List of accidents and incidents involving the Lockheed Constellation

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A USAF C-69, the military version of the Constellation

The Lockheed Constellation ("Connie") was a propeller-driven airliner powered by four 18-cylinder radial Wright R-3350 engines. It was built by Lockheed between 1943 and 1958 at its Burbank, California, USA, facility. A total of 856 aircraft were produced in four models, all distinguished by a triple-tail design and dolphin-shaped fuselage. The Constellation was used as a civilian airliner and as a U.S. military air transport, seeing service in the Berlin Airlift. It was the presidential aircraft for U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Like every other major type in long service and operation, accidents and incidents have been recorded that have substantially reduced the numbers flying. The following list is typical of such a record of operational use.

L-049 and C-69
  • September 18, 1945: USAF C-69 42-94551 was damaged beyond repair after a wheels up landing following engine problems at Topeka, Kansas, United States.[1]
  • 1946: A War Assets Administration C-69, 43-10314, was damaged beyond repair; the aircraft was used for spare parts for Constellations c/n 1980 and 2512.[2]
  • March 29, 1946: TWA Flight 955 (NC86510, Star of Rome) overran the runway on landing at National Airport, Washington, DC due to crew error; all 12 on board survived, but the aircraft was written off.[3]
  • July 11, 1946: TWA Flight 513 (NC86513, Star of Lisbon) crashed near Reading, Pennsylvania after an in-flight fire, killing five of the six crew on board.
  • September 24, 1946: A Pan Am L-049 (NC88831, Clipper Caribbean) crashed on landing at Shannon Airport after the landing gear was raised in mistake for the flaps; all 36 on board survived, but the aircraft was written off.[4]
  • October 12, 1946: A TWA L-049 (NC86512, Star of Geneva) was being ferried from New York to Wilmington when it overran the runway on landing at New Castle County Airport due to pilot error; all eight crew on board survived, but the aircraft was written off.[5]
  • December 28, 1946: TWA Flight 6963 (NC86505, Cairo Skychief) crashed while attempting to land at Shannon Airport, Ireland due to altimeter failure. Nine of the 23 people on board were killed.
  • March 10, 1947: TWA Constellation "Star of Hollywood" experienced sudden decompression during a transatlantic flight from New York City to Geneva, Switzerland. The aircraft had stopped at Gander to refuel and take on passengers and crew; it was 500 miles into the leg to Shannon, Ireland, at an altitude of 19,000 ft. when the astrodome (a clear plastic bubble on the top of the fuselage) shattered. Navigator George Hart, who was under the astrodome making a sextant measurement at the time, was sucked out of the aircraft over the North Atlantic. The aircraft returned to Gander and passengers continued the flight on a replacement aircraft.[6] Within a few weeks, TWA responded to the accident by equipping navigators on transatlantic flights with a safety harness; on aircraft used for domestic flights, a 1/4-inch aluminum plate was installed under the astrodome (only transatlantic flights used the astrodome for navigation).[7]
  • May 11, 1947: A TWA L-049 (NC86508, Star of Athens) crashed near the Brandywine Shoal lighthouse, Cape May, New Jersey at 8:45 a.m. EST while conducting practice emergency landing procedures, killing Capt. Patrick McKeirnan and the three remaining crew on board.[8] The cause was traced to an unexplained loss of control.
  • June 19, 1947: Pan Am Flight 121 (NC88845, Clipper Eclipse), crashed near Mayadin, Syria on a flight originating in New York and making its inaugural westbound flight of round-the-world service. The aircraft's No. 1 engine failed halfway on a leg from Karachi to Istanbul. Due to closed airports and inadequate repair facilities, the pilot chose to continue to its destination. Several hours later, the remaining engines overheated and the No. 2 engine caught fire and ultimately separated from the aircraft, necessitating a crash landing near Habbaniya RAF Station on Iraq/Syria border at about 01:40L. Probable cause of the accident was a fire which resulted from an attempt to feather the No. 2 (port inboard) propeller after the failure of the No. 2 engine thrust bearing. Gene Roddenberry (creator of Star Trek) was a deadheading Pan Am pilot aboard who helped rescue many of the passengers. Fourteen of the 36 people on board were killed.[9][10]
  • November 18, 1947: A TWA L-049 (NC86507, Star of Madrid) crashed short of the runway at New Castle County Airport during a training flight due to pilot error, killing the five crew.[11]
  • April 15, 1948: Pan Am Flight 1-10 (NC88858, Clipper Empress of the Skies) crashed attempting to land at Shannon Airport, Ireland. Thirty of the 31 people on board were killed.[12]
  • October 20, 1948: A KLM L-049 (PH-TEN, Nijmegen) crashed near Prestwick Airport, Scotland, killing all 40 passengers and crew on board. The aircraft was circling below low cloud for a visual approach to Prestwick and hit high tension powerlines that were not on the Dutch visual approach map the crew had been issued.
