List of accelerators in particle physics

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A list of particle accelerators used for particle physics experiments. Some early particle accelerators that more properly did nuclear physics, but existed prior to the separation of particle physics from that field, are also included. Although a modern accelerator complex usually has several stages of accelerators, only accelerators whose output has been used directly for experiments are listed.

Early accelerators[edit]

These all used single beams with fixed targets. They tended to have very briefly run, inexpensive, and unnamed experiments.

Cyclotrons[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape Accelerated Particle Kinetic
Energy
Notes and discoveries made
9-inch cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1931 Circular H+
2
1.0 MeV Proof of concept
11-inch cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1932 Circular Proton 1.2 MeV
27-inch cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1932–1936 Circular Deuteron 4.8 MeV Investigated deuteron-nucleus interactions
37-inch cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1937–1938 Circular Deuteron 8 MeV Discovered many isotopes
60-inch cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1939- Circular Deuteron 16 MeV Discovered many isotopes
184-inch cyclotron Berkeley Rad Lab[1] 1942- Circular Various >100 MeV Research on uranium isotope separation
Calutrons Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1943- "Horseshoe" Uranium nuclei Used to separate isotopes for the Manhattan project
95-inch cyclotron Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory 1949–2002 Circular Proton 160 MeV Used for nuclear physics 1949 - ~ 1961, development of clinical proton therapy until 2002
Isochronous cyclotron[1] University of California, Berkeley 1950– Circular Various 50-590 MeV Used for nuclear and particle physics, proton therapy, and commercial production of radionuclides
JULIC Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany 1967–present Circular Proton, Deuteron 75 MeV Now used as a preaccelerator for COSY and irradiation purposes

[1] First accelerator built at the current Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory site, then known as the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory ("Rad Lab" for short)

Other early accelerator types[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape
and size
Accelerated
particle
Kinetic
Energy
Notes and discoveries made
Linear particle accelerator Aachen University, Germany 1928 Linear Beamline Ion 50 KeV Proof of concept
Cockcroft and Walton's
electrostatic accelerator
Cavendish Laboratory 1932 See Cockroft-
Walton generator
Proton 0.7 MeV First to artificially split the nucleus (Lithium)
Betatron Siemens-Schuckertwerke, Germany 1935 Circular Electron 1,8 MeV Proof of concept

Synchrotrons[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape and size Accelerated
particle
Kinetic Energy Notes and discoveries made INSPIRE link
Cosmotron BNL 1953–1968 Circular ring
(72 meters around)
Proton 3.3 GeV Discovery of V particles, first artificial production of some mesons INSPIRE
Birmingham Synchrotron University of Birmingham 1953–1967 Proton 1 GeV
Bevatron Berkeley Rad Lab 1954-~1970 "Race track" Proton 6.2 GeV Strange particle experiments, antiproton and antineutron discovered, resonances discovered INSPIRE
Bevalac, combination of SuperHILAC linear accelerator, a diverting tube, then the Bevatron Berkeley Rad Lab ~1970-1993 Linear accelerator followed by "race track" Any and all sufficiently stable nuclei could be accelerated Observation of compressed nuclear matter. Depositing ions in tumors in cancer research. INSPIRE
Saturne Saclay, France 3 GeV INSPIRE
Synchrophasotron Dubna, Russia December 1957 – 2003 10 GeV INSPIRE
Zero Gradient Synchrotron ANL 1963–1979 12.5 GeV INSPIRE
U-70 Proton Synchrotron IHEP, Russia 1967–present Circular ring
(perimeter around 1.5 km)
Proton 70 GeV INSPIRE
Proton Synchrotron CERN 1959–present Circular ring
(628 meters around)
Proton 26 GeV Used to feed ISR (until 1984), SPS, LHC, AD INSPIRE
Proton Synchrotron Booster CERN 1972–present Circular Synchrotron Protons 1.4 GeV Used to feed PS, ISOLDE INSPIRE
Super Proton Synchrotron CERN 1976–present Circular Synchrotron Protons and ions 450 GeV COMPASS, OPERA and ICARUS at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso INSPIRE
Alternating Gradient Synchrotron BNL 1960- Circular ring
(808 meters around)
Proton (unpolarized and polarized), deuteron, helium-3, copper, gold, uranium 33 GeV J/ψ, muon neutrino, CP violation in kaons, injects heavy ions and polarized protons into RHIC INSPIRE
Diamond Light Source[2] Harwell Campus,[3] UK 2007–Present Circular ring
(561.6 meters around)
Electrons 3 GeV
COSY Juelich, Germany 1993–present Circular ring (183.47 m) Protons, Deuterons 2.88 GeV The legacy of the experimental hadron physics programme at COSY INSPIRE

Fixed-target accelerators[edit]

More modern accelerators that were also run in fixed target mode; often, they will also have been run as colliders, or accelerated particles for use in subsequently built colliders.

