List of World Heritage Sites in Southeast Asia

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The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 37 World Heritage Sites in eleven countries (also called "State parties") of Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Singapore, and Laos. Only Brunei and East Timor lack World Heritage sites.[1][2]

Indonesia and Vietnam lead the list with eight inscribed sites each, with the Philippines having six, Thailand five, Malaysia four, Cambodia and Laos two each, and Myanmar and Singapore one each.[3] The first sites from the region were inscribed at the 15th session of the World Heritage Committee in 1991.[4] The latest site inscribed is the Singapore Botanic Gardens in Singapore inscribed in 39th session of the Committee in Bonn, Germany in July 2015. Each year, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee may inscribe new sites or delist those no longer meeting the criteria, the selection based on ten criteria of which six stand for cultural heritage (i–vi) and four for natural heritage (vii–x);[5] some sites are "mixed" and represent both types of heritage. In Southeast Asia, there are 23 cultural, 13 natural and 1 mixed sites.[3]

The World Heritage Committee may also specify that a site is endangered, citing "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List." One site in this region, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra, is listed as endangered; Angkor and Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras were once listed but were taken off in 2004 and 2012 respectively.


The table is sortable by column by clicking on the Sort both.gif at the top of the appropriate column; alphanumerically for the Site, Area, and Year columns; by state party for the Location column; and by criteria type for the Criteria column. Transborder sites sort at the bottom.

Site; named after the World Heritage Committee's official designation[3]
Location; at city, regional, or provincial level and geocoordinates
Criteria; as defined by the World Heritage Committee[5]
Area; in hectares and acres. If available, the size of the buffer zone has been noted as well. A value of zero implies that no data has been published by UNESCO
Year; during which the site was inscribed to the World Heritage List
Description; brief information about the site, including reasons for qualifying as an endangered site, if applicable.

Inscribed sites[edit]

  † In danger
Site Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Description Refs
Angkor Ruins of a large structure with five large towers at the top. Siem Reap Province,  Cambodia
13°26′N 103°50′E / 13.433°N 103.833°E / 13.433; 103.833 (Angkor)
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
40,000 (99,000) 1992 Angkor is one of the most important archaeological sites in South-East Asia. Stretching over some 400 km2, including forested area, Angkor Archaeological Park contains the magnificent remains of the different capitals of the Khmer Empire, from the 9th to the 15th century. They include the famous Temple of Angkor Wat and, at Angkor Thom, the Bayon Temple with its countless sculptural decorations. UNESCO has set up a wide-ranging programme to safeguard this symbolic site and its surroundings. The site was listed as endangered from its inscription in times of political instability following the civil war in the 1980s to 2004. [6][7]
Archaeological Heritage of the Lenggong Valley Lenggong Valley. Perak,  Malaysia
5°4′N 100°58′E / 5.067°N 100.967°E / 5.067; 100.967 (Lenggong Valley)
(iii), (iv)
399 (990) 2012 Situated in the lush Lenggong Valley, the property includes four archaeological sites in two clusters which span close to 2 million years, one of the longest records of early man in a single locality, and the oldest outside the African continent. It features open-air and cave sites with Palaeolithic tool workshops, evidence of early technology. The number of sites found in the relatively contained area suggests the presence of a fairly large, semi-sedentary population with cultural remains from the Palaeolithic, Neolithic and Metal ages. [9]
Ban Chiang Archaeological Site
Vase with red and white design.
