List of World War I aces credited with 20 or more victories

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
A young male in flying uniform, with a medal around his neck.
Manfred von Richthofen, the most successful flying ace of World War I wearing the Pour le Mérite, Prussia's highest military order in this official portrait, c. 1917

The term "ace" (now commonly flying ace) was first used by French newspapers during World War I, describing Adolphe Pégoud as l'as (the ace), after he downed five German aircraft. When aircraft began to shoot or force down other aircraft, systems to count "air victories" were subsequently developed. The American qualification of five victories eventually became the standard, even though other air services had previously used differing figures.[1]

A white biplane fighter aircraft, with (in order of increasing size) blue, white and red concentric circles as the insignia on its wings, siting in a field of dirt
The Nieuport 17, a French biplane fighter aircraft of World War I

While "ace" status was most often won by fighter pilots, bomber and reconnaissance crews, and observers in two-seater aircraft such as the Bristol F.2b (Bristol Fighter), also destroyed enemy aircraft. If a two-seater aircraft destroyed an aircraft, both crew members were credited with a victory. Because pilots usually teamed with differing observer/gunners in two-seater aircraft, an observer might be an ace when his pilot was not, and vice versa.[2] The few aces among combat aviators have historically accounted for the majority of air-to-air victories in military history.[3]

Loss of records by mischance and the passage of time complicates reconstructing the actual count for given aces. The scores presented in the list cannot be definitive, but are based on itemized lists that are the best available sources of information.[4] Aces are listed after verifying the date and location of combat, and the foe vanquished, for every victory accredited by an aviator's home air service using their own aerial victory standards. Those victories for which the evidence is unavailable or fragmentary have been excluded from the victory count.

Aces[edit]

This list is complete. Notable aces are linked to their biographies.

  This along with the symbolic sword †, indicates that the pilot was known to be either killed in action, missing in action, died of wounds, or killed in a flying accident during World War I.

Name Country Air service(s) Victories Note
Manfred von Richthofen  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 80[5] The Red Baron
PLM plus 22 other awards
René Fonck  France Aéronautique Militaire 75[6] Top Allied and French ace
CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG, BCdeG, MC, MM
Billy Bishop  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 72[7][a] Top Canadian and British Empire ace
VC, CB, DSO*, MC, DFC.
Ernst Udet  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 62[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Edward Mannock  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 61[8] Top British ace

VC, DSO**, MC*.

Raymond Collishaw  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 60[9] Top Royal Naval Air Service ace
DSO*, DSC, DFC, OSA, CdeG
James McCudden  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 57[7] VC, DSO*, MC*, MM, CdeG
Andrew Beauchamp-Proctor  South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 54[7] Top South African ace
VC, DSO, MC*, DFC
Erich Löwenhardt  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 54[5] PLM, IC
Donald MacLaren  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 54[7] DSO, MC*, CdeLd'h, CdeG
Georges Guynemer  France Aéronautique Militaire 53[10] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG, DSO, OLII
William George Barker  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 50[7] VC, DSO*, MC**, MMV*(Silver), CdeG
Josef Jacobs  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 48[5] PLM, IC
Werner Voss  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 48[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Robert A. Little  Australia Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 47[7] Top Australian ace
DSO*, DSC*, CdeG
George McElroy  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 47[11] Top Irish ace

