List of World Heritage Sites in Nepal

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.[1] Nepal ratified the convention on 20 June 1978, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list.[2]

As of 2019, there are four sites in Nepal on the list and a further fifteen on the tentative list (the official list of sites that may be considered for future submission).[3] The first sites in Nepal to be added to the list were the Sagarmatha National Park and the Kathmandu Valley; both were added in 1979.

World Heritage Sites[edit]

UNESCO lists sites under ten criteria; each entry must meet at least one of the criteria. Criteria i through vi are cultural, whereas vii through x are natural.[4]

  * Trans-border site
Site Image Location Year listed UNESCO data Description
Sagarmatha National Park A village in a large mountain valley. In the distance very high snow-covered mountains are visible. Solukhumbu District 1979 120; vii (natural) [5]
Kathmandu Valley Streetscene with various characteristically shaped temple buildings. Kathmandu Valley 1979 121; iii, iv, vi (cultural) The site has been listed as endangered 2003–2007 due to the partial or substantial loss of the traditional elements of six out of seven monument zones and resulting general loss of authenticity and integrity of the whole property.[6]
Chitwan National Park A lake with tree trunks in the water. Chitwan District 1984 284; vii, ix, x (natural) [7]
Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha A large tree next to a water filled pool. Rupandehi District 1997 666; iii, vi (cultural) [8]

Tentative list[edit]

In addition to the sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, member states can maintain a list of tentative sites that they may consider for nomination. Nominations for the World Heritage List are only accepted if the site was previously listed on the tentative list.[9] As of 2019, Nepal recorded 15 sites on its tentative list.[2]

Site Image Location Year listed UNESCO data Description
The early medieval architectural complex of Panauti Panauti 3.JPG Kabhrepalanchok District Cultural 1996 The site includes the Indresvar Mahadev temple built in 1294, the Brahmayani temple built in the 17th century, and numerous heritage structures.[10]
Tilaurakot, the archaeological remains of ancient Shakya Kingdom Suddhodana Palace-east gate.JPG Kapilvastu District Cultural 1996 The site is the cardinal point of the ancient Shakyan city of Kapilavastu, where Gautama Buddha spent 29 years of his lifetime.[11]
Cave architecture of Muktinath Valley of Mustang Chyosyor cave at Lomangthang, Upper Mustang.jpg Mustang District Cultural 1996 Originally used as burial chambers in 1000 AD, the caves eventually became meditation chambers, military lookouts, or storage units up to the 14th century as part of the Kingdom of Lo.[12]
The medieval palace complex of Gorkha Image of Goddess & Gorkha Palace.JPG Gorkha District Cultural 1996 The site includes the medieval palace and cave of Gorakhnath, Kalika temple and other monuments.[13]
Ramagrama, the relic stupa of Lord Buddha 013 King Asoka visits Ramagrama (33428090870).jpg Nawalparasi District Cultural 1996 The site includes the only undisturbed original stupa containing relics of Buddha, which was built in the 6th century BC[14]
Khokana, the vernacular village and its mustard-oil seed industrial heritage Khokana, Lalitpur.jpg Lalitpur District Cultural 1996 The site includes a system of drainage and chowks, traditional houses, chaityas, a mother deity temple, and its mustard fields and processing sites.[15]
Medieval Earthen Walled City of Lo Manthang Lo Manthang.jpg Mustang District Cultural 2008 The walled city was the capital of the Kingdom of Lo in the 15th century. Notable monuments include the palace and monasteries of Jampa Lakhang and Thupchen Lakhang from the 15th century and the monastery of Choede Lakhang from the 18th century.[16]
Vajrayogini and early settlement of Sankhu Saankhu.JPG Kathmandu District Cultural 2008 The site includes the Lichchhavi period (2nd to 9th century AD) settlement of Sankhu and the Vajrayogini temple complex constructed in the mid 17th century.[17]
Medieval Settlement of Kirtipur Kirtipur, 1950 - 1955.jpg Kathmandu District Cultural 2008 The site includes the Newar monuments of Chilancho Vihar, Jagat Pal Vihar, Buddha Dharma Sangha Shikhara, Baghbhairab Temple, Vath (Layaku), Umamaheshvar Temple, Indrayani Pith, Chitu Bahail, Lokeshwar Shikhara, Buddha Temple, Chve Bahal and Kwe Bahal.[18]
Rishikesh Complex of Ruru Kshetra Palpa District Cultural 2008 The site includes an ancient route and cremation site between Muktinath and Damodar Kunda, the settlement of Ridi, and the entire complex.[19]
Nuwakot Palace Complex Nuwakot Palace.jpg Nuwakot District Cultural 2008 The site includes Nuwakot Palace and various temples and shrines, such as Bhairab Temple.[20]
Ram Janaki Temple Janki Mandir.JPG Dhanusa District Cultural 2008 The site is composed of classical and neo-classical designs with elements of fortification.[21]
The Medieval Town of Tansen Shreenagar with Tansen.jpg Palpa District Cultural 2008 The site includes Bhairab Temple, the Purankot Durbar, the Srinagar Durbar (Fort), the Bansha Gopal, the Mukundeshwar Mahadev, the Amar Narayan Temple, the Ran-Ujjeshwari Bhagawati Temple and the Tansen Durbar.[22]
Sinja Valley Narakot Sinja Valley.JPG Jumla District Cultural 2008 The site includes the capital of the Khasas kingdom from the 12th to 14th centuries.[23]
Bhurti Temple Complex of Dailekh Panchdewal, Dailekh.jpg Dailekh District Cultural 2008 The site includes 22 monuments constructed through the Western Malla architectural style.[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The World Heritage Convention". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Nepal – Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 29 October 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  3. ^ Tentative List from UNESCO Retrieved 1st March 2020
  4. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – The Criteria for Selection". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 12 June 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  5. ^ "Sagarmatha National Park". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 18 February 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  6. ^ "Kathmandu Valley". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  7. ^ "Chitwan National Park". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 19 June 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  8. ^ "Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  9. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – Tentative Lists". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  10. ^ "The early medieval architectural complex of Panauti". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  11. ^ "Tilaurakot, the archaeological remains of ancient Shakya Kingdom". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  12. ^ "Cave architecture of Muktinath Valley of Mustang". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  13. ^ "The medieval palace complex of Gorkha". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  14. ^ "Ramagrama, the relic stupa of Lord Buddha". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  15. ^ "Khokana, the vernacular village and its mustard-oil seed industrial heritage". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  16. ^ "Medieval Earthern Walled City of Lo Manthang". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  17. ^ "Vajrayogini and early settlement of sankhu". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  18. ^ "Medieval Settlement of Kirtipur". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  19. ^ "Rishikesh Complex of Ruru Kshetra". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  20. ^ "Nuwakot Palace Complex". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  21. ^ "Ram Janaki Temple". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  22. ^ "The Medieval Town of Tansen". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  23. ^ "Sinja valley". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  24. ^ "Bhurti Temple Complex of Dailekh". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.