  • November 25, 1948: TWA Flight 211 (NC90824) crashed on landing at Los Angeles Municipal Airport due to poor visibility; all 23 on board survived, but the aircraft was written off.[13]
  • December 18, 1949: TWA Flight 154 (NC86501) ran off the runway while landing at Midway Airport due to pilot error; all 31 on board survived. The aircraft was extensively damaged in the crash, but was repaired and returned to service.[14]
  • July 28, 1950: Panair do Brasil Flight 99 (PP-PCG) crashed on the Chapéu Hill (29°50′12.25″S 51°6′18.03″W / 29.8367361°S 51.1050083°W / -29.8367361; -51.1050083) near Porto Alegre-Canoas (Gravataí) Air Force Base after an aborted landing, killing 44 passengers and 7 crew.[15][16][17]
  • June 22, 1951: Pan Am Flight 151 crashed into terrain near Sanoyea, Liberia due to pilot error, killing all 40 on board.
  • June 17, 1953: A Panair do Brasil L-049 (PP-PDA) crashed while on approach to Congonhas Airport at night in poor visibility due to crew error, killing all 17 on board.[18]
  • May 12, 1959: Capital Airlines Flight 983 (N2735A) ground looped and caught fire after landing at Kanawha Airport, Charleston, West Virginia, United States, one passenger and one crew member died.[19]
  • September 1, 1961: TWA Flight 529 crashed at Chicago due to mechanical failure, killing all 78 on board.
  • November 8, 1961: Imperial Airlines Flight 201/8 was destroyed followed an attempted emergency landing at Byrd Airport, Richmond, Virginia, United States, 74 passengers and two crew died.
  • December 14, 1962: A Panair do Brasil L-049 (PP-PDE) en route from Belém-Val de Cans to Manaus-Ponta Pelada crashed in the jungle, during a night approach, due to unknown causes, approximately 45 km from Manaus at the location of Paraná da Eva. All 50 passengers and crew died.[20][21]
  • March 1, 1964: Paradise Airlines Flight 901A (N86504) crashed near Lake Tahoe Airport after the pilot deviated from VFR procedures while attempting an approach in poor visibility, killing all 85 on board in the worst-ever accident involving the L-049.[22]
L-149 Constellation
  • June 16, 1955: Panair do Brasil Flight 263 (PP-PDJ) from Rio de Janeiro-Galeão to Buenos Aires-Ezeiza via São Paulo-Congonhas and Asunción hit a 12m tree while on final approach to land at Asunción. Part of the wing broke off, the aircraft crashed and caught fire. 16 out of 24 passengers and crew aboard died.[23][24]
  • July 27, 1955: El Al Flight 402 was shot down over Bulgarian airspace, killing all aboard, seven crew and 51 passengers in the worst-ever accident involving the L-149.
  • May 29, 1972: An Amazonese L-149 (PP-PDG) crashed shortly after takeoff from Campo International Airport due to a refueling error, killing nine of 18 on board.
