947 McLarty-Watts Yes
19th Katanning 17 April 1947 Arthur Watts   Country 1 April 1947 McLarty-Watts Yes
19th West Perth 17 April 1947 Sir Robert McDonald   Liberal 1 April 1947 McLarty-Watts Yes
19th Toodyay 17 April 1947 Lindsay Thorn   Country 1 April 1947 McLarty-Watts Yes
19th Williams-Narrogin 17 April 1947 Victor Doney   Country 1 April 1947 McLarty-Watts Yes
19th North Perth 17 April 1947 Arthur Abbott   Liberal 1 April 1947 McLarty-Watts Yes
19th Pingelly 17 April 1947 Harrie Seward   Country 1 April 1947 McLarty-Watts Yes
18th Murchison 17 August 1945 William Marshall   Labor 3 August 1945 Wise Yes
18th North-East Fremantle 17 December 1943 John Tonkin   Labor 9 December 1943 Willcock Yes
17th Kanowna 5 April 1939 Emil Nulsen   Labor 29 March 1939 Willcock Yes
17th Kimberley 5 April 1939 Aubrey Coverley   Labor 29 March 1939 Willcock Yes
16th Leederville 9 April 1938 Alexander Panton   Labor 24 March 1938 Willcock Yes
16th Brown Hill-Ivanhoe 4 September 1936 Frederick Smith   Labor 27 August 1936 Willcock Yes
16th Northam 22 May 1936 Albert Hawke   Labor 13 May 1936 2nd Collier Yes
15th Gascoyne 11 April 1935 Frank Wise   Labor 26 March 1935 2nd Collier Yes
15th Boulder 2 May 1933 Philip Collier   Labor 24 April 1933 2nd Collier Yes
15th South Fremantle 2 May 1933 Alexander McCallum   Labor 24 April 1933 2nd Collier Yes
15th Geraldton 2 May 1933 John Willcock   Labor 24 April 1933 2nd Collier Yes
15th Hannans 2 May 1933 Selby Munsie   Labor 24 April 1933 2nd Collier Yes
15th Mount Magnet 2 May 1933 Michael Troy   Labor 24 April 1933 2nd Collier Yes
15th Mount Hawthorn 2 May 1933 Harry Millington   Labor 24 April 1933 2nd Collier Yes
15th East Perth 2 May 1933 James Kenneally   Labor 24 April 1933 2nd Collier Yes
14th Northam 1 May 1930 Sir James Mitchell   Nationalist 24 April 1930 2nd Mitchell Yes
14th Northam 1 May 1930 Charles Latham   Country 24 April 1930 2nd Mitchell Yes
14th West Perth 1 May 1930 Thomas Davy   Nationalist 24 April 1930 2nd Mitchell Yes
14th Maylands 1 May 1930 John Scaddan   Nationalist 24 April 1930 2nd Mitchell Yes
14th Mount Marshall 1 May 1930 John Lindsay   Country 24 April 1930 2nd Mitchell Yes
14th Nedlands 1 May 1930 Norbert Keenan   Nationalist 24 April 1930 2nd Mitchell Yes
14th Irwin-Moore 1 May 1930 Percy Ferguson   Country 24 April 1930 2nd Mitchell Yes
13th Leederville 23 December 1927 Harry Millington   Labor 15 December 1927 1st Collier Yes
13th Kalgoorlie 23 December 1927 James Cunningham   Labor 15 December 1927 1st Collier Yes
13th Hannans 9 May 1927 Selby Munsie   Labor 30 April 1927 1st Collier Yes
12th Boulder 1 May 1924 Philip Collier   Labor 16 April 1924 1st Collier Yes
12th North-East Fremantle 1 May 1924 William Angwin   Labor 16 April 1924 1st Collier Yes
12th Mount Magnet 1 May 1924 Michael Troy   Labor 16 April 1924 1st Collier Yes
12th Geraldton 1 May 1924 John Willcock   Labor 16 April 1924 1st Collier Yes
12th South Fremantle 1 May 1924 Alexander McCallum   Labor 16 April 1924 1st Collier Yes
11th Swan 31 August 1922 Richard Sampson   Country 22 August 1922 Mitchell Yes
11th Greenough 14 May 1921 H. K. Maley   Country 13 April 1921 1st Mitchell Yes
10th Beverley 10 July 1919 Frank Broun   Country 25 June 1919 1st Mitchell Yes
10th West Perth 7 June 1919 Thomas Draper   Nationalist 17 May 1919 1st Mitchell Yes
10th Northam 24 April 1919 James Mitchell   Nationalist 17 April 1919 Colebatch Yes
9th Brown Hill-Ivanhoe 21 July 1917 John Scaddan   National Labor John Lutey   Labor 28 June 1917 Lefroy No
9th Irwin 11 July 1917 James Gardiner   Nationalist 28 June 1917 Lefroy Yes
9th Sussex 10 August 1916 Frank Wilson   Liberal 27 July 1916 2nd Wilson Yes
9th Moore 10 August 1916 Sir Henry Lefroy   Liberal 27 July 1916 2nd Wilson Yes
9th Northam 19 August 1916 James Mitchell   Liberal 27 July 1916 2nd Wilson Yes
9th Murray-Wellington 10 August 1916 William George   Liberal 27 July 1916 2nd Wilson Yes
9th Canning 19 August 1916 Robert Robinson   Liberal 27 July 1916 2nd Wilson Yes
9th North-East Fremantle 2 December 1914 William Angwin   Labor 23 November 1914 Scaddan Yes
8th Brown Hill-Ivanhoe 17 October 1911 John Scaddan   Labor 7 October 1911 Scaddan Yes
8th Boulder 17 October 1911 Philip Collier   Labor 7 October 1911 Scaddan Yes
8th Avon 17 October 1911 Thomas Bath   Labor 7 October 1911 Scaddan Yes
