List of World Heritage Sites in the Arab States

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This is a list of World Heritage Sites in the Arab States.[1] Some of these countries are geographically located in Asia and some in Africa.

List[edit]

The list below contains an image of the site or part of the site; the name as inscribed by UNESCO; the location; the nominating state party; the criteria met by the site, including if it is a cultural, natural or mixed; the area in hectares and acres, excluding any buffer zones, with a value of zero implying that no data is published by UNESCO; the year the site was inscribed; and a description of the site.

  † In danger
Site Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Description
Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad Kalaa des Beni Hammad.5.jpg AlgeriaM'Sila Province,
 Algeria
35°49′6″N 4°47′13″E / 35.81833°N 4.78694°E / 35.81833; 4.78694
Cultural:AlgAlq
(iii)
150 (370) 1980 The Qal'a of Beni Hammad, the first capital of the Hammadid dynasty, was founded in 1007 and abandoned in 1090. The site contains one of the largest mosques in Algeria, as well as a series of palaces and fortified walls.[2]
Djémila GM Djemila Roman Theatre02.jpg AlgeriaSétif Province,
 Algeria
36°19′14″N 5°44′12″E / 36.32056°N 5.73667°E / 36.32056; 5.73667
Cultural:AlgDje
(iii)(iv)
31 (77) 1982 Djémila (formerly known as Cuicul) was a Roman town in a mountainous site, comprising a forum, temples, basilicas, triumphal arches and religious buildings and other structures, each adapted to a location 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level.[3]
Kasbah of Algiers Ruellecasbah.jpg AlgeriaAlgiers Province,
 Algeria
36°47′00″N 3°03′37″E / 36.78333°N 3.06028°E / 36.78333; 3.06028
Cultural:AlgKas
(ii)(v)
50 (120) 1982 The Kasbah of Algiers is a unique Islamic city on the Mediterranean coast. It contains remains of a citadel, ancient mosques and Ottoman palaces.[4]
M'zab Valley Ghardaia.jpg AlgeriaGhardaïa Province,
 Algeria
32°29′00″N 3°41′00″E / 32.48333°N 3.68333°E / 32.48333; 3.68333
Cultural:AlgMzb
(ii)(iii)(v)
4,000 (9,900) 1982 The intact, traditional human habitat was built around five ksour of the M'zab Valley in the 10th century by the Ibadites.[5]
Tassili n'Ajjer Tassili rocks.jpg AlgeriaIllizi and Tamanrasset Provinces,
 Algeria
25°30′00″N 9°00′00″E / 25.50000°N 9.00000°E / 25.50000; 9.00000
Mixed:AlgTas
(i)(iii)(vii)(viii)
7,200,000 (18,000,000) 1982 A vast plateau on the edge of the Sahara, Tassili n'Ajjer contains more than 15,000 cave engravings that record climatic changes, animal migrations, and the evolution of human life, dating from 6,000 BCE to the first centuries CE. It is also noted for its eroded sandstone landforms.[6]
Timgad Timgad area.jpg AlgeriaBatna Province,
 Algeria
35°27′00″N 6°38′00″E / 35.45000°N 6.63333°E / 35.45000; 6.63333
Cultural:AlgTim
(ii)(iii)(iv)
91 (220) 1982 Established by Emperor Trajan in 100 CE as a military colony, Timgad features cardo and decumanus streets, constituting a typical example of Roman town-planning.[7]
Tipasa Tipasa remain 2.JPG AlgeriaTipaza Province,
 Algeria
36°32′00″N 2°22′00″E / 36.53333°N 2.36667°E / 36.53333; 2.36667
Cultural:AlgTip
(iii)(iv)
52 (130) 1982 Previously a Carthaginian trading centre, Tipasa was conquered by the Romans and converted into a military base. The site also bears witness to paleochristian and Byzantine influences.[8]
Qal'at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun Bahrain Fort 7.jpg BahrainNorthern Governorate,
 Bahrain
26°13′59″N 50°31′38″E / 26.23306°N 50.52722°E / 26.23306; 50.52722
Cultural:BahQal
(ii)(iii)(iv)
32 (79) 2005 Qal'at al-Bahrain was the capital of the Dilmun civilization, bearing witness to continuous human occupation from circa 2300 BC to the present. A Portuguese fort stands on the top of the site.[9]
Pearling, Testimony of an Island Economy Isa Bin Ali House.jpg Bahrain Bahrain
26°14′28″N 50°36′49″E / 26.24111°N 50.61361°E / 26.24111; 50.61361
Cultural:BahPea
(iii)
35,087 (86,700) 2012 Comprising of buildings in Muharraq, oyster beds, a segment of the coast and a fortress, the site testifies to the pearling tradition that dominated the Persian Gulf from the 2nd century to the early 20th century, when the introduction of cultured pearls from Japan resulted in the crash of pearling economy in Bahrain.[10]
Abu Mena Abu Mena Ancient Monastery 05.JPG EgyptAlexandria Governorate,