L-649 Constellation
  • January 21, 1948: Eastern Air Lines Flight 604 (NC111A) crashed on landing at Logan International Airport due to snow on the runway; all 25 on board survived, but the aircraft was written off.[25]
  • February 7, 1948: Eastern Air Lines Flight 611 (NC112A) suffered a failure of the number three propeller and blade separation in the Atlantic 156 mi off Brunswick, Georgia three hours after takeoff. A portion of the blade penetrated the fuselage, severing engine controls, electrical wires and control cables are well as killing a crew member when the blade cut through the floor. The front portion of the number three engine later fell off. Despite a loss of control of one engine and a complete loss of another, the aircraft was able to land safely at West Palm Beach Airport. Although the aircraft was substantially damaged, it was repaired, rebuilt to L-749A standard and returned to service, but was written off after a 1955 crash. The cause of the incident was the failure of the number three propeller caused by high stress brought on by repetitive engine malfunctioning.[26]
L-749 Constellation
  • January 30, 1949: Pan Am Flight 100 (NC86530, Clipper Monarch) collided with a private Cessna 140 over Port Washington, New York; the Cessna crashed, killing both pilots on board; the Constellation landed safely with no casualties.[27]
  • June 23, 1949: A KLM L-749 (PH-TER, Roermond) crashed off Bari, Italy due to a loss of control and in-flight breakup, killing all 33 passengers and crew on board.[28]
  • July 12, 1949: A KLM L-749 (PH-TDF) crashed near Bombay, India due to pilot errors, killing all 45 passengers and crew on board.[29]
  • October 28, 1949: Air France Flight 009, an L-749 (F-BAZN), crashed into Pico da Vara (São Miguel Island, Azores), all 11 crew members and 37 passengers on board died, including French boxer Marcel Cerdan and the famous French violinist Ginette Neveu, while approaching the intermediate stop airport at Santa Maria.
  • August 31, 1950: TWA Flight 903 crashed near Wadi Natrun, Egypt while attempting an emergency landing after an engine fire, killing all 55 people on board in the worst-ever accident involving the L-749.
  • November 3, 1950: Air India Flight 245 carrying 40 passengers and eight crew were flying on the Bombay-Cairo-Geneva-London route when it crashed into Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in Western Europe, all on board being killed.
Eastern Airlines Flight 601
  • 19 July 1951: Eastern Airlines Flight 601 (see photo), operated by an L-749A (N119A) suffered severe buffeting after an access door opened in flight. A flapless wheels-up landing was made at Curles Neck Farm, Virginia. The aircraft was later repaired and returned to service, but was written off after a 1953 crash.[30]
  • March 23, 1952: A KLM L-749 (PH-TFF, Venlo), crashed during landing at Don Muang, Thailand, all 33 passengers and crew on board survived.[31]
  • August 3, 1953: Air France Flight 152 ditched 6 miles from Fetiye Point, Turkey, 1.5 miles offshore into the Mediterranean Sea on a flight between Rome and Beirut. Violent vibrations following fracture of a propeller blade caused engine number three to break away, and control of engine number four was also lost. Vibrations continued with loss of altitude. The crew of eight and all but four of the 34 passengers were rescued.[32]
  • 1 September 1953: Air France Flight 178 struck Mont Le Cimet due to an unexplained course change, killing all 42 passengers and crew on board, including French violinist Jacques Thibaud.
  • 19 October 1953: An Eastern Airlines L-749A (N119A) crashed on takeoff from Idlewild International Airport. Two passengers were killed.[33]
  • March 13, 1954: A BOAC L-749A crashed short of the runway at Kallang Airport as a result of pilot fatigue, killing 33 of 40 on board.
  • August 9, 1954: An Avianca L-749A (HK-163) crashed just after takeoff from Lajes Airport due to pilot error, killing all 30 on board.[34]
  • April 11, 1955: An Air India L-749A (VT-DEP, Kashmir Princess) was bombed in mid-air and crashed off the Great Natuna Islands; 16 of the 19 on board died.