Udon Thani Province,  Thailand
17°32′55″N 103°47′23″E / 17.54861°N 103.78972°E / 17.54861; 103.78972 (Ban Chiang Archaeological Site)
64 (160) 1992 Ban Chiang is considered the most important prehistoric settlement so far discovered in South-East Asia. It marks an important stage in human cultural, social and technological evolution. The site presents the earliest evidence of farming in the region and of the manufacture and use of metals. [10]
Baroque Churches of the Philippines FvfIntramuros2720 24.JPG Sta. Maria Church.JPG St. Augustine Church - Paoay, Ilocos Norte.jpg Miagao Church.jpg Manila; Santa Maria, Ilocos Sur; Paoay, Ilocos Norte and Miag-ao, Iloilo;  Philippines
14°35′24″N 120°58′12″E / 14.59000°N 120.97000°E / 14.59000; 120.97000 (Baroque Churches of the Philippines)
(ii), (iv)
1993 These four churches, the first of which was built by the Spanish in the late 16th century, are located in Manila, Santa Maria, Paoay and Miag-ao. Their unique architectural style is a reinterpretation of European Baroque by Chinese and Philippine craftsmen. [11]
Borobudur Temple Compounds A terraced pyramid like structure with a stupa on top. Magelang Regency, Central Java  Indonesia
7°36′28″S 110°12′13″E / 7.60778°S 110.20361°E / -7.60778; 110.20361 (Borobudur Temple Compounds)
(i), (ii), (vi)
1991 This famous Buddhist temple, dating from the 8th and 9th centuries, is located in central Java. It was built in three tiers: a pyramidal base with five concentric square terraces, the trunk of a cone with three circular platforms and, at the top, a monumental stupa. The walls and balustrades are decorated with fine low reliefs, covering a total surface area of 2,500 m2. Around the circular platforms are 72 openwork stupas, each containing a statue of the Buddha. The monument was restored with UNESCO's help in the 1970s. [12]
Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long - Hanoi
Stone tower on top of a stone wall. The wall has circular wheel-shaped windows and a red flag with yellow star is raised on top of the tower.
Hanoi,  Vietnam
21°2′22″N 105°50′14″E / 21.03944°N 105.83722°E / 21.03944; 105.83722 (Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long - Hanoi)
(ii), (iii), (vi)
18 (44); buffer zone 108 (270) 2010 The Thang Long Imperial Citadel was built in the 11th century by the Ly Viet Dynasty, marking the independence of the Dai Viet. It was constructed on the remains of a Chinese fortress dating from the 7th century, on drained land reclaimed from the Red River Delta in Hanoi. It was the centre of regional political power for almost 13 centuries without interruption. The Imperial Citadel buildings and the remains in the 18 Hoang Dieu Archaeological Site reflect a unique South-East Asian culture specific to the lower Red River Valley, at the crossroads between influences coming from China in the north and the ancient Kingdom of Champa in the south. [13]
Citadel of the Hồ Dynasty A gate built of massive grey stones. Tây Giai, Vĩnh Lộc District, Thanh Hóa Province,  Vietnam
20°4′41″N 105°36′17″E / 20.07806°N 105.60472°E / 20.07806; 105.60472 (Citadel of the Ho Dynasty)
(ii), (iv)
156 (390); buffer zone 5,079 (12,550) 2011 The 14th -century Ho Dynasty citadel, built according to the feng shui principles, testifies to the flowering of neo-Confucianism in late 14th century Viet Nam and its spread to other parts of east Asia. According to these principles it was sited in a landscape of great scenic beauty on an axis joining the Tuong Son and Don Son mountains in a plain between the Ma and Buoi rivers. The citadel buildings represent an outstanding example of a new style of south-east Asian imperial city. [14]
Complex of Hué Monuments Staircase leading to a building of dark stone. A simple decorated gate is at the top of the staircase. Thừa Thiên–Huế Province,  Vietnam
16°28′10″N 107°34′40″E / 16.46944°N 107.57778°E / 16.46944; 107.57778 (Complex of Hué Monuments)
(iii), (iv)
1993 Established as the capital of unified Viet Nam in 1802, Hué was not only the political but also the cultural and religious centre under the Nguyen dynasty until 1945. The Perfume River winds its way through the Capital City, the Imperial City, the Forbidden Purple City and the Inner City, giving this unique feudal capital a setting of great natural beauty. [15]
Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: the Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy Rice terrace at entrance to Gunung Kawi temple demonstrate the traditional Subak irrigation system, Tampaksiring, Bali. Bali  Indonesia
8°20′0″S 115°0′0″E / 8.33333°S 115.00000°E / -8.33333; 115.00000 (Cultural Landscape of Bali Province)
(ii), (iii), (v), (vi)
19,520 (48,200) 2012 The cultural landscape of Bali consists of five rice terraces and their water temples that cover 19,500 ha. The temples are the focus of a cooperative water management system of canals and weirs, known as subak, that dates back to the 9th century. Included in the landscape is the 18th-century Royal Water Temple of Pura Taman Ayun, the largest and most impressive architectural edifice of its type on the island. The subak reflects the philosophical concept of Tri Hita Karana, which brings together the realms of the spirit, the human world and nature. This philosophy was born of the cultural exchange between Bali and India over the past 2,000 years and has shaped the landscape of Bali. The subak system of democratic and egalitarian farming practices has enabled the Balinese to become the most prolific rice growers in the archipelago despite the challenge of supporting a dense population. 1194rev[16]
Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex
Medium sized waterfall in a tropical forest.
Saraburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Prachinburi, Sa Kaeo and Buriram Provinces  Thailand
14°20′N 102°3′E / 14.333°N 102.050°E / 14.333; 102.050 (Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex)
615,500 (1,521,000) 2005 The Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex spans 230 km between Ta Phraya National Park on the Cambodian border in the east, and Khao Yai National Park in the west. The site is home to more than 800 species of fauna, including 112 mammal species (among them two species of gibbon), 392 bird species and 200 reptile and amphibian species. It is internationally important for the conservation of globally threatened and endangered mammal, bird and reptile species, among them 19 that are vulnerable, four that are endangered, and one that is critically endangered. The area contains substantial and important tropical forest ecosystems, which can provide a viable habitat for the long-term survival of these species. [17]
Gunung Mulu National Park Sunset or sunrise over a mountain landscape with fog in the valleys. northern Sarawak, Borneo,  Malaysia
4°8′N 114°55′E / 4.133°N 114.917°E / 4.133; 114.917 (Gunung Mulu National Park)
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
52,864 (130,630) 2000 Important both for its high biodiversity and for its karst features, Gunung Mulu National Park, on the island of Borneo in the State of Sarawak, is the most studied tropical karst area in the world. The 52,864-ha park contains seventeen vegetation zones, exhibiting some 3,500 species of vascular plants. Its palm species are exceptionally rich, with 109 species in twenty genera noted. The park is dominated by Gunung Mulu, a 2,377 m-high sandstone pinnacle. At least 295 km of explored caves provide a spectacular sight and are home to millions of cave swiftlets and bats. The Sarawak Chamber, 600 m by 415 m and 80 m high, is the largest known cave chamber in the world. [18]
Hạ Long Bay Forested rocks in the sea. Quảng Ninh Province,  Vietnam
20°54′N 107°6′E / 20.900°N 107.100°E / 20.900; 107.100 (Ha Long Bay)
(vii), (viii)
150,000 (370,000) 1994[nb 1] Ha Long Bay, in the Gulf of Tonkin, includes some 1,600 islands and islets, forming a spectacular seascape of limestone pillars. Because of their precipitous nature, most of the islands are uninhabited and unaffected by a human presence. The site's outstanding scenic beauty is complemented by its great biological interest. It has also been designated as one of the New7Wonders of Nature. [19]
Historic City of Ayutthaya Ruins of stupas of various sizes. Ayutthaya province,  Thailand
14°20′52″N 100°33′38″E / 14.34778°N 100.56056°E / 14.34778; 100.56056 (Historic City of Ayutthaya)
289 (710) 1991 Founded c. 1350, Ayutthaya became the second Siamese capital after Sukhothai. It was destroyed by the Burmese in the 18th century. Its remains, characterized by the prang (reliquary towers) and gigantic monasteries, give an idea of its past splendour. [20]
Historic Town of Sukhothai and Associated Historic Towns Wat Si Chum 02.jpg Lotusbudwchetthaeo0408.jpg Wat Phra Keaw in Kamphaeng Phet.jpg Sukhothai and Kamphaeng Phet Provinces,  Thailand
17°0′26″N 99°47′23″E / 17.00722°N 99.78972°E / 17.00722; 99.78972 (Historic Town of Sukhothai and Associated Historic Towns)
(i), (iii)
11,852 (29,290) 1991 Sukhothai was the capital of the first Kingdom of Siam in the 13th and 14th centuries. It has a number of fine monuments, illustrating the beginnings of Thai architecture. The great civilization which evolved in the Kingdom of Sukhothai absorbed numerous influences and ancient local traditions; the rapid assimilation of all these elements forged what is known as the 'Sukhothai style'. [21]
Historic Town of Vigan Street of three-storied ramshackle colonial style buildings. Ilocos Sur,  Philippines
17°34′30″N 120°23′15″E / 17.57500°N 120.38750°E / 17.57500; 120.38750 (Historic Town of Vigan)
(ii), (iv)
1999 Established in the 16th century, Vigan is the best-preserved example of a planned Spanish colonial town in Asia. Its architecture reflects the coming together of cultural elements from elsewhere in the Philippines, from China and from Europe, resulting in a culture and townscape that have no parallel anywhere in East and South-East Asia. It has also been designated as one of the New7Wonders Cities. [22]