 Egypt
30°51′00″N 29°40′00″E / 30.85000°N 29.66667°E / 30.85000; 29.66667
Cultural:EgyAbu
(iv)
183 (450) 1979 The ruins of the former Christian holy city contain a church, a baptistery, basilicas, public buildings, streets, monasteries, houses, and workshops, and were built over the tomb of Menas of Alexandria.[11]
Ancient Thebes with its Necropolis Hatshetsup-temple-1by7.jpg EgyptLuxor Governorate,
 Egypt
25°44′00″N 32°36′00″E / 25.73333°N 32.60000°E / 25.73333; 32.60000
Cultural:EgyAnc
(i)(iii)(vi)
7,390 (18,300) 1979 The former capital of Egypt and the city of Amun, Thebes contains temples and palaces at Karnak and Luxor, as well as the necropolises at the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens, bearing witness to the height of the Egyptian civilization.[12]
Historic Cairo Islamic Cairo (2005-05-385).jpg EgyptCairo Governorate,
 Egypt
30°03′00″N 31°15′40″E / 30.05000°N 31.26111°E / 30.05000; 31.26111
Cultural:EgyHis
(i)(v)(vi)
524 (1,290) 1979 One of the world's oldest Islamic cities and in the middle of urban Cairo, the site dates from the 10th century and reached its golden age in the 14th century. It contains mosques, madrasah, hammams and fountains.[13]
Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae Abu Simbel, both temples, Egypt, Oct 2004.jpg EgyptAswan Governorate,
 Egypt
22°20′11″N 31°37′34″E / 22.33639°N 31.62611°E / 22.33639; 31.62611
Cultural:EgyNub
(i)(iii)(vi)
374 (920) 1979 Located along the Nile, the site contains monuments such as the Temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel and the Sanctuary of Isis at Philae, saved from being submerged by Lake Nasser as a result of the construction of the Aswan Dam.[14]
Saint Catherine Area Katharinenkloster Sinai BW 2.jpg EgyptSouth Sinai Governorate,
 Egypt
28°33′22″N 33°58′32″E / 28.55611°N 33.97556°E / 28.55611; 33.97556
Cultural:EgySai
(i)(iii)(iv)(vi)
60,100 (149,000) 2002 The orthodox monastery of Saint Catherine is among the oldest Christian monasteries still in function. Dating from the 6th century, it is positioned near Mount Horeb where, according to the Old Testament, Moses received the Tablets of the Law. The region is sacred for Christians, Muslims and Jews.[15]
Wadi Al-Hitan (Whale Valley) Whale skeleton 2.jpg EgyptFaiyum Governorate,
 Egypt
29°20′00″N 30°11′00″E / 29.33333°N 30.18333°E / 29.33333; 30.18333
Natural:EgyWad
(viii)
20,015 (49,460) 2005 Located in western Egypt, Wadi Al-Hitan contains fossil remains of the now extinct Archaeoceti, mapping the evolution of the whales from a land-based to an aquatic mammal.[16]
The Ahwar of Southern Iraq: Refuge of Biodiversity and the Relict Landscape of the Mesopotamian Cities Ur-Nassiriyah.jpg Irq Iraq
31°33′44″N 47°39′28″E / 31.56222°N 47.65778°E / 31.56222; 47.65778
Mixed:IrqAhw
(iii)(v)(ix)(x)
211,544 (522,740) 2016 Located in southern Iraq, the site contains three cities of Sumerian origin, namely Uruk, Ur and Eridu, in addition to four wetland areas in the Iraqi Marshlands.[17]
Erbil Citadel Hawler Castle.jpg IrqArbil Governorate,
 Kurdistan,  Iraq
36°11′28″N 44°00′33″E / 36.19111°N 44.00917°E / 36.19111; 44.00917
Cultural:IrqErb
(iv)
16 (40) 2014 Situated on the top of a tell in Iraqi Kurdistan and overlooking the city of Erbil, the Erbil Citadel constitutes a typical example of Ottoman-era urban-planning. In addition to its 19th century fortifications, the site also contains remains dating back to the Assyrian period.[18]
Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) Flickr - The U.S. Army - www.Army.mil (218).jpg IrqSalah ad Din Governorate,
 Iraq
35°27′32″N 43°15′35″E / 35.45889°N 43.25972°E / 35.45889; 43.25972
Cultural:IrqAsh
(iii)(iv)
70 (170) 2003 Located on the Tigris and dating from the 3rd millennium BCE, Ashur was the first capital of the Assyrian Empire and the religious centre of the Assyrians. Following its destruction by the Babylonians, the city was briefly revived during the Parthian period.[19]
Hatra Hatra ruins.jpg IrqNinawa Governorate,
 Iraq
35°35′17″N 42°43′06″E / 35.58806°N 42.71833°E / 35.58806; 42.71833
Cultural:IrqHat
(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)
324 (800) 1985 The fortified Parthian city of Hatra withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire in the 2nd century. Its architecture reflects both Hellenistic and Roman influences.[20]
Samarra Archaeological City The spiral minaret in Samarra.jpg IrqSalah ad Din Governorate,