  • December 21, 1955: Eastern Air Lines Flight 642 (N112A) crashed while on approach to Thomas Cole Imeson Municipal Airport, killing all 17 on board.[35]
  • November 27, 1956: Linea Aeropostal Venezolana Flight 253 flew into Mt Naiguata in Venezuela. All 25 passengers and crew on board were killed.[36]
  • June 2, 1958: Aeronaves de Mexico Flight 111 (XA-MEV) crashed into La Latilla mountain shortly after takeoff from Guadalajara Airport in Guadalajara, Mexico, due to crew error, killing all 45 on board in Mexico′s deadliest aviation accident at the time.[37] Two prominent American scientists – oceanographer Townsend Cromwell and fisheries scientist Bell M. Shimada – were among the dead.[38][39]-
  • December 24, 1958: Air France Flight 703, an L-749A (F-BAZX) crashed near Schwechat International Airport in poor visibility due to pilot error; all 34 passengers and crew on board survived, but the aircraft was written off.[40]
  • June 14, 1960: Pacific Northern Airlines Flight 201 (N1554V) struck Mount Gilbert due to a navigation error, killing all 14 on board.[41]
  • November 11, 1961: An Air Haiti International L-749A (HH-ABA) disappeared over the Caribbean on a cargo flight between San Juan, Puerto Rico and Managua, Nicaragua. A crew of three were lost with the aircraft.[42]
  • April 26, 1962: A FAA L-749A (N116A) crashed at Canton Island Airport, Kiribati while attempting a go-around during a training flight after a propeller reversed, killing five of the six on board.[43]
  • April 27, 1966: LANSA Flight 501 crashed into a mountain side in the Tomas District of Peru. All 49 passengers and crew on board are killed.[44]
  • November 28, 1969: A Biafran Government L-749A (5N-85H) struck Mount Toubkal, Atlas Mountains, Morocco, 60 miles south of Marrakesh due to triple engine failure, killing all eight on board. The Constellation, which was carrying weapons to Biafra, was discovered on July 18, 1970 by mountaineers.[45]
  • October 26, 1981: An Aerolineas Argo L-749A (HI-328) crashed in the sea while on approach to St. Thomas Airport due to pilot error, killing three of five on board.[46]
L-1049/R7V/WV/C-121 Super Connie
  • July 7, 1953: A United States Navy R7V-1, 128440, crashed near Chestertown, Maryland after the tail separated in flight, killing all six on board.[47]
  • September 5, 1954: KLM Flight 633 crashed on takeoff from Shannon, Ireland, killing 28 of the passengers.
  • August 3, 1954: Air France Flight 175, an L-1049C (F-BGNA), belly-landed in a field near Preston, Connecticut due to fuel exhaustion after diverting to Boston due to bad weather; all 37 passengers and crew on board survived, but the aircraft was written off.[48]
  • October 30, 1954: United States Navy Flight 57, operated by R7V-1 128441, disappeared off Maryland with 42 passengers and crew.[49]
  • January 17, 1955: A US Navy C-121J, 131639, crashed in the Atlantic off Stephenville, Canada due to double engine failure, killing all 13 on board.[50]
  • June 20, 1956: Linea Aeropostal Venezolana Flight 253 crashed 41 mi off New York after breaking up due to a possible in-flight explosion, killing all 74 on board.
  • June 30, 1956: TWA Flight 2 was struck by United Airlines Flight 718 (a Douglas DC-7) over the Grand Canyon. It broke apart and crashed; 70 people on board died. Flight 718 crashed nearby, resulting in the deaths of 58 on board.
  • July 16, 1957: KLM Flight 844 crashed near Biak, New Guinea (now Indonesia), killing 58 passengers and crew on board, 10 passengers survive.
  • December 23, 1957: A US Navy WV-2, 143197, ditched off Kahaku Point, Hawaii after all four engines failed, killing 19 of 23 on board.[51]
  • January 14, 1958: A US Navy R7V-1, 128437, crashed into woods at Patuxent River NAS while practicing IFR landings in fog, killing all nine on board.[52]
  • February 20, 1958: A US Navy WV-2, 141310, c/o 4434, disappeared on an airborne radar patrol, west of Ilha do Corvo, Azores en route from Naval Air Station Argentia, Newfoundland and Labrador to Lajes Field, Terceira Island, Azores. No trace was found of the aircraft and its 22 crew.[53]
  • August 14, 1958: KLM Flight 607-E crashed on takeoff from Shannon, Ireland, killing all 99 aboard.