Hội An Ancient Town Street lined by rows of two-storied stone houses opening onto the street. Hội An, Quảng Nam Province,  Vietnam
15°53′0″N 108°20′0″E / 15.88333°N 108.33333°E / 15.88333; 108.33333 (Hoi An Ancient Town)
(ii), (v)
30 (74); buffer zone 280 (690) 1999 Hoi An Ancient Town is an exceptionally well-preserved example of a South-East Asian trading port dating from the 15th to the 19th century. Its buildings and its street plan reflect the influences, both indigenous and foreign, that have combined to produce this unique heritage site. [23]
Kinabalu Park Mountain with a rocky top and forested slopes. There is a narro high waterfall on one side of the mountain slope. Sabah, Borneo,  Malaysia
6°15′N 116°30′E / 6.250°N 116.500°E / 6.250; 116.500 (Kinabalu Park)
(ix), (x)
75,370 (186,200) 2000 Kinabalu Park, in the State of Sabah on the northern end of the island of Borneo, is dominated by Mount Kinabalu (4,095 m), the highest mountain between the Himalayas and New Guinea. It has a very wide range of habitats, from rich tropical lowland and hill rainforest to tropical mountain forest, sub-alpine forest and scrub on the higher elevations. It has been designated as a Centre of Plant Diversity for Southeast Asia and is exceptionally rich in species with examples of flora from the Himalayas, China, Australia, Malaysia, as well as pan-tropical flora. [24]
Komodo National Park
Komodo dragon at Komodo National Park, Indonesia.
East Nusa Tenggara  Indonesia
8°33′S 119°29′E / 8.550°S 119.483°E / -8.550; 119.483 (Komodo National Park)
(vii), (x)
219,322 (541,960) 1991 These volcanic islands are inhabited by a population of around 5,700 giant lizards, whose appearance and aggressive behaviour have led to them being called 'Komodo dragons'. They exist nowhere else in the world and are of great interest to scientists studying the theory of evolution. The rugged hillsides of dry savannah and pockets of thorny green vegetation contrast starkly with the brilliant white sandy beaches and the blue waters surging over coral. It has also been designated as one of the New7Wonders of Nature. [25]
Lorentz National Park A rocky mountain ridge. Papua  Indonesia
4°45′S 137°50′E / 4.750°S 137.833°E / -4.750; 137.833 (Lorentz National Park)
(vii), (ix), (x)
2,350,000 (5,800,000) 1999 Lorentz National Park (2.35 million ha) is the largest protected area in South-East Asia. It is the only protected area in the world to incorporate a continuous, intact transect from snowcap to tropical marine environment, including extensive lowland wetlands. Located at the meeting-point of two colliding continental plates, the area has a complex geology with ongoing mountain formation as well as major sculpting by glaciation. The area also contains fossil sites which provide evidence of the evolution of life on New Guinea, a high level of endemism and the highest level of biodiversity in the region. [26]
Melaka and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca Town scene with three-storied red houses and a red church. There is a three-storied clock tower standing on a square. The view of Little India Malacca and Penang, Malay Peninsula,  Malaysia
5°25′17″N 100°20′45″E / 5.42139°N 100.34583°E / 5.42139; 100.34583 (Melaka and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca)
(ii), (iii), (iv)
148 (370); buffer zone 284 (700) 2008 Melaka and George Town, historic cities of the Straits of Malacca have developed over 500 years of trading and cultural exchanges between East and West in the Straits of Malacca. The influences of Asia and Europe have endowed the towns with a specific multicultural heritage that is both tangible and intangible. With its government buildings, churches, squares and fortifications, Melaka demonstrates the early stages of this history originating in the 15th-century Malay sultanate and the Portuguese and Dutch periods beginning in the early 16th century. Featuring residential and commercial buildings, George Town represents the British era from the end of the 18th century. The two towns constitute a unique architectural and cultural townscape without parallel anywhere in East and Southeast Asia. [27]
Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary Mount Hamiguitan. Davao Oriental,  Philippines
6°43′2″N 126°10′24″E / 6.71722°N 126.17333°E / 6.71722; 126.17333 (Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary)
2014 Forming a mountain ridge running north-south along the Pujada Peninsula in the south-eastern part of the Eastern Mindanao Biodiversity Corridor, the Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary has an elevation range of 75–1,637 m above sea level and provides critical habitat for a range of plant and animal species. The property showcases terrestrial and aquatic habitats at different elevations, and includes threatened and endemic flora and fauna species, eight of which are found only at Mount Hamiguitan. These include critically endangered trees, plants and the iconic Philippine eagle and Philippine cockatoo. [28]
Mỹ Sơn Sanctuary Ruins of buildings of red stone with niches and sculptures. The roof of one of the structures is partially covered in grass. Duy Phú, Duy Xuyên District, Quảng Nam Province,  Vietnam
15°31′0″N 108°34′0″E / 15.51667°N 108.56667°E / 15.51667; 108.56667 (My Son Sanctuary)
(ii), (iii)
142 (350); buffer zone 920 (2,300) 1999 Between the 4th and 13th centuries a unique culture which owed its spiritual origins to Indian Hinduism developed on the coast of contemporary Viet Nam. This is graphically illustrated by the remains of a series of impressive tower-temples located in a dramatic site that was the religious and political capital of the Champa Kingdom for most of its existence. [29]
Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park Landscape with river and densely forested hills. Bố Trạch and Minh Hóa districts, Quảng Bình Province,  Vietnam
17°32′14″N 106°9′5″E / 17.53722°N 106.15139°E / 17.53722; 106.15139 (Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park)
123,326 (304,750) 2003 The Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park, inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2003, covered 85,754 hectares. With this extension, the site covers a total surface area of 126,236 hectares (a 46% increase) and shares a boundary with the Hin Namno Nature Reserve in the Peoples Democratic Republic of Laos. The Park’s landscape is formed by limestone plateaux and tropical forests. It features great geological diversity and offers spectacular phenomena, including a large number of caves and underground rivers. The site harbours a high level of biodiversity and many endemic species. The extension ensures a more coherent ecosystem while providing additional protection to the catchment areas that are of vital importance for the integrity of limestone landscapes. [30]
Prambanan Temple Compounds The main shrine of Prambanan temple compound dedicated to Shiva, surrounded by numbers of smaller shrines. Central Java  Indonesia
7°45′8″S 110°29′30″E / 7.75222°S 110.49167°E / -7.75222; 110.49167 (Prambanan Temple Compounds)
(i), (iv)
1991 Built in the 10th century, this is the largest temple compound dedicated to Shiva in Indonesia. Rising above the centre of the last of these concentric squares are three temples decorated with reliefs illustrating the epic of the Ramayana, dedicated to the three great Hindu divinities (Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma) and three temples dedicated to the animals who serve them. [31]
Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park A river flowing into a cave. Palawan,  Philippines
10°10′0″N 118°55′0″E / 10.16667°N 118.91667°E / 10.16667; 118.91667 (Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park)
(vii), (x)
5,753 (14,220) 1999 This park features a spectacular limestone karst landscape with an underground river. One of the river's distinguishing features is that it emerges directly into the sea, and its lower portion is subject to tidal influences. The area also represents a significant habitat for biodiversity conservation. The site contains a full 'mountain-to-sea' ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in Asia. It has also been designated as one of the New7Wonders of Nature. [32]
Pyu Ancient Cities
Bawbawgyi Pagoda at Sri Ksetra, prototype of Pagan-era pagodas.