 Iraq
34°20′28″N 43°49′25″E / 34.34111°N 43.82361°E / 34.34111; 43.82361
Cultural:IrqSam
(ii)(iii)(iv)
15,058 (37,210) 1985 Located on the Tigris, the Islamic city of Samarra was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. It contains two of the largest mosques and several of the largest palaces in the Islamic world, in addition to being among the finest example of Abbasid-era town-planning.[21]
Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls Old City (Jerusalem).jpg JerJerusalem
31°46′00″N 35°13′00″E / 31.76667°N 35.21667°E / 31.76667; 35.21667
Cultural:JerOld
(ii)(iii)(vi)
1981 A holy city for three of the world's major religions, Jerusalem contains more than 200 historic monuments, including the Dome of the Rock, the Wailing Wall and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.[22]
Baptism Site "Bethany Beyond the Jordan" (Al-Maghtas) Bethany (5).JPG Jor
 Jordan
31°50′14″N 35°33′10″E / 31.83722°N 35.55278°E / 31.83722; 35.55278
Cultural:JorBap
(iii)(vi)
294 (730) 2015 Situated on the Jordan River, Al-Maghtas is considered the location of the Baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist. A Christian pilgrimage site, it contains remains of Roman and Byzantine churches, chapels, a monastery, caves and pools.[23]
Petra Al Khazneh (The Treasury) - Petra, Jordan - 14 Oct. 2009.jpg JorMa'an Governorate,
 Jordan
30°19′50″N 35°26′36″E / 30.33056°N 35.44333°E / 30.33056; 35.44333
Cultural:JorPet
(i)(iii)(iv)
1985 The Nabataean city of Petra was a major trading hub between Arabia, Egypt and Syria-Phoenicia, famed for its rock-cut architecture as well as its mining and water engineering systems.[24]
Quseir Amra Qusayr Amra.jpg JorZarqa Governorate,
 Jordan
31°48′7″N 36°35′9″E / 31.80194°N 36.58583°E / 31.80194; 36.58583
Cultural:JorQus
(i)(iii)(iv)
1985 The desert castle of Quseir Amra was built in the early 8th century, and had served both as a fortress and a Umayyad royal palace. The site also noted for its extensive frescoes, constituting an important and unique example of early Islamic art.[25]
Um er-Rasas (Kastrom Mefa'a) Umm Rasas House ruins.JPG JorMadaba Governorate,
 Jordan
31°30′6″N 35°55′14″E / 31.50167°N 35.92056°E / 31.50167; 35.92056
Cultural:JorUme
(i)(iv)(vi)
24 (59) 2005 Established as a Roman military camp, Um er-Rasas grew into a settlement by the 5th century, inhabited successively by Christian and Islamic communities. The largely unexcavated site contains ruins of Roman fortifications, churches with well-preserved mosaic floors and two stylite towers.[26]
Wadi Rum Protected Area GabelRum01 ST 07.JPG Jor Jordan
29°38′23″N 35°26′02″E / 29.63972°N 35.43389°E / 29.63972; 35.43389
Mixed:JorWad
(iii)(v)(vii)
74,180 (183,300) 2005 Situated in southern Jordan, Wadi Rum features a great variety of desert landforms including sandstone valleys, natural arches, gorges, cliffs, landslides and caverns. The site also contains extensive rock art, inscriptions and archaeological remains, bearing witness to more than 12,000 years of continuous human habitation.[27]
Anjar Anjar - Cardo vu du nord 2.jpg LbnBeqaa Governorate,
 Lebanon
33°43′33″N 35°55′47″E / 33.72583°N 35.92972°E / 33.72583; 35.92972
Cultural:LbnAnj
(iii)(iv)
1984 Established in the early 8th century, the city of Anjar was quickly abandoned following the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate, leaving behind ruins of walls, towers, palaces, mosques and baths, constituting an example of Umayyad period town-planning.[28]
Baalbek Baalbek-Bacchus.jpg LbnBeqaa Governorate,
 Lebanon
34°00′25″N 36°12′18″E / 34.00694°N 36.20500°E / 34.00694; 36.20500
Cultural:LbnBal
(i)(iv)
1984 Previously known as Heliopolis, the Phoenician city of Baalbek hosts some of the largest and best preserved Roman temples, including the Temples of Jupiter, Venus and Bacchus.[29]
Byblos ByblosPort.jpg LbnMount Lebanon Governorate,
 Lebanon
34°07′09″N 35°38′51″E / 34.11917°N 35.64750°E / 34.11917; 35.64750
Cultural:LbnByb
(iii)(iv)(vi)
1984 Continuously inhabited since the Neolithic Era, Byblos was one of the oldest cities of Phoenician origin. It has since witness Persian, Roman, Crusader and Ottoman occupation, each exerting influence upon its architecture. Byblos also played a significant role in the diffusion of the Phoenician alphabet.[30]
Ouadi Qadisha (the Holy Valley) and the Forest of the Cedars of God (Horsh Arz el-Rab) Qadisha.jpg LbnNorth Lebanon Governorate,