MC**, DFC*

Fritz Rumey  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 45[5] PLM, IC
Albert Ball  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 44[7][12] VC, DSO**, MC, OSG
Rudolf Berthold  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 44[5] PLM, MOSH, IC
Bruno Loerzer  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 44[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Paul Bäumer  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 43[5] PLM, MMC(P), IC, WB
Tom F. Hazell  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 43[7] DSO, MC, DFC*
Charles Nungesser  France Aéronautique Militaire 43[13] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG, DSC, MC, BCdeG, DSC(US)
Georges Madon  France Aéronautique Militaire 41[14] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Oswald Boelcke  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 40[5] PLM, IC
Franz Büchner  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 40[5] PLM, MOSH, HOH, IC
Philip F. Fullard  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 40[7] DSO, MC*, AFC
Lothar von Richthofen  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 40[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Roderic Dallas  Australia Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 39[15][b] DSO, DSC*
Charles George Gass  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 39[16] Top observer ace
MC
John Inglis Gilmour  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 39[7] DSO, MC
Heinrich Gontermann  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 39[17] PLM, HOH, MOMJ, IC
William Lancelot Jordan  South Africa Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 39[7] DSC*, DFC
Carl Menckhoff  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 39[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Alfred Atkey  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 38[7] Leading 2 seater pilot of war
MC*
William Gordon Claxton  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 37[7] DSO, DFC*
Willy Coppens  Belgium Belgian Military Aviation 37[18] Top Belgian and balloon busting ace of war
OL, OWE, OC, CdeG, BCdeG, CdeLd'H, DSO, MC
James Ira Thomas Jones  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 37[7] DSO*, MC, DFC*
Karl Bolle  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 36[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Julius Buckler  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 36[5] PLM, MMC(P), IC, sole award of Gold WB
Joseph Stewart Temple Fall  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 36[7] DFC**, AFC
Max Ritter von Müller  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 36[19] PLM, MOMJ, IC
Maurice Boyau  France Aéronautique Militaire 35[20] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Godwin von Brumowski  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 35[21] Top Austro-Hungarian ace
OIC, OL, MFB, MMM, IC
Gustav Dörr  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] MMC(P), IC
Otto Könnecke  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] PLM, MMC(P), HOH, IC
Frederick McCall  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 35[7] DSO, MC*, DFC
Eduard Ritter von Schleich  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] PLM, IC, MOMJ
Emil Thuy  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Josef Veltjens  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Henry Winslow Woollett  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 35[7] DSO, MC*, CdeLd'h
Francesco Baracca  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 34[22] Top Italian ace
MMV(Gold), MMV**(Silver), MC, CdeG, OC
Michel Coiffard  France Aéronautique Militaire 34[23] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), MC
Heinrich Bongartz  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 33[24] PLM, HOH, IC
Heinrich Kroll  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 33[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Frank Granger Quigley  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 33[7] DSO, MC*
Kurt Wolff  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 33[17] PLM, HOH, IC
Julius Arigi  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 32[21] MFB (1 gold and 4 silver)
Geoffrey Hilton Bowman  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 32[7] DSO, MC*, DFC
Hermann Frommherz  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 32[5] MOSH, IC
Samuel Kinkead  South Africa Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 32[25] DSO, DSC*, DFC*
Theodor Osterkamp  German Empire Marinefliegerkorps 32[5] Also World War II ace
PLM, IC
Paul Billik  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 31[5] IC
Andrew Edward McKeever  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, Canadian Air Force 31[7] Top two-seater ace for UK
DSO, MC*, DFC
Gotthard Sachsenberg  German Empire Marinefliegerkorps 31[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Karl Allmenröder  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 30[17] PLM, HOH, IC
Carl Degelow  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 30[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Josef Mai  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 30[5] IC
Ulrich Neckel  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 30[5] PLM, IC
Karl Emil Schäfer  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 30[17] PLM, HOH, IC
Samuel Frederick Henry Thompson  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 30[7] MC, DFC
Harald Auffarth  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 29[c] HOH, IC, WB
Charles Dawson Booker  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 29[7] DSC, CdeG
Percy Jack Clayson  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 29[7] MC, DFC
Harry Cobby  Australia Australian Flying Corps 29[7] DSO, DFC**
Leonard Henry Rochford  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 29[7] DSC*, DFC*
Walter Blume  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 28[26] PLM, IC
Léon Bourjade  France Aéronautique Militaire 28[27] CdeLd'h, CdeG
Walter von Bülow-Bothkamp  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 28[28] PLM, MOSH, IC
Albert Desbrisay Carter  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 28[7] DSO*, CdeG
Benno Fiala Ritter von Fernbrugg  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 28[21] OIC, OL, MMC(AH), MMM, MFB, IC
Robert Ritter von Greim  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 28[29] PLM, IC, MOMJ
John Everard Gurdon  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 28[7] DFC
Reginald Hoidge  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 28[7] MC*
Dennis Latimer  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 28[7] MC, DFC
Arthur Laumann  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 28[30] PLM, HOH, IC
Friedrich Ritter von Röth  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 28[31] PLM, HOH, IC, MOMJ
Fritz Otto Bernert  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 27[32] PLM, IC
Otto Fruhner  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 27[33] MMC(P), IC
Hans Kirschstein  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 27[34] PLM, HOH, IC
Frank Linke-Crawford  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 27[21] OIC
Clifford McEwen  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 27[35] MC, DFC*, MMV
Thomas Percy Middleton  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 27[7] DFC
Armand Pinsard  France Aéronautique Militaire 27[36] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG, MC
Arthur Rhys Davids  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 27[7] DSO, MC*
Frank Ormond Soden  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 27[7] DFC*
Karl Thom  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 27[37] PLM, MMC(P), HOH, IC
Adolf Ritter von Tutschek  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 27[38] PLM, HOH, IC, MOMJ