  • September 9, 1958: A Flying Tiger Line L-1049H, N6920C, c/o 4822, crashed into Mount Oyama while on a Travis AFB-Wake Island-Tokyo cargo service, killing all eight on board.[54]
  • October 18, 1958: A US Navy WV-2, 141292, crashed in Placentia Bay while performing a GCA, killing 11 of 29 on board.[55]
  • November 10, 1958: A Seaboard and Western Airlines Lockheed L-1049D Super Constellation registration N6503C was taking off from Idlewild International Airport runway 31R when it became uncontrollable. The aircraft finally struck an unloaded Trans-Canada Viscount, which was preparing to board passengers. Both aircraft were destroyed by fire.[56]
  • January 11, 1959: Lufthansa Flight 502, a Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellation registration D-ALAK flying from Hamburg to Rio de Janeiro-Galeão via Frankfurt, Paris-Orly and Dakar, crashed during approach under heavy rain at Rio de Janeiro. The crew descended below minimums. Of 39 passengers and crew aboard, three survived. This was the first accident of Lufthansa after it was re-established.[57]
  • February 28, 1959: A USAF C-121G, 54-4069, crashed near Prescott Airport while performing touch-and-go landing training, killing all five on board.[58]
  • April 2, 1959: A US Navy WV-2, 141303, landed hard and crashed at Argentia NAS after an engine failed while on an airborne radar patrol, killing one of 29 on board.[59]
  • January 21, 1960: Avianca Flight 671, an L-1049E, crashed and burned on landing at Montego Bay International Airport in Jamaica, resulting in the deaths of 37 aboard.[60]
  • February 29, 1960: A TWA L-1049G (N7101C, Star of Balmoral) crashed on takeoff from Midway Airport, Chicago, Illinois en route to Phoenix after a main gear collapsed; all 60 passengers and crew survived, but the aircraft was written off.[61]
  • August 24, 1960: A Qantas L-1049G, VH-EAC, c/o 4606, during takeoff from runway 13 at Plaisance International Airport Mauritius, engine number 3 lost power just before reaching the V1 speed of 115 knots. The captain pulled off the power, braked hard, and pulled selected reverse thrust. The aircraft did not decelerate as expected. The flight engineer feathered the number 3 engine and pulled its emergency shut-off valve. The Super Constellation, named "Southern Wave", could not be brought to a stop on the remaining runway and overran the runway at a speed of 40 knots. The Super Constellation bounced over a low embankment, crashed into a gully and caught fire. Of the 38 passengers and 12 crew all survived the crash.[62]
  • August 29, 1960: Air France Flight 343, an L-1049G (F-BHBC), crashed off Dakar, Senegal, killing all 63 on board; the cause was never determined.[63]
  • December 16, 1960: In the 1960 New York air disaster, TWA Flight 266 was struck by United Airlines Flight 826 (a Douglas DC-8) over Staten Island, New York. It broke apart and crashed, with 44 on board dying. Flight 826 soon crashed in Brooklyn, New York; 84 people on board and six on the ground were killed.[64]
  • January 22, 1961: A US Navy WV-2, 143193, crashed at Midway Islands NAS after striking debris on the runway; the aircraft cartwheeled and struck a truck, killing six of 22 on the aircraft and all three in the truck.[65]
  • March 22, 1961: A USAF TC-121C, 51-3842, crashed in rain near Marysville, California while on a test flight, killing all six on board.[66]
  • March 15, 1962: Flying Tiger Line Flight 7816, an L-1049H (N6911C), crashed at Adak Island NAS due to pilot error, killing one of seven on board.[67]
  • March 16, 1962: Flying Tiger Line Flight 739, an L-1049H (N6921C), was lost over the Pacific, all 107 aboard presumed lost.