8th Guildford 17 October 1911 William Johnson   Labor 7 October 1911 Scaddan Yes
8th Kanowna 17 October 1911 Thomas Walker   Labor 7 October 1911 Scaddan Yes
7th Subiaco 24 September 1910 Henry Daglish   Ministerial 16 September 1910 1st Wilson Yes
7th Greenough 8 July 1909 John Nanson   Ministerial 30 June 1909 Moore Yes
7th Northam 3 June 1909 James Mitchell   Ministerial 14 May 1909 Moore Yes
6th Fremantle 25 May 1906 James Price   Ministerial 7 May 1906 Moore Yes
6th Kalgoorlie 25 May 1906 Norbert Keenan   Ministerial 7 May 1906 Moore Yes
5th Guildford 14 September 1905 Cornthwaite Rason   Ministerial 25 August 1905 Rason Yes
5th Menzies 14 September 1905 Henry Gregory   Ministerial 25 August 1905 Rason Yes
5th Sussex 14 September 1905 Frank Wilson   Ministerial 25 August 1905 Rason Yes
5th Bunbury 14 September 1905 Newton Moore   Ministerial 25 August 1905 Rason Yes
5th Roebourne 4 September 1905 John Sydney Hicks   Ministerial 25 August 1905 Rason Yes
5th Brown Hill 22 June 1905 Thomas Bath   Labor 7 June 1905 Daglish Yes
5th Mount Leonora 30 June 1905 Patrick Lynch   Labor 7 June 1905 Daglish Yes
5th Subiaco 19 August 1904 Henry Daglish   Labor 10 August 1904 Daglish Yes
5th Mount Margaret 19 August 1904 George Taylor   Labor 10 August 1904 Daglish Yes
5th Kanowna 19 August 1904 Robert Hastie   Labor 10 August 1904 Daglish Yes
5th Murchison 19 August 1904 John Holman   Labor 10 August 1904 Daglish Yes
5th Kalgoorlie 19 August 1904 William Johnson   Labor 10 August 1904 Daglish Yes
4th Boulder 25 February 1903 John Marquis Hopkins   Opposition 17 February 1903 James Yes
4th East Perth 11 July 1902 Walter James   Opposition 1 July 1902 James Yes
4th Albany 11 July 1902 James Gardiner   Opposition 1 July 1902 James Yes
4th West Perth 7 January 1902 George Leake   Opposition 23 December 1901 2nd Leake Yes
4th Cue 7 January 1902 Frederick Illingworth   Opposition 23 December 1901 2nd Leake Yes
4th Pilbara 7 January 1902 Walter Kingsmill   Opposition 23 December 1901 2nd Leake Yes
4th Guildford 7 January 1902 Cornthwaite Rason   Opposition 23 December 1901 2nd Leake Yes
4th North Coolgardie 7 January 1902 Henry Gregory   Opposition 23 December 1901 2nd Leake Yes
4th Coolgardie 6 December 1901 Alf Morgans   Ministerial 21 November 1901 Morgans Yes
4th Coolgardie 10 December 1901 Frederick Moorhead   Ministerial John Holman   Labor 21 November 1901 Morgans No
4th Toodyay 6 December 1901 Timothy Quinlan   Ministerial 21 November 1901 Morgans Yes
4th Murchison 10 December 1901 John Nanson   Ministerial 21 November 1901 Morgans Yes
4th Perth 6 December 1901 Frank Wilson   Ministerial William Purkiss   Ministerial 21 November 1901 Morgans No
4th West Perth 19 June 1901 George Leake   Opposition 27 May 1901 1st Leake Yes
4th Cue 19 June 1901 Frederick Illingworth   Opposition 27 May 1901 1st Leake Yes
4th Pilbara 19 June 1901 Walter Kingsmill   Opposition 27 May 1901 1st Leake Yes
4th East Fremantle 19 June 1901 Joseph Holmes   Opposition 27 May 1901 1st Leake Yes
4th North Coolgardie 19 June 1901 Henry Gregory   Opposition 27 May 1901 1st Leake Yes
3rd West Perth 22 September 1900 Barrington Wood   Ministerial 10 September 1900 Forrest Yes
3rd Greenough   Richard Pennefather   Ministerial 27 October 1897 Forrest Yes
3rd Moore   Henry Lefroy   Ministerial 12 May 1897 Forrest Yes
2nd Northam 27 January 1897 George Throssell   Ministerial 20 January 1897 Forrest Yes
2nd Williams 18 April 1896 Frederick Henry Piesse   Ministerial 1 April 1896 Forrest Yes
2nd Bunbury 17 January 1895 Alexander Richardson   Ministerial 4 December 1894 Forrest Yes
1st Bunbury 8 January 1891 John Forrest   Ministerial 30 December 1890 Forrest Yes
1st Ashburton 8 January 1891 Septimus Burt   Ministerial 30 December 1890 Forrest Yes
1st Fremantle 8 January 1891 William Marmion   Ministerial 30 December 1890 Forrest Yes
1st Wellington 8 January 1891 Harry Venn   Ministerial 30 December 1890 Forrest Yes

List of Legislative Council by-elections[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Section 67, Electoral Act 1907
  2. ^ Section 38, Constitution Acts Amendment Act 1899. All sections referred below are linked from this section.
  3. ^ Section 76A, Electoral Act 1907.
  4. ^ Section 172, Electoral Act 1907.
  5. ^ Constitution (Re-election of Ministers) Act 1947 (No. 4 of 1947), assented 2 October 1947.

References[edit]