Arthur Whealy  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 27[7] DSC*, DFC
Kurt Wüsthoff  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 27[39] PLM, HOH, IC
Oskar Freiherr von Boenigk  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 26[31] PLM, IC
Eduard Ritter von Dostler  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 26[40] PLM, HOH, IC, MOMJ
Ronald Malcolm Fletcher  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 26[41] Observer ace
DFM
William Frederick James Harvey  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 26[7] MC, DFC*
Elwyn King  Australia Australian Flying Corps 26[7] DSO, DFC
Gerald Joseph Constable Maxwell  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 26[7] DFC, MC, AFC
Max Näther  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 26[31] HOH, IC
Eddie Rickenbacker  United States US Army Air Service 26[42][43] Top US ace
MOH, DSC(US), CdeLd'h, CdeG
Silvio Scaroni  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 26[44] MMV(Gold), MMV*(Silver)
William Ernest Staton  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 26[7] DSO*, MC, DFC*
William McKenzie Thomson  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 26[7] MC, DFC
Olivier Freiherr von Beaulieu-Marconnay  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 25[45] PLM, IC
Keith Caldwell  New Zealand Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 25[7] Top New Zealander ace
MC, DFC*
Robert J. O. Compston  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 25[7] DSC**, DFC
Georg von Hantelmann  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 25[46] HOH, IC
Fritz Pütter  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 25[31] PLM, IC
Stanley Wallace Rosevear  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 25[7] DSC*
Erwin Böhme  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 24[47] PLM, HOH, IC
Peter Carpenter  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 24[35] DSO, MC*, MMV
George S. L. Hayward  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 24[41] Observer ace
MC
Harry G. E. Luchford  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 24[7] MC*
Georg Meyer  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 24[31] IC
Tom Cecil Noel  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 24[48] Observer ace
MC*
Pier Ruggero Piccio  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 24[49] MMV**(Silver)
William Ernest Shields  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 24[7] DFC*
James Anderson Slater  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 24[7] MC*, DFC
William Melville Alexander  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 23[50] DSC
Hermann Becker  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 23[51] HOH, IC
William Charles Campbell  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 23[7] DSO, MC*
René Dorme  France Aéronautique Militaire 23[52] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Matthew Brown Frew  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 23[7] DSO, MC*, AFC, MMV
Gabriel Guerin  France Aéronautique Militaire 23[53] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Howard Percy Lale  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 23[7] DSO, DFC*
Alexander Pentland  Australia Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 23[7] MC, DFC
Harold Whistler  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 23[7] DSO, DFC*
Hermann Göring  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 22[54] PLM, HOH, IC
Thomas Sinclair Harrison  South Africa Royal Flying Corps 22[7] DFC*, BCdeG
Marcel Haegelen  France Aéronautique Militaire 22[55] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Louis Fleeming Jenkin  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 22[7] MC*
Cecil Frederick King  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 22[56] MC, DFC, CdeG
Hans Klein  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 22[31] PLM, HOH, IC
John Leacroft  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 22[7] MC*
Arthur Ernest Newland  United Kingdom Royal Air Force 22[48] Observer ace
DFM*
Hans Martin Pippart  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 22[31] IC
Werner Preuss  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 22[57] HOH, IC
Pierre Marinovitch  France Aéronautique Militaire 22[58] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Benjamin Roxburgh-Smith  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 22[7] DFC*, BCdeG
Karl Schlegel  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 22[31] IC
Joseph Leonard Maries White  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 22[7] DFC*, BCdeG
Rudolf Windisch  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 22[59] PLM, HOH, IC
Hans von Adam  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 21[60] HOH
Friedrich Altemeier  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 21[61] MMC(P), IC, WB
Flavio Baracchini  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 21[62] MMV(Gold)
Francis Cubbon  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 21[63] Observer ace
MC*
Harold Leslie Edwards  Canada Royal Air Force 21[41] DFC, MM
Friedrich Friedrichs  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 21[31] PLM, HOH, IC
Alfred Heurtaux  France Aéronautique Militaire 21[64] CdeLd'h, CdeG
Charles Hickey  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 21[7] DFC*
Fritz Höhn  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 21[31] HOH, IC
William John Charles Kennedy-Cochran-Patrick  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 21[7] DSO, MC*
Richard Maybery  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 21[7] MC
Edgar McCloughry  Australia Australian Flying Corps 21[7] DSO, DFC*
Richard Minifie  Australia Royal Naval Air Service 21[7] DSC**
Friedrich T. Noltenius  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 21[31] HOH, IC
George Edwin Thomson  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 21[7] DSO, MC, DFC
Leonard Monteagle Barlow  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 20[7] MC**
Douglas John Bell  South Africa Royal Flying Corps 20[7] MC*
Hans Bethge  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[65] HOH, IC
Kenneth Burns Conn  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 20[66] DFC
Albert Deullin  France Aéronautique Militaire 20[67] CdeLd'h, CdeG
Rudolf von Eschwege  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[68] HOH, IC, Bulgarian Order for Bravery in War
Wilhelm Frankl  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[69] PLM, HOH, IC
Hans von Freden  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[31] IC
Francis W. Gillet  United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 20[70] DFC*, BCdeG
Walter Göttsch  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[71] HOH, IC
Oskar Hennrich  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[31] MMC, IC
Edgar Johnston  Australia Australian Flying Corps 20[66] DFC
Alexander Kazakov  Russia Imperial Army Air Service 20[72] Top Russian ace
OSG, OSV, OSS, OSA, DSO, MC, DFC, CdeLd'h, CdeG
Otto Kissenberth  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[73] PLM, HOH, IC
Camille Lagesse  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 20[7] DFC*
Ian Donald Roy McDonald  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 20[7] MC, DFC
Keith Park  New Zealand Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 20[7] MC*, DFC, CdeG
Wilhelm Reinhard  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[74] HOH, IC
Charles G. Ross  South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, South African Air Force 20[7] CBE, DFC*, BCdeG
Fulco Ruffo di Calabria  Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 20[75] MMV(Gold), MMV*(Silver), MMV***(Bronze)
Otto Schmidt  German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[31] HOH, IC
Walter Southey  South Africa Royal Flying Corps 20[7] DFC
Frederick Thayre  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 20[7] MC*