 Lebanon
34°14′36″N 36°02′56″E / 34.24333°N 36.04889°E / 34.24333; 36.04889
Cultural:LbnOua
(iii)(iv)
1998 The Qadisha Valley has provided shelter for Christian communities since the beginnings of Christianity, hosting a large number of monasteries and hermitages. The Forest of the Cedars of God is among the last locations where Cedrus libani still grows, historically one of the most prized construction materials.[31]
Tyre TyreAlMina.jpg LbnSouth Lebanon Governorate,
 Lebanon
33°16′19″N 35°11′40″E / 33.27194°N 35.19444°E / 33.27194; 35.19444
Cultural:LbnTyr
(iii)(vi)
154 (380) 1984 The ancient Phoenician city of Tyre was one of the foremost maritime powers in the eastern Mediterranean and reportedly where purple dye was discovered. Extant archaeological remains mainly date back to Roman times, including baths, an arena, a colonnaded road, a triumphal arch, an aqueduct and a hippodrome.[32]
Archaeological Site of Cyrene Cyrene8.jpg LibJabal al Akhdar,
 Libya
32°49′30″N 21°51′30″E / 32.82500°N 21.85833°E / 32.82500; 21.85833
Cultural:LibArcCyr
(ii)(iii)(vi)
1982 The formerly Greek colony of Cyrene was Romanized and transformed into a capital, until it was destroyed by an earthquake in 365. The thousand-year-old ruins have remained renowned since the 18th century.[33]
Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna Leptis Magna - Triumphbogen des Septimius Severus 203 n. Chr..jpg LibKhoms,
 Libya
32°38′18″N 14°17′35″E / 32.63833°N 14.29306°E / 32.63833; 14.29306
Cultural:LibArcLep
(i)(ii)(iii)
1982 The Roman city of Leptis Magna was enlarged by Emperor Septimius Severus, who was born there. Public monuments, a harbour, a marketplace, storehouses, shops, and homes were among the reasons for its induction into the list.[34]
Archaeological Site of Sabratha Theatre, Sabratha.JPG LibZawiya District,
 Libya
32°48′19″N 12°29′06″E / 32.80528°N 12.48500°E / 32.80528; 12.48500
Cultural:LibArcSab
(iii)
1982 Founded as a Phoenician trading post, Sabratha was briefly ruled by Masinissa of Numidia before its Romanization and reconstruction in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.[35]
Old Town of Ghadamès Ghadames - Altstadt mit Palmenhain.jpg LibNalut District,
 Libya
30°08′00″N 9°30′00″E / 30.13333°N 9.50000°E / 30.13333; 9.50000
Cultural:LibOld
(v)
1986 Located in an oasis, Ghadames is among the oldest of pre-Saharan cities and represents a traditional domestic architecture with vertical division of functions.[36]
Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus Tadrart Acacus 1.jpg LibFezzan,
 Libya
24°50′00″N 10°20′00″E / 24.83333°N 10.33333°E / 24.83333; 10.33333
Cultural:LibRoc
(iii)
1985 The massif of Tadrart Acacus contains thousands of cave paintings in different styles, dating from 12,000 BCE to 100 CE, reflecting changes of flora and fauna in the region as well as different lifestyles of successive populations in the Sahara.[37]
Ancient Ksour of Ouadane, Chinguetti, Tichitt and Oualata Chinguetti-Vue Goblale Vieille ville.jpg MauritaniaOuadane,
Chinguetti,
Tichitt,
and Oualata,
 Mauritania
20°55′44″N 11°37′25″W / 20.92889°N 11.62361°W / 20.92889; -11.62361
Cultural:MauAnc
(iii)(iv)(v)
1996 These four settlements were founded in the 11th and 12th centuries, originally meant to serve caravan trade routes across the Sahara. They gradually evolved into Islamic cultural centres, bearing witness to the nomadic lifestyle of the populations of western Sahara.[38]
Banc d'Arguin National Park PNBA 43.JPG MauritaniaNouadhibou and Azefal,
 Mauritania
20°14′05″N 16°06′32″W / 20.23472°N 16.10889°W / 20.23472; -16.10889
Natural:MauBan
(ix)(x)
1,200,000 (3,000,000) 1989 The park consists of sand dunes, coastal swamps, small islands, and shallow bodies of water; all bordering the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Birds are often found to migrate in the area, accompanied by various species of sea turtles and dolphins, whose presence fishermen often use to attract fish.[39]
Archaeological Site of Volubilis Volubilis-basilica.jpg MorFès-Meknès,
 Morocco
34°04′26″N 5°33′25″W / 34.07389°N 5.55694°W / 34.07389; -5.55694
Cultural:MorArcVol
(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)
42 (100) 1997 The important Roman outpost of Volubilis was founded in the 3rd century BCE as the capital of Mauretania, later becoming the capital of the Idrisid dynasty. It contained many buildings, the remains of which have survived extensively to this day.[40]
