List of World War II torpedoes of Germany

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List of World War II Kriegsmarine torpedoes[edit]

Designation Codename Propulsion Dimensions - dia./length Range (speed) Warhead
(pistol)
Notes
KM# Type
TI G7a Wet heater 533.4 mm / 7163 mm 120hm (30kn 'NS') / 75hm (40kn 'WS') / 50hm (44kn 'SS') Ka (Pi1), Kc (Pi3) The standard torpedo prior to World War II, used by all platforms during World War II: surface combatants (Kreuzer, Zerstörer, T-Boote, S-Boote) and U-boats at night. Nicknamed "ato" by German crews (i.e. atem- or air-torpedo, indicating the steam propulsion) to distinguish it from the G7e (electric torpedoes). 44 kn speed was only used for S-Boote. According to certain sources only used from surface vessels during the last part of World War II.
TI Fat I G7a Wet heater 533.4mm / 7163mm 120hm (30kn) / 75hm (40kn) / 50hm (44kn) Ka (Pi1), Kc (Pi3) Standard TI with Fat program-control type I (for security-reasons only used by night).
TI Lut I G7a Wet heater 533.4mm / 7163mm 120hm (30kn) / 75hm (40kn) / 50hm (44kn) Ka (Pi1), Kc (Pi3) Standard TI with Lut program-control type I.
TI Lut II G7a Wet heater 533.4mm / 7163mm 120hm (30kn) / 75hm (40kn) / 50hm (44kn) Ka (Pi1), Kc (Pi3) Standard TI with Lut program-control type II.
TIü G7a Wet heater 533.4mm / 7163mm <120hm (30kn) / <75hm (40kn) Exercise head only (light) Torpedo dedicated for educational/training purposes with Schulboote at U-Flotillen. It had restricted settings on depth mechanism, a light (empty) exercise head and other minor modifications, to ensure positive buoyancy at the end of the run and reduced stress on the engine (=less damages and loss of torpedoes, i.e. achieving a higher number of shots).
TIü Lut II G7a Wet heater 533.4mm / 7163mm <120hm (30kn) / <75hm (40kn) Exercise head only (light) TIü with Lut program-control type II.
TII G7e Electric, lead-acid battery (13T) 533.4mm / 7163mm 50hm (30kn) Ka (Pi1) Faulty pistols. Nicknamed "eto" (electric torpedo) by German crews for easy distinguishing from the G7a ("ato" air-driven torpedo). Could not be fitted with Fat or Lut due to its short range.
TIII G7e Electric, lead-acid (13T battery) 534,6mm / 7163mm 50hm (30kn) Kb (Pi2) Improved pistols and batteries (cable-guide from the battery-chamber to the warhead for powering magnetic pistols). Nicknamed "eto" (electric torpedo) by German crews for easy distinguishing from the G7a ("ato" air-driven torpedo).
TIII Fat II G7e Electric, lead-acid (13T battery) 534,6mm / 7163mm 50hm (30kn) Kb (Pi2) TIII with Fat program-control type II.
TIIIa Fat II G7e Electric, lead-acid (17T battery) 534,6mm / 7163mm 75hm (30kn) Ka (Pi1), Kb (Pi2) TIII with improved battery and Fat program-control type II.
TIIIa Lut I G7e Electric, lead-acid (17T battery) 534,6mm / 7163mm 75hm (30kn) Ka (Pi1), Kb (Pi2) TIII with improved battery and Lut program-control type I.
TIIIa Lut II G7e Electric, lead-acid (17T battery) 534,6mm / 7163mm 75hm (30kn) Ka (Pi1), Kb (Pi2) TIII with improved battery and Lut program-control type II.
TIIIb G7e Electric, lead-acid (13T battery) 534,6mm / 7163mm 40hm (18.5kn) Kb2 (Pi2f) TIII with only one battery compartment to reduce weight (special adaptation for use on Marder midget submarine).
TIIIc G7e Electric, lead-acid (13T battery) 534,6mm / 7163mm 40hm (18.5kn) Kb2 (Pi2f) Improved TIIIb (special adaptation for use on Biber, Hecht, Molch and Seehund midget submarines).
TIIId G7e Dackel Electric, lead-acid (17T 210 battery) 534,6mm / 11000mm ca. 480hm (9kn) Kb2 (Pi1d) Special long-range anti-invasion torpedo with a variant of the Lut II program steering. Launched from S-Boote and barges (it saw operational use against the allied invasion-fleet in Normandy).
TIIIe G7e Kreuzotter Electric, lead-acid (13T Special battery) 534,6mm / 7163mm 75hm (20kn) Ke1 (Pi4c) TIII specially adapted for use on Molch and Seehund midget submarines.
TIV G7es Falke Electric, lead-acid 534,6mm / 7163mm 75hm (20kn) Kd (Pi4a) Simple acoustic homing. Only operational for a brief period before being replaced by the improved TV.
TV G7es Zaunkönig Electric, lead-acid 534,6mm / 7163mm 57hm (24kn) Ke1 (Pi4c) Acoustic homing (three different seekers). Called GNAT by the allies (acronym from "German Naval Acoustic Torpedo). Generally regarded as the best German torpedo of World War II (between 5000 and 6000 launched, with a reported hit-rate of approximately 53%).
TVa G7es Zaunkönig Electric, lead-acid 534,6mm / 7163mm 80hm (21.5kn) Ke1 (Pi4d) TV specially adapted for use on S-Boote (end-of-run detonation, reduced speed, longer range and different depth-mechanism).