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Speculation about Bishop's claims, particularly his 2 June 1917 mission which earned him a Victoria Cross (VC), have persisted.[76]
  2. ^ Although various claim-by-claim analyses ascribe Dallas a score of 32 aircraft shot down,[77][78] he was officially credited with 39,[79][80] and his actual tally could number in the 50s.[78]
  3. ^ Auffarth may actually 31.[81]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maksel, Rebecca (7 April 2008). "What does it take to become an "ace"?". Need to Know. Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  2. ^ Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918. p. 10.
  3. ^ How to Make War, p. 149.
  4. ^ Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920. p. 7
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 241–242
  6. ^ Guttman, 2002. p. 20
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp Shores, 2001. p. 89
  8. ^ Shores, Frank, Guest 1990, pp. 255–256.
  9. ^ Franks, 2004. pp. 68–69
  10. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 43–44
  11. ^ Franks, 2007. p. 41
  12. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 28–29
  13. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 56–58
  14. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 51
  15. ^ See victory list in linked article; it was compiled from Above the Lines, Australian Hawk Over the Western Front,Australian Air Aces, Sopwith Triplane Aces of World War I.
  16. ^ Guttman, 2007. pp. 29–31, 87
  17. ^ a b c d Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 239
  18. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 71
  19. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 169–171
  20. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 60–61
  21. ^ a b c d Chant, 2002. p. 90
  22. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 76
  23. ^ Guttman, 2002. p. 93
  24. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 81–82
  25. ^ Franks, 2003. pp. 12–13
  26. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 75
  27. ^ Guttman, 2002. pp. 65–66
  28. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 90
  29. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 119–120
  30. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 153–154
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 236
  32. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 70
  33. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 111–112
  34. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 142–143
  35. ^ a b Franks, 2003. p. 88
  36. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 61–62
  37. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 215
  38. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 219
  39. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 233–234
  40. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 101–102
  41. ^ a b c Guttman, 2007. p. 87
  42. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 74
  43. ^ Franks, 2001. p. 86
  44. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 81–82
  45. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 68
  46. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 123–124
  47. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 77–78
  48. ^ a b Guttman, 2007. p. 88
  49. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 78–79
  50. ^ Franks, 2003. p. 31
  51. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 68–69
  52. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 44–45
  53. ^ Guttman, 2002. pp. 11, 91
  54. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 117
  55. ^ Guttman, 2002. p. 18
  56. ^ Franks, 2003. pp. 56–57
  57. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 182–183
  58. ^ Guttman, 2002. p. 31–32
  59. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 230–231
  60. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 59
  61. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 60–61
  62. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 76–77
  63. ^ Shores, 2001. p. 87
  64. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 45
  65. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 73
  66. ^ a b Guttman, 2007. p. 86
  67. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 46
  68. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 104
  69. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 108–109
  70. ^ Franks, 2001. p. 88
  71. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 118–119
  72. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 83–84
  73. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp.143–144
  74. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 186
  75. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 79
  76. ^ Greenhous, Brereton. "Billy Bishop – Brave Flyer, Bold Liar." Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine Canadian Military Journal Volume 3, Issue 3, Autumn 2002, pp. 61–64. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  77. ^ Shores, 1990. p. 132
  78. ^ a b Newton, 1996. pp. 32–34
  79. ^ Wixted, E. P. (1981). "Dallas, Roderic Stanley (1891–1918)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
  80. ^ Garrison, A.D. (1999). Australian Fighter Aces 1914–1953 (PDF). Canberra: Air Power Development Centre. pp. 27, 51–56. ISBN 0-642-26540-2.
  81. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 63–64