High intensity hadron accelerators (Meson and neutron sources)[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape and size Accelerated Particle Kinetic Energy Notes and discoveries made INSPIRE link
High Current Proton Accelerator Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (originally Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) Los Alamos National Laboratory 1972–Present Linear (800 m)
and
Circular (30 m)
Protons 800 MeV Neutron Materials Research, Proton Radiography, High Energy Neutron Research, Ultra Cold Neutrons INSPIRE
PSI, HIPA High Intensity 590 MeV Proton Accelerator PSI, Villigen, Switzerland 1974–present 0.8 MeV CW, 72 MeV Injector 2,

590 MeV Ringcyclotron

Protons 590 MeV, 2.4 mA, =1.4 MW Highest beam power, used for meson and neutron production with applications in materials science INSPIRE
TRIUMF Cyclotron TRIUMF, Vancouver BC 1974–present Circular H- ion 500 MeV Not an early accelerator, but a re-envisioning of the cyclotron concept, having multiple beam extractions, and hosting many multi-year experiments. Since its inception, has been the world's largest cyclotron, at 17.9m; six sector magnet configuration, with curving outer tips of pole pieces reflecting the effect of relativity on the cyclotron relation at its full acceleration velocity INSPIRE
ISIS neutron source Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton,

Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

1984–present H- Linac followed by proton RCS Protons 800 MeV INSPIRE
Spallation Neutron Source Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2006–Present Linear (335 m)
and
Circular (248 m)
Protons 800 MeV -
1 GeV
Highest power operational pulsed proton beam in the world INSPIRE
J-PARC RCS Tōkai, Ibaraki 2007–Present Triangular, 348m circumference Protons 3 GeV Used for Material and Life sciences Experimental Facility and input to JPARC Main Ring INSPIRE

Electron and low intensity hadron accelerators[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape
and size
Accelerated
particle
Kinetic
Energy
Experiments Notes INSPIRE link
Antiproton Accumulator CERN 1980-1996 Design study INSPIRE
Antiproton collector CERN 1986-1996 Antiprotons Design study INSPIRE
Antiproton Decelerator CERN 2000–present Storage ring Protons and antiprotons 26 GeV ATHENA, ATRAP, ASACUSA, ACE, ALPHA, AEGIS Design study INSPIRE
Low Energy Antiproton Ring CERN 1982-1996 Antiprotons PS210 Design study INSPIRE
Cambridge Electron Accelerator Harvard University and MIT, Cambridge, MA 1962-1974[4] 236 ft diameter synchrotron[5] Electrons 6 GeV [4]
SLAC Linac SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory 1966–present 3 km linear
accelerator
Electron/
Positron
50 GeV Repeatedly upgraded, used to feed PEP, SPEAR, SLC, and PEP-II. Now split into 1 km sections feeding LCLS, FACET & LCLS-II. INSPIRE
Fermilab Booster Fermilab 1970–present Circular Synchrotron Protons 8 GeV MiniBooNE INSPIRE
Fermilab Main Injector Fermilab 1995–present Circular Synchrotron Protons and antiprotons 150 GeV MINOS, MINERνA, NOνA INSPIRE
Fermilab Main Ring Fermilab 1970–1995 Circular Synchrotron Protons and antiprotons 400 GeV (until 1979), 150 GeV thereafter
Bates Linear Accelerator Middleton, MA 1967–2005 500 MeV recirculating linac and storage ring Polarized electrons 1 GeV INSPIRE
Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 1995–present 6 GeV recirculating linac (recently upgraded to 12 GeV) Polarized electrons 6-12 GeV DVCS, PrimEx II, Qweak, GlueX First large-scale deployment of superconducting RF technology. INSPIRE
ELSA Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Germany 1987–present Synchrotron and stretcher (Polarized) electrons 3.5 GeV Crystal Barrel INSPIRE
MAMI Mainz, Germany 1975–Present multilevel racetrack microtron Polarized electrons 1.5 GeV accelerator A1 - Electron Scattering, A2 - Real Photons, A4 - Parity Violation, X1 - X-Ray Radiation INSPIRE
Tevatron Fermilab 1983–2011 Superconducting Circular Synchrotron Protons 980 GeV INSPIRE
Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC) GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany 1974–Present Linear (120 m) Ions of all naturally occurring elements INSPIRE
Schwerionensynchrotron (SIS18) GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany 1990–Present Synchrotron with 271 m circumference Ions of all naturally occurring elements U: 50-1000 MeV/u
Ne: 50-2000 MeV/u
p: 4,5 GeV
INSPIRE
J-PARC Main Ring Tōkai, Ibaraki 2009–Present Triangular, 500m diameter Protons 30 GeV J-PARC Hadron Experimental Facility, T2K Can also provide 8 GeV beam INSPIRE
ALBA CELLS[6]
Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
2010–Present Synchrotron with 270 m circumference (Polarized) electrons 3 GeV MSPD Material Sciences and Powder Diffraction, MISTRAL X-ray microscopy, NCD Non-Crystalline Diffraction, XALOC Macromolecular Crystallography, CLÆSS Core-Level Absorption & Emission Spectroscopies, CIRCE Photoemission Spectroscopy and Microscopy, BOREAS Resonant absorption and scattering INSPIRE