TVb G7es Zaunkönig Electric, lead-acid 534.6 mm / 7163 mm 80hm (21,5kn) Ke1 (Pi4c) TVa adapted for use as an anti U-Boat torpedo.
TVI G7es Electric, lead-acid 534,6mm / 7163mm 75hm (30kn) Kf (Pi6) TIIIa with minor changes (probably with Lut II) and a special warhead which was never fielded.
TVII G7ut Steinbutt Walter turbine 534,6mm / ?mm 80hm (45kn) Kb (Pi2), Kf (Pi6) Ingolin/dekalin/helman/water fueled BO VI-turbine. Combustion-chamber arranged horizontally in the longitudinal axis. Approximately 100 torpedoes produced, but never fielded - mainly due to several problems with both pistol and start ballistics.
TVIII G7ut Steinbarsch Walter turbine 534.6mm / ?mm 80hm (45kn) Kb (Pi2), Kf (Pi6) Development of the TVII, with different internal organisation of the various mechanisms. More than 100 torpedoes produced. Was due to be fielded in April 1945, despite several problems during testing.
TIX G5ut Goldbutt Walter turbine 534.6mm / 5490mm 40hm (45kn) "Goldfisch"-variant planned for the German "Kleinst-Uboote". As development of the U-boat ended, so did the program for the TIX.
TX G7ef NYK Spinne Electric, lead-acid (13T battery) 534.6mm / 7163mm 50hm (30kn) Ka (Pi1) Developed from the TII torpedo. Wire guided by means of visual sight from a command bunker / observation site. Intended for coastal defence and use from beach-batteries (wagenbatterie), later evolved to also include special harbour installations (molenbatterie) and mobile launchers (schiffbatterie). Only 200 torpedoes were built (gerät 43d), originally for 35 "spinne sperrbatterie" to be established on the French channel- and Mediterranean coastline from July 1944. Sime batteries were also established in Belgium, and after the allied invasion in July 1944 most of the French batteries were moved to the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark (85 TX torpedoes were located in a number of Danish batteries after the war). A new version (gerät 43cp) was tested for use on midget submarines (Marder/ Molch/ Seehund) with good results, and was planned for operational use on the Seehund from August 1945.
TXI G7es Zaunkönig II Electric, lead-acid 534.6mm / 7163mm 57hm (24kn) Ke1 (Pi4c) TV with Improved acoustic homing and depth mechanism. Ready for use, but only 38 were built. No record of usage in World War II (five TXI torpedoes recovered from the U-534, now on display in Birkenhead, UK. Four of the TXIs were picked for parts and blown up. Only one torpedo remains on display with the U-boat).
TXII G5e Electric, lead-acid (9T battery) 534.6mm / 5550mm 30hm (30kn) Kb (Pi2) Short torpedo developed for the smaller type XVII coastal submarines. Was intended as a temporary solution until the ingolin-torpedoes were ready for operational use, but never fielded.
TXIII G7ut K-Butt Walter turbine 534.6mm / 7163mm 30hm (45kn) Kb2 (Pi2) Ingolin/dekalin/helman/water fueled BO VI-turbine. Less fuel than the "Goldbutt", but 7 m length. Experimental development for the Seehund midget submarine. With sinker-mechanism. Approximately 60 torpedoes produced, planned for fielding by end of April 1945.
TXIV G7a Wet heater 534.6mm (527 for airtank) / 7163mm 25hm (34kn) Kc (Pi3) TI with changed buoyancy (max air pressure reduced from 200 to 100 kg/cm^2) developed as a replacement for TIIIc (failing batteries) for use on the Seehund midget submarine. With sinker-mechanism. Never fielded.
G7es Lerche Electric (13T 210 Special battery) 534.6mm / 7163mm unknown Ke1 (Pi4c, TZ5) Development of the TV and TX with both active acoustic seeker and wire guidance. Operator in U-boat could listen to the signal from the seeker and manually control the steering. Never fielded.
G7t Sauerstoff-turbine 534.6mm / 7163mm unknown unknown (TZ2b, TZ5) Experimental development of the oxygen-turbine. Dropped in favour of the ingolin-engines.
G7m Kreismotor 534.6mm / 7163mm 270hm (40kn) / 180hm (48kn) unknown (TZ2b, TZ6) Experimental. Gasoline and compressed oxygen as fuel. Development was dropped in favour of the ingolin-engines.
G7p Electric, with primary battery 91.5hm (30kn) / 36.5hm (40kn) Experimental, using two primary batteries (magnesium-carbon and zinc-leadoxide) for propulsion. It was proposed to get very good speed and range, but development ended due to lack of resources.