Bibliography[edit]

  • Dunnigan, James F. (2003). How to Make War: A Comprehensive Guide to Modern Warfare in the Twenty-first Century. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-060090-12-8.
  • Durkota, Allen; Darcey, Thomas; Kulikov, Victor (1995). The Imperial Russian Air Service: Famous Pilots and Aircraft of World War I. Mountain View: Flying Machines Press. ISBN 978-0-060090-12-8.
  • Franks, Norman; Bailey, Frank W.; Guest, Russell (1993). Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-73-1.
  • Franks, Norman (2005). Sopwith Pup Aces of World War I. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-841768-86-1.
  • Franks, Norman; Guest, Russell; Alegi, Gregory (1997). Above the War Fronts: The British Two-seater Bomber Pilot and Observer Aces, the British Two-seater Fighter Observer Aces, and the Belgian, Italian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Fighter Aces, 1914–1918. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-1-898697-56-5.
  • Franks, Norman; Bailey, Frank W. (1992). Over the Front: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the United States and French Air Services, 1914–1918. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-54-0.
  • Guttman, Jon (2009). Pusher Aces of World War 1. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-846034-17-6.
  • Guttman, Jon (2001). Spad VII Aces of World War I: Volume 39 of Aircraft of the Aces. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-841762-22-7.
  • Kulikov, Victor (2013). Russian Aces of World War 1: Aircraft of the Aces. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-780960-61-6.
  • Newton, Dennis (1996). Australian Air Aces: Australian Fighter Pilots in Combat. Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-1-875671-25-0.
  • Pieters, Walter M. (1998). Above Flanders Fields: A Complete Record of the Belgian Fighter Pilots and Their Units During the Great War. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-1-898697-83-1.
  • Shores, Christopher (2001). British and Empire Aces of World War I. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-377-4.
  • Shores, Christopher; Franks, Norman; Guest, Russell (1990). Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-19-9.
  • Shores, Christopher; Franks, Norman; Guest, Russell (1996). Above the Trenches Supplement: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-1-898697-39-8.