Colliders[edit]

Electron-positron colliders[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape
and circumference
Electron
energy
Positron
energy
Experiments Notable Discoveries INSPIRE link
AdA Frascati, Italy; Orsay, France 1961–1964 Circular, 3 meters 250 MeV 250 MeV Touschek effect (1963); first e+e interactions recorded (1964) INSPIRE
Princeton-Stanford (ee) Stanford, California 1962–1967 Two-ring, 12 m 300 MeV 300 MeV ee interactions
VEP-1 (ee) INP, Novosibirsk, Soviet Union 1964–1968 Two-ring, 2.70 m 130 MeV 130 MeV ee scattering; QED radiative effects confirmed INSPIRE
VEPP-2 INP, Novosibirsk, Soviet Union 1965–1974 Circular, 11.5 m 700 MeV 700 MeV OLYA, CMD multihadron production (1966), e+e→φ (1966), e+e→γγ (1971) INSPIRE
ACO LAL, Orsay, France 1965–1975 Circular, 22 m 550 MeV 550 MeV ρ0, K+K3C, μ+μ, M2N and DM1 Vector meson studies; then ACO was used as synchrotron light source until 1988 INSPIRE
SPEAR SLAC 1972-1990(?) Circular 3 GeV 3 GeV Mark I, Mark II, Mark III Discovery of Charmonium states INSPIRE
VEPP-2M BINP, Novosibirsk 1974–2000 Circular, 17.88 m 700 MeV 700 MeV ND, SND, CMD-2 e+e cross sections, radiative decays of ρ, ω, and φ mesons INSPIRE
DORIS DESY 1974–1993 Circular, 300m 5 GeV 5 GeV ARGUS, Crystal Ball, DASP, PLUTO Oscillation in neutral B mesons INSPIRE
PETRA DESY 1978–1986 Circular, 2 km 20 GeV 20 GeV JADE, MARK-J, CELLO, PLUTO, TASSO Discovery of the gluon in three jet events INSPIRE
CESR Cornell University 1979–2002 Circular, 768m 6 GeV 6 GeV CUSB, CHESS, CLEO, CLEO-2, CLEO-2.5, CLEO-3 First observation of B decay, charmless and "radiative penguin" B decays INSPIRE
PEP SLAC 1980-1990(?) Mark II INSPIRE
SLC SLAC 1988-1998(?) Addition to
SLAC Linac
45 GeV 45 GeV SLD, Mark II First linear collider INSPIRE
LEP CERN 1989–2000 Circular, 27 km 104 GeV 104 GeV Aleph, Delphi, Opal, L3 Only 3 light (m ≤ mZ/2) weakly interacting neutrinos exist, implying only three generations of quarks and leptons INSPIRE
BEPC China 1989–2004 Circular, 240m 2.2 GeV 2.2 GeV Beijing Spectrometer (I and II) INSPIRE
VEPP-4M BINP, Novosibirsk 1994- Circular, 366m 6.0 GeV 6.0 GeV KEDR Precise measurement of psi-meson masses, two-photon physics
PEP-II SLAC 1998–2008 Circular, 2.2 km 9 GeV 3.1 GeV BaBar Discovery of CP violation in B meson system INSPIRE
KEKB KEK 1999–2009 Circular, 3 km 8.0 GeV 3.5 GeV Belle Discovery of CP violation in B meson system
DAΦNE Frascati, Italy 1999- Circular, 98m 0.7 GeV 0.7 GeV KLOE Crab-waist collisions (2007) INSPIRE
CESR-c Cornell University 2002–2008 Circular, 768m 6 GeV 6 GeV CHESS, CLEO-c INSPIRE
VEPP-2000 BINP, Novosibirsk 2006- Circular, 24.4m 1.0 GeV 1.0 GeV SND, CMD-3 Round beams (2007)
BEPC II China 2008- Circular, 240m 3.7 GeV 3.7 GeV Beijing Spectrometer III