  • August 9, 1962: A US Navy WV-2, 141324, of Airborne Early Warning Training Unit, Atlantic (AEWTULANT) crashed while landing at Patuxent River NAS in heavy rain, killing five of 19 on board.[68]
  • September 23, 1962: Flying Tiger Line Flight 923, an L-1049H (N6923C), ditched 500 mi off Ireland due to double engine failure and crew error, killing 28 of 76 on board.[69]
  • December 4, 1962: A USAF C-121G, 54-5066, crashed on Guam while carrying supplies to the island after it was struck by a typhoon, killing three of eight on board.[70]
  • December 14, 1962: Flying Tiger Line Flight 183, an L-1049H (N6913C, c/o 4810), crashed on approach to Lockheed Air Terminal at Burbank due to pilot incapacitation, killing all five on board and three on the ground.[71]
  • February 3, 1963: Slick Airways Flight 40Z, an L-1049H (N9740Z, c/o 4851), struck approach lights at San Francisco International Airport and crashed, killing four of eight on board.[72]
  • December 24, 1964: Flying Tiger Line Flight 282, an L-1049H (N6915C, c/o 4812), crashed into Sweeney's Ridge immediately after takeoff from San Francisco International Airport due to an unexplained course change, killing all three on board.[73]
  • July 11, 1965: A USAH EC-121H, 55-0136, ditched off Nantucket after one engine failed and another caught fire. The fuselage broke into three pieces. Three survivors were found along with nine dead, but seven were never found.[74]
  • December 4, 1965: Eastern Air Lines Flight 853 (N6218C, c/o 4526), a Lockheed Super Constellation en route from Boston Logan International Airport to Newark International Airport, collided in mid-air with Trans World Airlines Flight 42 (N748TW), a Boeing 707-131B en route from San Francisco International Airport to John F. Kennedy International Airport, over North Salem, NY, at approximately 11,000 feet. The Eastern Constellation was uncontrollable through its normal flight controls but was guided to a crash landing using only throttles. The Captain and three of the 49 passengers died in the accident. The TWA Boeing landed safety.[75]
  • December 15, 1965: Flying Tiger Line Flight 914, an L-1049H (N6914C), crashed into California Peak due to spatial disorientation, killing all three on board.[76]
  • November 11, 1966: A USAF EC-121H, 55-5262, crashed into the Atlantic 125 mi off Nantucket, killing all 19 on board.[77]
  • April 17, 1967: An Alaska Airlines L-1049H (N7777C) crashed on landing at Kotzebue Airport, Alaska after the pilot failed to lower the landing gear; all 32 passengers and crew on board survived, but the aircraft was written off.[78]
  • April 25, 1967: A USAF EC-121H, 53-0549, crashed 1 mi off Nantucket due to an engine fire, killing 15 of 16 on board.[79]
  • June 22, 1967: An Airlift International L-1049H (N6936C) collided with a USAF RF-4C Phantom II, 65-0861, and crashed near Tan Son Nhat International Airport, killing all seven on board; both F-4 crew members ejected safely.[80]
  • April 15, 1969: A US Navy EC-121M, 135749, was shot down by two North Korean MiG-17s off Chongjin, North Korea, killing all 31 on board.[81]
  • April 25, 1969: A USAF EC-121R, 67-21493, crashed near Korat AFB after encountering windshear, killing all 18 on board.[82]
  • March 16, 1970: A US Navy EC-121K, 145927, of VQ-1, stalled and crashed at Da Nang Airport, killing 23 of 28 on board.[83]
  • October 8, 1970: A US Navy C-121 Pegasus crash landed near McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica in a snowstorm. Everyone on board survived with minimal injuries, and the aircraft has remained in situ at the base's airfield, which has since been named Pegasus Field after the aircraft.
  • August 5, 1973: A Happy Hours Air Travel Club L-1049, N6202C, c/o 4002, lost power on all four engines due to fuel starvation and made a forced landing in Tamarac, Florida on approach to Fort Lauderdale. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair.[84]
  • December 15, 1973: N6917C, an L-1049H operated by Aircraft Pool Leasing Corporation, crashed into a residential neighborhood two minutes after takeoff from Runway 9L at Miami International Airport, Florida. The Super Constellation was carrying a cargo of Christmas trees to Caracas, Venezuela. All three people on board were killed, along with six people on the ground. Witnesses reported that on takeoff, the aircraft abruptly rotated to an unusually high pitch attitude, failed to accelerate, and failed to climb above 120 feet. Although the NTSB was unable to determine the reason or reasons for this adverse flight condition, it stated that factors which may have contributed to the crash include improper loading, a rearward movement of unsecured cargo resulting in a center of gravity shift aft of the allowable limit, and deficient crew coordination.[85]
The remains of N468C
The remains of N468C
  • May 19, 1976: N468C, an L-1049H being ferried from Honduras to Miami crash-landed in Belize. The number 1 engine threw its propeller, striking the number 2 engine. The pilot diverted to Belize, landing with the left main gear partially retracted. The three aircrew survived, but the L-1049 was written off.[86] Mennonite farmers purchased the wreckage, and after disassembling and trucking it across Belize, used the hydraulics for a hydroelectric dam project, and the fuselage for a barn.[87] The fuselage section currently sits on an escarpment looking over a valley, being used as storage for a mechanic yard.