Historic City of Meknes Royal Palace, Meknes.jpg MorFès-Meknès,
 Morocco
33°53′00″N 5°33′30″W / 33.88333°N 5.55833°W / 33.88333; -5.55833
Cultural:MorHis
(iv)
1996 The former capital of the Alaouite dynasty was founded in the 11th century by the Almoravids and turned into a city with Spanish-Moorish influence during the 17th and 18th centuries.[41]
Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou Kasbahs in Aït Benhaddou.JPG MorDrâa-Tafilalet,
 Morocco
31°02′50″N 7°07′44″W / 31.04722°N 7.12889°W / 31.04722; -7.12889
Cultural:MorKsa
(iv)(v)
3 (7.4) 1987 The Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou is an example of a traditional pre-Saharan habitat in southern Morocco, surrounded by high walls and reinforced with corner towers.[42]
Medina of Essaouira (formerly Mogador) Ramparts of Essaouira.JPG MorMarrakesh-Safi,
 Morocco
31°31′00″N 9°46′10″W / 31.51667°N 9.76944°W / 31.51667; -9.76944
Cultural:MorEss
(ii)(iv)
30 (74) 2001 Built during the late 18th century, the fortified seaport of Essaouira has a mix of North African and European architecture, and was a major trading hub between the Sahara and Europe.[43]
Medina of Fez Fes.JPG MorFez,
 Morocco
34°03′40″N 4°58′40″W / 34.06111°N 4.97778°W / 34.06111; -4.97778
Cultural:MorMedinaofFez
(ii)(v)
280 (690) 1981 Fez was founded in the 9th century and reached its apogee as the capital of the Marinid dynasty in the 13th and 14th centuries, from which its urban fabric and major monuments date. It also hosts the world's oldest university, the University of Al Quaraouiyine.[44]
Medina of Marrakesh Koutbia.jpg MorMarrakesh-Safi,
 Morocco
31°37′53″N 7°59′12″W / 31.63139°N 7.98667°W / 31.63139; -7.98667
Cultural:MorMedinaofMarra
(i)(ii)(iv)(v)
1,107 (2,740) 1985 Marrakesh was founded in the 1070s and remained a political, economic, and cultural centre for a long time. Monuments from that period include the Koutoubia Mosque, the kasbah, and the battlements. The city also holds newer features, including palaces and madrasas.[45]
Medina of Tétouan (formerly known as Titawin) Tetuan vista desde un tejado.JPG MorTanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima,
 Morocco
35°34′15″N 5°22′00″W / 35.57083°N 5.36667°W / 35.57083; -5.36667
Cultural:MorMedinaofTet
(ii)(iv)(v)
7 (17) 1997 Morocco's most complete medina at Tétouan served as the main point of contact between Morocco and Andalusia during the 8th century. The town was rebuilt by Andalusian refugees following the Reconquista, the influence of which is evident in its art and architecture.[46]
Rabat, Modern Capital and Historic City: a Shared Heritage Pedestrians and Kasbah Walls - Rabat - Morocco.jpg MorRabat,
 Morocco
34°01′27″N 6°49′22″W / 34.02417°N 6.82278°W / 34.02417; -6.82278
Cultural:MorRab
(ii)(iv)
349 (860) 2012 Rebuilt under the direction of the French from 1912 to the 1930s, Rabat blends historic and modern features, such as botanical gardens, the Hassan Mosque, and the remnants of Moorish and Andalusian settlements from the 17th century.[47]
Portuguese City of Mazagan (El Jadida) El Jadida panorama.jpg MorCasablanca-Settat,
 Morocco
33°15′24″N 8°30′07″W / 33.25667°N 8.50194°W / 33.25667; -8.50194
Cultural:MorPor
(ii)(iv)
8 (20) 2004 The Portuguese fortification of Mazagan, akin to early Renaissance military design from the early 16th century, was taken over by Morocco in 1769. Surviving buildings include the cistern and a Gothic church.[48]
Aflaj Irrigation Systems of Oman Misfah (6).jpg OmnDakhiliyah, Sharqiyah and Batinah Regions,
 Oman
22°59′56″N 57°32′10″E / 22.99889°N 57.53611°E / 22.99889; 57.53611
Cultural:OmnAfl
(v)
1,456 (3,600) 2006 The five Aflaj systems inscribed represents an irrigation method dating back to at least 500 CE. Such system effectively distribute water through gravity, as it flows to support agricultural and domestic use.[49]
Archaeological Sites of Bat, Al-Khutm and Al-Ayn World Heritage Grave Al Ayn Oman.JPG OmnAd Dhahirah Region,
 Oman
23°16′11″N 56°44′42″E / 23.26972°N 56.74500°E / 23.26972; 56.74500
Cultural:OmnArc
(iii)(iv)
1988 Located in the interior of the Sultanate, Bat, al-Khutm and al-Ayn are among the best preserved ensembles of settlements and necropolises from the 3rd millennium BCE in Eastern Arabia and the world. The necropolis of Bat, in particular, reflects the funeral practices of the Early Bronze Age in Oman.[50]