Mandalay, Magway, Bago,  Myanmar
22°28′12″N 95°49′7″E / 22.47000°N 95.81861°E / 22.47000; 95.81861 (Pyu Ancient Cities)
(ii), (iii), (iv)
2014 Pyu Ancient Cities includes the remains of three brick, walled and moated cities of Halin, Beikthano and Sri Ksetra located in vast irrigated landscapes in the dry zone of the Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) River basin. They reflect the Pyu Kingdoms that flourished for over 1,000 years between 200 BC and AD 900. The three cities are partly excavated archaeological sites. Remains include excavated palace citadels, burial grounds and manufacture sites, as well as monumental brick Buddhist stupas, partly standing walls and water management features – some still in use – that underpinned the organized intensive agriculture. [33]
Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras Small village among rice terraces. Ifugao, Cordillera Region,  Philippines
16°56′2″N 121°8′12″E / 16.93389°N 121.13667°E / 16.93389; 121.13667 (Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras)
(iii), (iv), (v)
1995 For 2,000 years, the high rice fields of the Ifugao have followed the contours of the mountains. The fruit of knowledge handed down from one generation to the next, and the expression of sacred traditions and a delicate social balance, they have helped to create a landscape of great beauty that expresses the harmony between humankind and the environment. This site was removed from the "endangered" list in 2012 due to the success of the government's conservation efforts. [34][35]
Sangiran Early Man Site Upper part of a petrified skull including some teeth. Central Java  Indonesia
7°24′0″S 110°49′0″E / 7.40000°S 110.81667°E / -7.40000; 110.81667 (Sangiran Early Man Site)
(iii), (vi)
5,600 (14,000) 1996 Excavations here from 1936 to 1941 led to the discovery of the first hominid fossil at this site. Later, 50 fossils of Meganthropus palaeo and Pithecanthropus erectus/Homo erectus were found – half of all the world's known hominid fossils. Inhabited for the past one and a half million years, Sangiran is one of the key sites for the understanding of human evolution. [36]
Singapore Botanic Gardens Music was played at this gazebo, known as the Bandstand, in the Singapore Botanic Gardens in the 1930s Singapore  Singapore
1°18′55″N 103°48′58″E / 1.31528°N 103.81611°E / 1.31528; 103.81611 (Singapore Botanic Gardens)
(ii), (iv)
49 (120) 2015 Situated at the heart of the city of Singapore, the site demonstrates the evolution of a British tropical colonial botanic garden that has become a modern world-class scientific institution used for both conservation and education. The cultural landscape includes a rich variety of historic features, plantings and buildings that demonstrate the development of the garden since its creation in 1859. It has been an important centre for science, research and plant conservation, notably in connection with the cultivation of rubber plantations, in Southeast Asia since 1875. [37]
Temple of Preah Vihear Ruins of a stone building erected on a stone platform. The roof above the main entrance is decorated. Preah Vihear Province,  Cambodia
14°23′18″N 104°41′2″E / 14.38833°N 104.68389°E / 14.38833; 104.68389 (Temple of Preah Vihear)
155 (380); buffer zone 2,643 (6,530) 2008 Situated on the edge of a plateau that dominates the plain of Cambodia, the Temple of Preah Vihear is dedicated to Shiva. The Temple is composed of a series of sanctuaries linked by a system of pavements and staircases over an 800 metre long axis and dates back to the first half of the 11th century AD. Nevertheless, its complex history can be traced to the 9th century, when the hermitage was founded. This site is particularly well preserved, mainly due to its remote location. The site is exceptional for the quality of its architecture, which is adapted to the natural environment and the religious function of the temple, as well as for the exceptional quality of its carved stone ornamentation. [38]
Thungyai-Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries
A river flowing through a forested mountain landscape.
Kanchanaburi, Tak and Uthai Thani Provinces  Thailand
15°20′N 98°55′E / 15.333°N 98.917°E / 15.333; 98.917 (Thungyai-Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries)
(vii), (ix), (x)
622,200 (1,537,000) 1991 Stretching over more than 600,000 ha along the Myanmar border, the sanctuaries, which are relatively intact, contain examples of almost all the forest types of continental South-East Asia. They are home to a very diverse array of animals, including 77% of the large mammals (especially elephants and tigers), 50% of the large birds and 33% of the land vertebrates to be found in this region. [39]
Town of Luang Prabang Stone building with golden decorated entrance, stacked and very steep roofs. Luang Prabang Province,  Laos
19°53′20″N 102°8′0″E / 19.88889°N 102.13333°E / 19.88889; 102.13333 (Town of Luang Prabang)
(ii), (iv), (v)
1995 Luang Prabang is an outstanding example of the fusion of traditional architecture and Lao urban structures with those built by the European colonial authorities in the 19th and 20th centuries. Its unique, remarkably well-preserved townscape illustrates a key stage in the blending of these two distinct cultural traditions. [40]