M5 Wet heater 736.6 mm / 4880mm unknown (40kn) unknown Experimental torpedo developed for coastal defence with a large explosive charge and long range. Based on the TI with a 6-cylinder engine and only one speed-setting. 20 torpedoes built. Was to be launched from a slide from shore to the water, but testing proved numerous "bottom-runners" due to failure of the launch and general poor quality of design and production.
G7es Geier I and II Electric 534.6mm / 7163mm unknown Active sonar homing, experimental. Similar to the TV. Development-program with Luftwaffe, which ended up going for the "Pfau" instead. Otherwise successful design, which led to planning of a further development ("Geier III").
LtIm F5b Wet heater 450mm / 5550mm 25hm (40kn) GK3a (Pi51) Luftwaffe torpedo adapted for use on Kriegsmarine Kleinst Schnellboote.
G7as Wet heater Acoustic homing, not fielded
G7u Klippfisch Wet heater Walter turbine 95hm (40kn) Experimental intermediate model for the G7ut development (never planned for production). Ingolin/dekalin/Helman/Water-propulsion, using the aft-section and engine from the TI.
G7ut Schildbutt Walter turbine with seawater injection 140hm (45kn) / 180hm (40kn) Experimental. Ingolin/dekalin/Helman/Water pressure-injection fueled turbine, later developed with the Steinwal-BO VI turbine.
Zaunbutt Ingolin Walter turbine Acoustic seeker from the TV combined with the ingolin-propulsion. Proposed shorter range than the Steinbutt, due to losing space for fuel in favour of electronics for the seeker. The project was in model-testing phase, when all plans and models were destroyed in a bombing raid. The project was not continued.
Wal / Steinwal Ingolin Walter turbine 192hm (45kn) Experimental. Ingolin/dekalin/water pumped to the motor combined with Helman pressure-conveyor (BO VI-turbine). Development nearly finished by end of the war.
G7f NY Electric 12.5hm (30kn) Experimental surface-running torpedo remotely controlled by radio (several solutions were investigated, including control from airplane and shore-based relay-stations). Hexagon-shaped hull with hydrofoil wings and rocket-propulsion.
G7m Closed-circuit propulsion 180hm (48kn) Considered as replacement for both steam and electric propulsion. Never fielded.
G7ur Hecht Walter rocket Experimental
G7ur Mondfisch Walter rocket 700hm (45kn) Experimental. Ingolin/dekalin/floran-fueled rocket-engine (BO VI-Turbine). Transverse combustion-chamber.
G5ut Goldfisch Walter turbine 534.6mm / 5490mm 34hm (45kn) 5 m version of the "Steinfisch". Planned torpedo for the "Spezial-Uboote", with development ending as the uboats never were realized.
Electric, lead-acid unknown unknown Two experimental torpedo models using the TIII engine, but replacing the conventional propellers with "schlagruder" (oscillating fins, similar to the tail of a whale). The hull was of an unconventional "manta" design, which had several benefits: Less drag in the water. Potential for much higher payload (a total weight of 4 tonnes using the TIII engine, compared to the 1.5 tonne total weight of the TIII). Much more stable travel compared to the traditional tube-formed torpedo hulls. One test model build.
Ackermann unknown unknown unknown Wake-homing torpedo with acoustic/pressure seeker. Only theoretic planning.
Fasan unknown unknown unknown Active acoustic-seeker with Lut-program steering. Lut program active until a ships wake is crossed/detected, upon the acoustic homing would be triggered. Only at planning-stage.
Ibis unknown unknown unknown Active wake-homing acoustic-seeker. Project was dropped in favour of the "Fasan".
Märchen unknown unknown unknown Magnetic seeker. Only theoretic planning.
Taube unknown unknown unknown Low-frequency, passive acoustic seeker. Only theoretical planning.
G7v Wet heater 500mm / 7083mm 120hm (28,5kn) Older torpedo developed in the early 1920s (prequel for the 21-inch G7a) which saw limited use during World War II. It was used at least until October 1944 in the Ofotfiord-batteries outside Narvik, and most likely for the rest of the war on some "schwimmende" batteries protecting the major German battleships in their bases in northern Norway.
G/250 Wet heater 450mm / 7083mm 60hm (27kn) / 25hm (36kn) Older Whitehead-torpedo (developed at the end of WW1), which saw limited use during World War II. For instance, it replaced older Norwegian torpedoes at two shore torpedo batteries on the west coast of Norway during the war (original torpedoes often failed due to conditions at the site, as well as a wish for an increased explosive charge).
F5 Wet heater 450 mm / 6505 mm 15hm (45kn) Norwegian 45 cm torpedoes (beutewaffe) used at certain shore-based torpedo batteries in Norway.