Bahla Fort Bahla Fort.jpg OmnAd Dakhiliyah Region,
 Oman
22°57′51″N 57°18′04″E / 22.96417°N 57.30111°E / 22.96417; 57.30111
Cultural:OmnBah
(iv)
1987 The fort is part of Bahla, an oasis settlement and formerly the capital of the Nabhani dynasty, who dominated Oman and prospered in the Arabian Peninsula during the Late Middle Ages.[51]
Land of Frankincense Oman Dhofar Frankincense.jpg OmnDhofar Governorate,
 Oman
18°15′12″N 53°38′51″E / 18.25333°N 53.64750°E / 18.25333; 53.64750
Cultural:OmnLan
(iii)(iv)
850 (2,100) 2000 The ancient ports of Khor Rori and Al-Baleed, the caravan oasis of Shisr and Wadi Dawkah in southern Arabia were crucial in the production and distribution of frankincense, one of the most sought-after items of luxury in Antiquity.[52]
Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem Church of the nativity beth.jpg PalBethlehem Governorate,
 Palestine
31°42′16″N 35°12′27″E / 31.70444°N 35.20750°E / 31.70444; 35.20750
Cultural:PalBir
(ii)(iii)
3 (7.4) 2012 The site is traditionally identified as the birthplace of Jesus. The church, built in the 4th century and reconstructed in the 6th century, holds prominent religious significance to both Christians and Muslims.[53]
Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines — Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir Batir.JPG. PalBethlehem Governorate,
 Palestine
31°43′11″N 35°07′50″E / 31.71972°N 35.13056°E / 31.71972; 35.13056
Cultural:PalPal
(iv)(v)
349 (860) 2014 The hill landscape of Battir features stone terraces for market garden, grapevine and olive production, supported by a traditional irrigation system.[54]
Al Zubarah Archaeological Site Zubara Fort.jpg QatMadinat ash Shamal,
 Qatar
25°58′41″N 51°01′47″E / 25.97806°N 51.02972°E / 25.97806; 51.02972
Cultural:QatAlz
(iii)(iv)(v)
416 (1,030) 2013 The coastal town of Al Zubarah was a major pearling and trading centre in the Persian Gulf in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, before its destruction in 1811 and eventual abandonment in the early 20th century. The remains of its palaces, mosques, harbour, fortifications and other structures are preserved by the sand blown from the desert.[55]
Al-Hijr Archaeological Site (Madâin Sâlih) Thamudi.jpg SauAl Madinah Province,
 Saudi Arabia
26°47′01″N 37°57′18″E / 26.78361°N 37.95500°E / 26.78361; 37.95500
Cultural:SauAlh
(ii)(iii)
1,621 (4,010) 2008 Formerly known as Hegra, the site of Al-Hijr constitutes the largest settlement of the Nabataean Kingdom after Petra. It contains a series of well-preserved rock-cut tombs and monuments dating back to the 1st century BCE.[56]
At-Turaif District in ad-Dir'iyah Diriyahpic.jpg SauRiyadh Province,
 Saudi Arabia
24°44′03″N 46°34′21″E / 24.73417°N 46.57250°E / 24.73417; 46.57250
Cultural:SauAtt
(ii)(iii)
29 (72) 2008 Founded in the 15th century, the Turaif District of Dir'iyah was the first capital of the Saudi dynasty. Dir'iyah witnessed the growth of its political and religious significance, as well as the spread of Wahhabism in the 18th and the early 19th centuries.[57]
Historic Jeddah, the Gate to Makkah Old Jeddah 1.jpg SauMakkah Region,
 Saudi Arabia
21°29′02″N 39°11′15″E / 21.48389°N 39.18750°E / 21.48389; 39.18750
Cultural:SauHis
(ii)(iv)(vi)
18 (44) 2014 Located on the coast of the Red Sea, Jeddah grew into a major commercial centre in the 7th century, and has long served as the principal gateway for pilgrims to Mecca.[58]
Rock Art in the Ha'il Region SauHa'il Region,
 Saudi Arabia
28°00′38″N 40°54′47″E / 28.01056°N 40.91306°E / 28.01056; 40.91306
Cultural:SauRoc
(i)(iii)
2,044 (5,050) 2015 The sites of Jabel Umm Sinman and Jabal al-Manjor and Raat contain a large number of petroglyphs and inscriptions, covering 10,000 years of human history.[59]
Archaeological Sites of the Island of Meroe Sudan Meroe Pyramids 2001.JPG SdnRiver Nile State,
 Sudan
16°56′00″N 33°43′00″E / 16.93333°N 33.71667°E / 16.93333; 33.71667
Cultural:SdnArc
(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)
2,357 (5,820) 2011 Meroe was the centre of the Kingdom of Kush, a major force active from the 8th century BCE to the 4th century CE. It is home to pyramids, temples, and domestic buildings, among other vestiges.[60]
Gebel Barkal and the Sites of the Napatan Region Gebel Barkal.jpg SdnNorthern State,
 Sudan
18°32′00″N 31°49′00″E / 18.53333°N 31.81667°E / 18.53333; 31.81667
Cultural:SdnGeb