Hadron colliders[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape
and size
Particles
collided
Beam
energy
Experiments INSPIRE
Intersecting
Storage Rings
CERN 1971–1984 Circular rings
(948 m around)
Proton/
Proton
31.5 GeV INSPIRE
Super
Proton Synchrotron
/SppS
CERN 1981–1984 Circular ring
(6.9 km around)
Proton/
Antiproton
270-315 GeV UA1, UA2 INSPIRE
Tevatron
Run I
Fermilab 1992–1995 Circular ring
(6.3 km around)
Proton/
Antiproton
900 GeV CDF, D0 INSPIRE
Tevatron
Run II
Fermilab 2001–2011 Circular ring
(6.3 km around)
Proton/
Antiproton
980 GeV CDF, D0 INSPIRE
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
polarized proton mode
Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 2001–present Hexagonal rings
(3.8 km circumference)
Polarized Proton/
Proton
100-255 GeV PHENIX, STAR INSPIRE
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
ion mode
Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 2000–present Hexagonal rings
(3.8 km circumference)
d-197
Au
79+;

63
Cu
29+-63
Cu
29+;
63
Cu
29+-197
Au
79+;
197
Au
79+-197
Au
79+;
238
U
92+-238
U
92+

3.85-100 GeV
per nucleon
STAR, PHENIX, BRAHMS, PHOBOS INSPIRE
Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
proton mode
CERN 2008–present Circular rings
(27 km circumference)
Proton/
Proton
6.5 TeV
(design: 7 TeV)
ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf, TOTEM INSPIRE
Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
ion mode
CERN 2010–present Circular rings
(27 km circumference)
208
Pb
82+-208
Pb
82+;

Proton-208
Pb
82+

2.76 TeV
per nucleon
ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb INSPIRE

Electron-proton colliders[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape
and size
Electron
energy
Proton
energy
Experiments INSPIRE link
HERA DESY 1992–2007 Circular ring
(6336 meters around)
27.5 GeV 920 GeV H1, ZEUS, HERMES experiment, HERA-B INSPIRE

Light sources[edit]

Hypothetical accelerators[edit]

Besides the real accelerators listed above, there are hypothetical accelerators often used as hypothetical examples or optimistic projects by particle physicists.

  • Eloisatron (Eurasiatic Long Intersecting Storage Accelerator) was a project of INFN headed by Antonio Zichichi at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Sicily. The center-of-mass energy was planned to be 200 TeV, and the size was planned to span parts of Europe and Asia.
  • Fermitron was an accelerator sketched by Enrico Fermi on a notepad in the 1940s proposing an accelerator in stable orbit around the earth.
  • The undulator radiation collider[7] is a design for an accelerator with a center-of-mass energy around the GUT scale. It would be light-weeks across and require the construction of a Dyson swarm around the Sun.
  • Planckatron is an accelerator with a center-of-mass energy of the order of the Planck scale. It is estimated that the radius of the Planckatron would have to be roughly the radius of the Milky Way. It would require so much energy to run that it could only be built by at least a Kardashev Type II civilization.[8]
  • Arguably also in this category falls the Zevatron, a hypothetical source for observed ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chao, Alexander W.; et al. (2013). Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering (2nd ed.). World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-4417-17-4. 
  2. ^ http://www.diamond.ac.uk
  3. ^ http://harwellcampus.com/
  4. ^ a b "Cambridge Electron Accelerator (Cambridge, Mass.) Records of the Cambridge Electron Accelerator : an inventory". Harvard University Library. November 15, 2006. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  5. ^ Rothenberg, Peter J. (October 16, 1958). "An MIT-Harvard Project: The Electron Accelerator". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  6. ^ "CELLS institutional web". 
  7. ^ https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.04469
  8. ^ https://arxiv.org/abs/1503.01509

External links[edit]