Kriegsmarine torpedo designation system[edit]

The first letter indicates the diameter:

  • G = 53 cm (21")
  • F = 45 cm (17.7")
  • H = 60 cm (23.7")
  • M = 75 cm (30")

The number indicates the approximate length (for example, the length of a G7a is 7163 mm):

  • 7 = 7 m
  • 6 = 6 m
  • 5 = 5 m

Next letter(s) indicates specific features regarding propulsion and control:

  • a = Atem, i.e. Pressluft/Dampfgemisch-Antrieb (pressurized air/steam engine)
  • e = elektrischer Antrieb (electric engine)
  • f = Fernlenkung (remote control by radio or cable)
  • d = Sauerstoff/Dampfgemisch-Antrieb (oxygen/steam engine)
  • p = Primärbatterie-Antrieb (primary battery propulsion)
  • m = Verbrennungsmaschine mit Kreislaufverfahren (combustion engine recirculating air)
  • u = Sauerstoffträger Ingolin spurenfreier Antrieb (oxygen/steam engine with hydrogen peroxide as source for air, and no exposing "bubbletrack")
  • x = Torpedo mit 3-Achsen Steuerung (3-axes control)
  • r = Raketen- oder Düsenantrieb (rocket- or jet propulsion)
  • s = Schall, Torpedo mit akustischen Suchkopf (acoustic seeker)
  • t = Turbinenantrieb (turbine-engine)

"r" and "t" were only used with "u" to further denote the features of the ingolin-torpedoes. Some sources claim that "s" only was used with "a" to denote the development of G7a with acoustic seeker-capability; however, it was no doubt used for the electric torpedoes with acoustic seekers (as "es" or just "s").