Tràng An Scenic Landscape Complex Tam Cốc in Hoa Lư Ancient Capital Ninh Binh Province,  Vietnam
20°15′24″N 105°53′47″E / 20.25667°N 105.89639°E / 20.25667; 105.89639 (Trang An - Ninh Binh)
(v), (vii), (viii)
2014 Situated near the southern margin of the Red River Delta, the Trang An Landscape Complex is a spectacular landscape of limestone karst peaks permeated with valleys, many of them partly submerged and surrounded by steep, almost vertical cliffs. Exploration of caves at different altitudes has revealed archaeological traces of human activity over a continuous period of more than 30,000 years. They illustrate the occupation of these mountains by seasonal hunter-gatherers and how they adapted to major climatic and environmental changes, especially the repeated inundation of the landscape by the sea after the last ice age. The story of human occcupation continues through the Neolithic and Bronze Ages to the historical era. Hoa Lu, the ancient capital of Viet Nam, was strategically established here in the 10th and 11th centuries AD. The property also contains temples, pagodas, paddy-fields and small villages. [41]
Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra A high mountain beyond grassland interspersed with trees. Sumatra,  Indonesia
2°30′S 101°30′E / 2.500°S 101.500°E / -2.500; 101.500 (Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra)
(vii), (ix), (x)
2,595,124 (6,412,690) 2004 The 2.5 million hectare Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra site comprises three national parks: Gunung Leuser National Park, Kerinci Seblat National Park and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. The site holds the greatest potential for long-term conservation of the distinctive and diverse biota of Sumatra, including many endangered species. The protected area is home to an estimated 10,000 plant species, including 17 endemic genera; more than 200 mammal species; and some 580 bird species of which 465 are resident and 21 are endemic. Of the mammal species, 22 are Asian, not found elsewhere in the archipelago and 15 are confined to the Indonesian region, including the endemic Sumatran orang-utan. The site also provides biogeographic evidence of the evolution of the island. The site has been listed as endangered since 2011 due to poaching, illegal logging, agricultural encroachment, and plans to build roads. [42][43]
Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park Shark and corrals. Cagayancillo, Palawan,  Philippines
8°57′12″N 119°52′3″E / 8.95333°N 119.86750°E / 8.95333; 119.86750 (Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park)
(vii), (ix), (x)
130,028 (321,310) 1993[nb 2] The Tubbataha Reef Marine Park covers 130,028 ha, including the North and South Reefs. It is a unique example of an atoll reef with a very high density of marine species; the North Islet serving as a nesting site for birds and marine turtles. The site is an excellent example of a pristine coral reef with a spectacular 100-m perpendicular wall, extensive lagoons and two coral islands. [44][45]
Ujung Kulon National Park Rocky ground within a tropical forest. Banten and Lampung,  Indonesia
6°45′S 105°20′E / 6.750°S 105.333°E / -6.750; 105.333 (Ujung Kulon National Park)
(vii), (x)
78,525 (194,040) 1991 This national park, located in the extreme south-western tip of Java on the Sunda shelf, includes the Ujung Kulon peninsula and several offshore islands and encompasses the natural reserve of Krakatoa. In addition to its natural beauty and geological interest – particularly for the study of inland volcanoes – it contains the largest remaining area of lowland rainforests in the Java plain. Several species of endangered plants and animals can be found there, the Javan rhinoceros being the most seriously under threat. [46]
Vat Phou and Associated Ancient Settlements within the Champasak Cultural Landscape Ruins of stone buildings in a very green lush mountain landscape. Champasak Province,  Laos
14°50′54″N 105°49′20″E / 14.84833°N 105.82222°E / 14.84833; 105.82222 (Vat Phou and Associated Ancient Settlements within the Champasak Cultural Landscape)
(iii), (iv), (vi)
39,000 (96,000) 2001 The Champasak cultural landscape, including the Vat Phou Temple complex, is a remarkably well-preserved planned landscape more than 1,000 years old. It was shaped to express the Hindu vision of the relationship between nature and humanity, using an axis from mountain top to river bank to lay out a geometric pattern of temples, shrines and waterworks extending over some 10 km. Two planned cities on the banks of the Mekong River are also part of the site, as well as Phou Kao mountain. The whole represents a development ranging from the 5th to 15th centuries, mainly associated with the Khmer Empire. [47]

Location of sites[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Extended inscription in 2000 to include natural criterion (i) (in present nomenclature criterion (vii)).
  2. ^ Extended in 2009 and name change from Tubbataha Reef Marine Park to the present name.


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