  • June 20, 1980: N74CA, an Airtraders International L-1049H being ferried from Bakalar municipal airport in Columbus Indiana to Seattle-Tacoma Airport, en route to Alaska, crashed on take-off. Retired Lockheed test pilot Herman R. Salmon, along with one other crew member and a passenger were killed. There were five survivors including Salmon's son, copilot Randall Salmon.[88]
L-1649 Starliner
  • June 26, 1959: TWA Flight 891 exploded just after takeoff from Malpensa Airport after being struck by lightning. All nine crew and 59 passengers aboard were killed in the crash. The crash site is situated in a small town "Olgiate Olona". Commonly it is remembered as the Disaster of Olgiate Olona.[89]
  • May 10, 1961: Air France Flight 406 was bombed in mid-air and crashed in the Algerian Sahara. All nine crew and 69 passengers were killed.[90]
  • December 18, 1966: An Aerocondor L-1649A (N7301C) crashed while on approach to Eldorado Airport due to pilot error, killing 17 of 59 on board.[91]
Unknown type

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Accident description for 42-94551 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 18 July 2009.
  2. ^ Accident description for 43-10314 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 16 April 2014.
  3. ^ Accident description for NC86510 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 14 November 2013.
  4. ^ Accident description for NC88831 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 14 November 2013.
  5. ^ Accident description for NC86512 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 14 November 2013.
  6. ^ "TWA Navigator Thrown Out of Fast Plane Into Atlantic". Reading Eagle. Reading, PA. Associated Press. 11 March 1947. 
  7. ^ "Act to Bar Future Astrodome Failures" (PDF). TWA Skyliner magazine. 2 (14): 2. April 3, 1947. 
  8. ^ "Four Crewmen Die In Crash of TWA Constellation." The State, Columbia, S.C., May 12, 1947, No. 20, 411, p. 1-A.
  9. ^ "The Clipper Eclipse". Check-Six.com. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  10. ^ http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19470619-0
  11. ^ Accident description for NC86507 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 14 November 2013.
  12. ^ Accident description for NC88858 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 22 May 2017.
  13. ^ Accident description for NC90824 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 14 November 2013.
  14. ^ Accident description for NC86501 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2014-11-30.
  15. ^ " Constellation, o acidente aéreo que matou 51 (in Portuguese)." Panair do Brasil, October 19, 2008. Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  16. ^ "Accident description PP-PCG". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved August 16, 2011. 
  17. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Está faltando um". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 95–101. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  18. ^ Accident description for PP-PDA at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 14 November 2013.
  19. ^ "Accident description: Lockheed Constellation N2735A." Aviation Safety Network, July 18, 2009. Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  20. ^ "Accident description PP-PDE." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved: June 25, 2011.
  21. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Um rastro na selva". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 223–228. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  22. ^ "Accident description: Lockheed Constellation N86504." Aviation Safety Network, November 10, 2008. Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  23. ^ "Accident description PP-PDJ". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved May 22, 2013. 
  24. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Noite do Paraguai". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 145–149. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  25. ^ Accident description for NC111A at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 15 April 2014.
  26. ^ Accident description for NC112A at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 26 May 2016.
  27. ^ Accident description for NC86530 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2014-11-30.
  28. ^ Accident description for PH-TER at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 10 January 2011.
  29. ^ "Accident description: Lockheed Constellation PH-TDF." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved: January 10, 2011.
  30. ^ "Accident description: Eastern Airlines Flight 601." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved: March 11, 2010.
  31. ^ "Accident description: Lockheed Constellation PH-TFF." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved: January 10, 2011.
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External links[edit]

1949 crash on Sao Miguel: "Constellation" by Adrien Bosc (2016)