When the torpedo reached production status and was fielded (i.e. for operational use), Kriegsmarine gave it a short designation "T", or "Torpedonummer", with the number given in Roman lettering (TI, TII, TIII, TIV etc.). For different versions of the main torpedo, a small Arabic letter was added (for example TIIId, TVa etc.) denoting specific/minor changes within the main design.

Warheads and pistols[edit]

Warheads was designated with the letter "K" (K = short for Kopf, meaning "head") and a small Arabic letter, with an additional number denoting variants of the head (variations was typical the change of material from bronze to steel, adding/removing spants during the course of the war and method of installing the explosives). Examples: Ka, Ka1, Kb, Kb1 etc.

Pistols used the "Pi" designations to begin with (Pi = short for pistole). The early models was named according to function and/or torpedo type like "PiG7H" or "PiG7a-MZ", but this was later replaced by a simple system of numbers, like "Pi1", "Pi2" etc.

To indicate variants within the main design, a small Latin letter was added after the number, like "Pi1a", "Pi1b" etc.

At some point, "Pi" was dropped for pistols with combination of mechanical (direct hit) and magnetic (distance-sensor) mechanisms, to the "TZ" designation (TZ = Torpedo-Zündeinrichtung). For example, the mechanical mechanism from the "Pi1" pistol combined with the magnetic mechanism from "Pi2" became the "TZ2".

Code names[edit]

Code names were intended used only through the development period for security measures. However, in some cases it was kept on also after the torpedo was fielded and designated with the "T"-number.

Torpedo pistols, program seeker-systems and other special arrangements also had their own "system" of code names, using the names of birds, fish or animals (for example Pi "Leuchtfisch", GA "Specht", seeker "Storch", control "Viper", target detector "Salamander" etc.). During development, the pistols often got code names designated by the industrial developer or manufacturer like simple words/syllables or names associated with the firm or the engineers in charge of the development (for example Pi "Otto", Pi "Atlas", Pi "Berlin" etc.).

Program steering[edit]

Fat 
Federapparat or Flächenabsuchender Torpedo (spring device or area searching torpedo), a mechanical device changed the torpedo's course over time so that it ran up- and down on parallel lines of 800 or 1600 m length. Three versions: Fat I, II and III (Fat III was later redesignated Lut I).
Lut 
Lageunabhängiger Torpedo (bearing independent torpedo), changed the torpedo's course to a preset heading directly after launch, so the launching platform could fire torpedoes at targets without changing its own course. Two versions: Lut I and Lut II (+ a special Lut I variant for the TIIId torpedo with a very long initial straight run of 36000 m).

The program steering consisted of a mechanical construction coupled to the gyroscope, which changed the torpedo's course over time in different patterns, after an initial straight running distance.

Fat I ("S-shaped" loop-patterns): The initial straight distance could be set from a minimum of 500 m to a maximum of 1500 m. Two loop-patterns available: "short" and "long", and in addition there were a choice of right or left turns (i.e. a total of 5 settings on the Fat-mechanism). For "short" loops, the straight distance between turns was 800 m, with a total width of the pattern-search of 1140 m For "long" loops, the straight distance between turns was 1500 m, and a total width of the pattern-search of 1840 m. The turning radius for both patterns were 170 m.

Fat II ("S-shaped loops or circular patterns): The same data as for Fat Il, but an additional choice for "circular" pattern, where the torpedo would run in a circle after the initial straight-run. This was an option primary used by uboats against attacking surface-ships that ran a zig-zag pattern hunting the u-boat (the goal was to locate the torpedo's circle-run just ahead of the attacking ship, hoping for a "lucky" hit).

Fat III / Lut I ("zig-zag" pattern): Initial torpedo course can be chosen, so the torpedo platform don't need to change its bearing to an optimal course for torpedo launch. The "Lut-speed" (i.e. the resulting advance-speed of the torpedo, considering the zig-zag pattern) can be chosen, and subsequently the straight legs between turns will be adjusted accordingly.