(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)
183 (450) 2003 The archaeological sites of Gebel Barkal, Kurru, Nuri, Sanam and Zuma in the Nile Valley testify to the Napatan and Meroitic civilisations. They host a series of pyramids, tombs, temples, palaces, burial mounds and funerary chambers.[61]
Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay – Mukkawar Island Marine National Park Sdn Sudan
19°44′10″N 37°26′35″E / 19.73611°N 37.44306°E / 19.73611; 37.44306
Natural:SdnSan
(vii)(ix)(x)
199,524 (493,030) 2016 Situated in the central Red Sea, Sanganeb, Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island feature a diverse system of coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, beaches and islets, and host populations of seabirds, marine mammals, fish, sharks, turtles, manta rays and dugongs.[62]
Ancient City of Aleppo Ancient Aleppo from Citadel.jpg SyrAleppo Governorate,
 Syria
36°14′00″N 37°10′00″E / 36.23333°N 37.16667°E / 36.23333; 37.16667
Cultural:SyrAncAle
(iii)(iv)
350 (860) 1986 Situated at the crossroads of several trade routes, Aleppo has been successively ruled, among others, by the Romans, Ayyubids, Mameluks and Ottomans, each leaving significant influence in its architectural fabric, resulting in a diverse cityscape. Major structures include the Citadel, the Great Mosque and the Madrasa Halawiye.[63]
Ancient City of Bosra Bosra pano Syria.jpg SyrDaraa Governorate,
 Syria
32°31′05″N 36°28′54″E / 32.51806°N 36.48167°E / 32.51806; 36.48167
Cultural:SyrAncBos
(i)(iii)(vi)
1980 Formerly a Nabataean settlement, Bosra was conquered by the Romans in the 2nd century CE and made capital of Arabia. It came under Islamic rule in the 7th century. Remains of the ancient city include a theatre, a basilica, a cathedral, a mosque and a madrasa, among others.[64]
Ancient City of Damascus The Jupiter temple in Damascus.jpg SyrDamascus Governorate,
 Syria
33°30′41″N 36°18′23″E / 33.51139°N 36.30639°E / 33.51139; 36.30639
Cultural:SyrAncDam
(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)
86 (210) 1979 Established the 3rd millennium BCE, Damascus is considered to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. As the capital of the Umayyads, it has been of significant influence to the Arab world. The Great Mosque is among the largest in the world and the oldest sites of continuous prayer since the beginnings of Islam.[65]
Ancient Villages of Northern Syria Serjilla 01.jpg Syr Syria
36°20′03″N 36°50′39″E / 36.33417°N 36.84417°E / 36.33417; 36.84417
Cultural:SyrAncVil
(iii)(iv)(v)
12,290 (30,400) 2011 The site comprises some 40 villages, dating from the 1st to 7th centuries and abandoned in the 8th to 10th centuries. They provide an insight into rural life in Late Antiquity and during the Byzantine period.[66]
Crac des Chevaliers and Qal'at Salah El-Din Krak des Chevaliers 14.jpg SyrHoms and Latakia Governorates,
 Syria
34°46′54″N 36°15′47″E / 34.78167°N 36.26306°E / 34.78167; 36.26306
Cultural:SyrCra
(ii)(iv)
9 (22) 2006 The Crac des Chevaliers and the Qal'at Salah El-Din are regarded as two of the most prominent examples of castles during the Crusader period, demonstrating an evolution of fortifications and exchange of influences in defensive technology.[67]
Site of Palmyra Temple of Bel, Palmyra 15.jpg SyrHoms Governorate,
 Syria
34°33′15″N 38°16′00″E / 34.55417°N 38.26667°E / 34.55417; 38.26667
Cultural:SyrSit
(i)(ii)(iv)
0.36 (0.89) 1980 Palmyra came under Roman rule in the 1st century CE, and grew to become one of the most important cultural centres of the ancient world. Its extensive ruins include remains of the Great Colonnade, the Temple of Bel, the Camp of Diocletian and the Roman Theatre.[68]
Archaeological Site of Carthage Ruines de Carthage.jpg TunTunis Governorate,
 Tunisia
36°51′10″N 10°19′24″E / 36.85278°N 10.32333°E / 36.85278; 10.32333
Cultural:TunArc
(ii)(iii)(vi)
616 (1,520) 1979 Founded in the 9th century BCE, Carthage developed into a trading empire spanning the Mediterranean. The city was destroyed in 146 BCE in the Punic Wars at the hands of the Romans, but was later reestablished.[69]
Dougga / Thugga Dougga theatre.jpg TunBeBéja Governorate,
 Tunisia
36°25′25″N 9°13′13″E / 36.42361°N 9.22028°E / 36.42361; 9.22028
Cultural:TunDou
(ii)(iii)
70 (170) 1997 The site features the ruins of Dougga, a former capital of a LibyanPunic state, which flourished under the Romans and the Byzantines, but went into decline in the Islamic period.[70]