Lut II: Same as Lut I, but even slower Lut-speeds could be chosen.

List of World War II Luftwaffe torpedoes[edit]

Designation Codename Propulsion Dimensions, dia./length Range (speed) Warhead (pistol) Notes
Lw# Type
F5 Wet heater 450mm / 5550mm 30hm (33kn) unknown Copy of the Norwegian F1 "Horten" torpedo. Limited drop-parametres (75kn airspeed/15-20m height)
LT I F5a Wet heater 450mm / 5550mm 26hm (33kn) unknown German development of the Norwegian F1 "Horten" torpedo. Improved drop-parametres (140kn airspeed/50m height)
LT I A F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 30hm (40kn) unknown Improved version of the F5a (increased capacity air tank and higher performance engine).
LT I A1 F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 20hm (40kn) GK1, GK2, GK2a, GK3, GK3a, GK4, GK4a, GK6 (PiF5s, Pi30, Pi30m, P42s, Pi43, Pi45, Pi50, Pi51, Pi52, Pi60) Developed by Kriegsmarine for Luftwaffe. Fielded in 1941. The main German aerial torpedo of World War II, alongside the F5w.
LT I A2 F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 30hm (33kn) GK1, GK2, GK2a, GK3, GK3a, GK4, GK4a, GK6 (PiF5s, Pi30, Pi30m, P42s, Pi43, Pi45, Pi50, Pi51, Pi52, Pi60) Never fielded.
LT I A3 F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 60hm (24kn) GK1, GK2, GK3, GK4, GK4a, GK6 (PiF5s, Pi30, P42s, Pi43, Pi45, Pi50, Pi51, Pi52, Pi60) GA IX gyroscope with 9a program steering.
LT I B1 F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 20hm (40kn) GK1, GK2, GK2a, GK3, GK3a, GK4, GK4a, GK6 (PiF5s, Pi30, Pi30m, P42s, Pi43, Pi45, Pi50, Pi51, Pi52, Pi60) LT I A1 with electric depth- and gyroscope settings. Fielded early 1944.
LT I B2 F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 30hm (33kn) GK1, GK2, GK2a, GK3, GK3a, GK4, GK4a, GK6 (PiF5s, Pi30, Pi30m, P42s, Pi43, Pi45, Pi50, Pi51, Pi52, Pi60) LT I A2 with electric depth and gyroscope settings. Was probably only used for training purposes.
LT I B3 F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 60hm (24kn) GK1, GK2, GK3, GK4, GK4a, GK6 (PiF5s, Pi30, P42s, Pi43, Pi45, Pi50, Pi51, Pi52, Pi60) LT I A3 with electric depth and gyroscope settings. Fielded in mid-1944.
LT I B4 F5b Pfau Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm 60hm (24kn) GK5, GK9 (Pi43, Pi45, Pi52, Pi52a, Pi65) Passive Acoustic seeker (was ready for use, but never fielded before the end of the war).
LT I C F5b Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm unknown unknown Never finished testing (development-program ended due to limited resources).
LT II F5u Wet heater 450mm / 5010mm 14,8hm (45kn) unknown F5b with improved engine. 50 produced, never fielded.
LT II B1 F5u Ingolin-engine 449,6mm / 5490mm 50hm (40kn) unknown Never finished testing (development-program ended due to limited resources).
LT II B3 F5u Ingolin-engine 449,6mm / 5490mm 119hm (24kn) unknown GA 9b with 9b program steering. Never finished testing (development program ended due to limited resources).
LT II C F5u Ingolin-engine 449,6mm / 5490mm unknown unknown GA 9b with 9b program steering. Never finished testing (development program ended due to limited resources).
F5b Geier I and II Wet heater 449,6mm / 5490mm unknown unknown Active sonar homing, experimental. Similar to the Kriegsmarine TV. Development program with Kriegsmarine, but Luftwaffe ended up going for the "Pfau" instead.
Geier III unknown unknown unknown Proposed development of the Geier II with system for enhancing and comparing the hydrophone echoes. Only reached planning phase.
F5i Wet heater 450mm / 5250mm 30hm (40kn) unknown Italian standard aerial torpedo.
F5w Wet heater 450mm / 5460mm 30hm (40kn) unknown Italian Whitehead torpedo. Saw widespread use, alongside the LT I A1
LT 280 Electric 500mm / 2600mm 120hm (4-14kn) unknown Italian light torpedo.
LT 350 Electric ellipse-shaped hull 500mm / 2600mm 150hm (4-14kn) unknown Italian parachute-torpedo. Dropped from a height of 100m. It ran autonomously irregular search-patterns within a 1000x800m box for about one hour with speed decreasing from 14 to 4kn.
LT 850 Wet heater 450mm / 5470mm 20hm (42kn) unknown German designation for the successful Japanese airdropped Type 91 Mod 2 torpedo, using Japanese-devised pneumatic PID controller for roll stabilization. 70 torpedoes were delivered, but none were used operationally.
LT 1000a Ingolin turbine-engine ellipse-shaped hull (390x200mm) / 5000mm unknown (40kn) unknown Never finished testing (development-program ended due to limited resources).
LT 1000b Ingolin turbine-engine ellipse-shaped hull (460x800mm) / 5398mm unknown (40kn) unknown A variant with altered tailsection/rudders.
LT 950 F5b Wet heater 450mm / 5360mm 30hm (40kn) unknown "Flugeltorpedo": F5b equipped with glider-attachment (wings and rudders). Experimental (several variants), not fielded. A maximum range of 2300m glidepath when dropped from a height of 800m were obtained during testing.
LT 9,2 F5b Frosch Wet heater 450mm / 5100mm unknown unknown A variant of the "flugeltorpedo" that was not pursued in favour of the LT950C.
LT 950C (L10 flugelantrieb) F5b Friedensengel Wet heater 450mm / 5100mm 90hm unknown The final variant of the "flugeltorpedo".
LT 1200A Ingolin rocket-engine (HWK) 450mm / 5200mm 22hm (40kn) unknown Development ended due to the torpedo being too heavy and having too short a range (weight: 815 kg).
LT 1200B Ingolin rocket-engine (HWK) 533,4mm / 7000mm 50hm (35kn) unknown Development ended due to the torpedo being too heavy and having too short a range (weight: 1200 kg).
LT 1500 Turbinen-antrieb Ingolin turbine-engine (HWK/CPVA) 533,4mm / 7050mm 35hm (40kn) unknown Improved version of the LT 1200, but similar the development ended due to the torpedo being too heavy and having too short a range (weight: 1520 kg).
LT 1500 Raketen-antrieb Ingolin rocket-engine (HWK/CPVA) 533,4mm / 7050mm unknown unknown LT 1500 variant with rocket-engine.

Luftwaffe lufttorpedo designation system[edit]

As a general rule, Luftwaffe followed the Kriegsmarine system of code names and designations, but with some differences.

Variations for the letter(s) indicating specific features regarding propulsion and control:

  • b = Pressluft/Dampfgemisch-Antrieb (pressurized air/steam engine)
  • i and w = indicated Italian-built torpedoes (w = whitehead)

Instead of letters and numbers denoting dimensions and features, a single 3 or 4 digit number was used for some torpedo designs.

Luftwaffe also used the "LT" designation (= Lufttorpedo), but not limited to operational torpedoes. It also combined further letters and numbers to indicate type and features of the torpedo:

  • I = Pressluft/Dampfgemisch-Antrieb (pressurized air/steam engine)
  • II = Ingolin-Antrieb (use of hydrogen-peroxide as oxygen carrier)
  • A = Tiefen- und Winkeleinstellung von Hand (manual setting of depth and steering)
  • B = Elektrische Tiefen- und Winkeleinstellung von Hand (electric setting of depth and steering, i.e. possible to change in flight)
  • C = Programmsteuerung (program steering)
  • 1 = Speed of 40kn
  • 2 = Speed of 33kn
  • 3 = Speed of 24kn

Designations for Luftwaffe pistols used the same system as Kriegsmarine, while the warheads used the designation GK (GK = short for Gefechtskopf) followed by a number and a small Arabic letter for variants.