Amphitheatre of El Jem Eljem2.jpg TunMahdia Governorate,
 Tunisia
35°17′47″N 10°42′25″E / 35.29639°N 10.70694°E / 35.29639; 10.70694
Cultural:TunEld
(iv)(vi)
1.37 (3.4) 1979 Built during the 3rd century, the Amphitheatre of El Jem is North Africa's largest amphitheatre, and the largest one built outside of Italy, with a capacity of 35,000 spectators, regarded as among the most accomplished examples of Roman architecture of its kind.[71]
Ichkeul National Park Parcichkeul3.jpg TunBiBizerte Governorate,
 Tunisia
37°09′49″N 9°40′29″E / 37.16361°N 9.67472°E / 37.16361; 9.67472
Natural:TunIch
(x)
12,600 (31,000) 1980 Ichkeul Lake and the surrounding wetlands is a destination for hundreds of thousands of migrating birds, including ducks, geese, storks and pink flamingos. It was once part of a chain that extended across North Africa.[72]
Kairouan Kairouan's Great Mosque courtyard.jpg TunKairouan Governorate,
 Tunisia
35°40′54″N 10°06′14″E / 35.68167°N 10.10389°E / 35.68167; 10.10389
Cultural:TunKai
(i)(ii)(iii)(v)(vi)
68 (170) 1988 Founded in 670, Kairouan was the former capital of Ifriqiya and flourished in the 9th century. Its heritage includes the Mosque of Uqba and the Mosque of the Three Gates.[73]
Medina of Sousse Sousse Grosse Moschee.JPG TunSousse Governorate,
 Tunisia
35°49′40″N 10°38′19″E / 35.82778°N 10.63861°E / 35.82778; 10.63861
Cultural:TunMedinaofSou
(iii)(iv)(v)
32 (79) 1988 A prime example of a town from the early Islamic period, Sousse was an important commercial and military port during the 9th century.[74]
Medina of Tunis PatioDarBenAbdallah.JPG TunTunis Governorate,
 Tunisia
36°49′00″N 10°10′00″E / 36.81667°N 10.16667°E / 36.81667; 10.16667
Cultural:TunMedinaofTun
(ii)(iii)(v)
296 (730) 1979 The Medina of Tunis contains some 700 monuments, including palaces, mosques, mausoleums, madrasah and fourtains, testifying to Tunis' golden age from the 12th to the 16th century.[75]
Punic Town of Kerkuane and its Necropolis Kerkouane1.JPG TunNabeul Governorate,
 Tunisia
36°56′47″N 11°05′57″E / 36.94639°N 11.09917°E / 36.94639; 11.09917
Cultural:TunPun
(iii)
1985 Abandoned in 250 BCE during the First Punic War and never rebuilt, Kerkuane is the only surviving example of a PhoenicioPunic settlement.[76]
Cultural Sites of Al Ain (Hafit, Hili, Bidaa Bint Saud and Oases Areas) Al Ain w Jebel Hafeet.JPG UaeAbu Dhabi,
 United Arab Emirates
24°04′04″N 55°48′23″E / 24.06778°N 55.80639°E / 24.06778; 55.80639
Cultural:UaeCul
(iii)(iv)(v)
4,945 (12,220) 2011 Situated in a desert region, Al Ain has been occupied since the Neolithic period, hosting stone tombs from the 3rd millennium BCE, wells, adobe constructions and one of the oldest examples of the aflaj irrigation system.[77]
Historic Town of Zabid Zabid, Yemen.jpg YemAl Hudaydah Governorate,
 Yemen
14°11′53″N 43°19′48″E / 14.19806°N 43.33000°E / 14.19806; 43.33000
Cultural:YemHis
(iii)
1993 Zabid was the capital of Yemen from the 13th to the 15th century. Its Islamic university greatly contributed to the spread of Islamic knowledge.[78]
Old City of Sana'a Sana.jpg YemSana'a Governorate,
 Yemen
15°21′20″N 44°12′29″E / 15.35556°N 44.20806°E / 15.35556; 44.20806
Cultural:YemOldSan
(iv)(v)(vi)
1986 Situated in a mountain valley, Sana'a has been continuously inhabited for more than 2,500 years. It became a centre for the spread of Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries. The city is home to the unique rammed-earth tower-houses, in addition to 103 mosques and 14 hammams built before the 11th century.[79]
Old Walled City of Shibam Shibam Wadi Hadhramaut Yemen.jpg YemHadhramaut Governorate,
 Yemen
15°55′37″N 48°37′36″E / 15.92694°N 48.62667°E / 15.92694; 48.62667
Cultural:YemOldShi
(iii)(iv)(v)
1982 The 16th-century walled city of Shibam is among the oldest and best examples of vertical urban planning, with its distinct mud brick tower houses garnering it the nickname "the Manhattan of the desert".[80]
Socotra Archipelago Socotra dragon tree.JPG YemHadhramaut Governorate,
 Yemen
12°30′00″N 53°50′00″E / 12.50000°N 53.83333°E / 12.50000; 53.83333
Natural:YemSoc
(x)
410,460 (1,014,300) 2008 The Socotra Archipelago is known for its great biodiversity and distinct flora and fauna, with a large number of endemic species found nowhere else on earth. It also supports a broad range of avian and marine life.[81]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]