Bombentorpedoes[edit]

Luftwaffe also developed a passive weapon called "Bombentorpedo" (BT), which was planned to replace the conventional torpedoes. It was airdropped from a low height and relative short distance from the target, would enter the water and travel the short remaining distance through the water solely driven by its kinetic energy. No BT's were ever fielded operationally.

Designation Weight Dimensions, dia. / length Charge Notes
BT200 220 kg 300mm / 2395mm 100 kg
BT400 435 kg 378mm / 2946mm 200 kg
BT700A 780 kg 426mm / 3500mm 330 kg
BT700B 755 kg 456mm / 3358mm 320 kg
BT1000 1180 kg 480mm / 4240mm 710 kg Variant fitted with a rocket-engine, but the design was not successful.
BT1400 1510 kg 620mm / 4560mm 920 kg
BT1850 1923 kg 620mm / 4690mm 1050 kg

German torpedo platforms (torpedoträger)[edit]

Kriegsmarine[edit]

  • Submarines (U-Boote)
  • Motor torpedo boats (S-Boote, schnellboote) — E-Boats (better-known Royal Navy designation for the S-Boote)
  • Larger surface vessels like battleships ("Schlachtschiffe"), cruisers (kreuzer / "Panzerschiiffe"), destroyers (zerstörer), escorts/corvettes/frigates (torpedoboote)
  • Fortified shore-based batteries (torpedosperrbatterie)
  • Various temporary torpedo batteries were established at strategic locations for a period of time - (for instance as a substitute until a more permanent battery was established, or as a temporary defence for an improvised naval base etc.). These batteries varied from single to multiple tube launchers placed on quay/pier/suitable spot-on-the-ground or on small anchored boats/barges ("schwimmende batterie"). An S-Boote anchored in fixed locations with its bow (and thus its torpedo tubes) facing one direction could also serve in this role. Typical armament for shore-based and temporary batteries were tubes from dismantled surface vessels (533mm zwilling-, drilling- or vierling-rohrsätze) or "beutewaffe", i.e. tubes/torpedoes captured from the enemy.

Luftwaffe[edit]

  • Aircraft

References[edit]

  • Bundesmarine: Deutsche Unterwasserwaffen - Torpedos, 1967 (German translation of U.S. Navy Ordnance Pamphlet 1673B)
  • Bundesmarine: Torpedo Zünder der Deutschen Marine von 1914 bis 1968 mit historischen Rückblick Band 1, ca 1975
  • Torpedo Versuch Anstalt Eckernförde: Short survey of the course of Torpedo Development from T1 to the newest types, 1946 (post-war report for the Royal Navy)
  • Royal Navy: B.R.1972 German torpedoes and development of German torpedo control, 1952
  • Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee: Evaluation Report 167: Details of Contents of Microfilm on Captured Documents Pertaining to German Torpedo Developments, 1945
  • Kriegsmarine (T.V.A.): Technische Dienstvorschrift Nr. 194 Torpedo-Kopf-Pistolen-Tabelle, 1944
  • U.S. Navy Ordnance Pamphlet 1666 German Explosive Ordnance Volume 1, 1946
  • Eberhard Rössler: Die Torpedos der deutschen U-Boote (2.ed), 2005 (ISBN 3-8132-0842-7)
  • Friedrich Lauck: Der Lufttorpedo - Entwicklung und Technik in Deutschland 1915-1945, 1981 (ISBN 3-7637-5230-7)
  • Harold Thiele: Luftwaffe Aerial Torpedo Aircraft and Operations in World War Two, 2004 (ISBN 1 902109 42 2)
  • Fritz Hahn: Deutsche Geheimwaffen 1939-1945 - Flugzeugbewaffnungen, 1963
  • David H Wright: Thesis on German torpedo crisis in WW2, 2004
  • Misc allied reports and captured German documents from Kriegsmarine records kept at the US National Archives/NARA (mainly RG38 and RG242/T-1022) and the British National Archives/TNA (mainly ADM 213, ADM 290 and ADM 292)