List of active nationalist parties in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Nationalist parties in Europe have been on the rise since the early 2010s[1][2][3][4][5] due to, according to some, austerity measures and immigration.[6][7]

Linguist Ruth Wodak has stated that the populist parties rising across Europe do so for different reasons in different countries. In an article published in March 2014, she divided these political parties into four groups: "parties [which] gain support via an ambivalent relationship with fascist and Nazi pasts" (in, e.g., Austria, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and France), parties which "focus primarily on a perceived threat from Islam" (in, e.g., the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland), parties which "restrict their propaganda to a perceived threat to their national identities from ethnic minorities" (in, e.g., Hungary, Greece, Italy, and the United Kingdom), and parties which "endorse a fundamentalist Christian conservative-reactionary agenda" (in, e.g., Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria).[8] According to The Economist, the main attraction of far-right parties in the Scandinavian countries is the perception that their national culture is under threat.[9]

Overview[edit]

Different parts of Europe have nationalist parties with various ideologies and goals. Most nationalist parties in Central and Western Europe are described as "right-wing populists".[10] According to Thomas Klau of the European Council on Foreign Relations "as antisemitism was a unifying factor for far-right parties in the 1910s, 20s and 30s, Islamophobia has become the unifying factor in the early decades of the 21st century."[11] Many are Left Wing or Civic Nationalist Parties, which often advocate regionalism.

Nationalist parties are the ruling party in the Republic of Macedonia the VMRO-DPMNE is one of the two major parties in the country. Switzerland is also ruled by a nationalist party by the Swiss People's Party.

In all other countries, nationalist parties are in opposition. In some countries, nationalist parties are major players in politics, such as France's National Rally, Finland's True Finns, Estonia's Conservative People's Party, Italy's Lega Nord, Austria's Freedom Party of Austria Hungary's Jobbik, Turkey's MHP, Greece's Golden Dawn, Armenia's Armenian Revolutionary Federation, the United Kingdom's UK Independence Party, Poland's Law and Justice, Slovakia's Slovak National Party, Denmark's Danish People's Party etc.

Most, if not all, nationalist parties represented in the European Parliament are in the Europe of Freedom and Democracy group.

Eastern Europe and the Caucasus[edit]

Nationalist parties in the Eastern European states differ from the ones in Western Europe mostly by the fact that there is virtually no immigration into these countries.[citation needed]

Governments in Belarus and Azerbaijan are often considered totalitarian and elections in these countries have been described unfair and not free and thus the parliaments are effectively controlled by the ruling party.[citation needed]

Recent developments[edit]

Slovenian Parliamentary Elections, 3 June 2018[edit]

Slovenia held its Parliamentary Elections to the National Assembly of Slovenia on 3 June 2018, where 90 members were elected. The Slovenian National Party and Slovenian Democratic Party are the country's two nationalist, far-rightist parties and both gained seats under this election. The Slovenian Democratic Party is the largest party by seats in the National Assembly with 25, while the Slovenian National Party is the smallest party with 4.[12] Thus 29 seats are held by nationalist parties, up 8 seats from the last elections in 2014. A new Government has yet to be formed, though in any case there will be a strong nationalist sentiment in the Assembly.

However in the 2022 Parliamentary elections, the (SNS - Slovene national party and SDS - Slovene democratic party) lost greatly and were replaced by Gibanje svoboda (Freedom movement - center left), Slovenska demokratska stranka (an off-shot of the former non extremist SDS centrists) and Levica (The left - left).

Estonian General election, March 2019[edit]

The Conservative People's Party of Estonia is an Estonian far-right political party, founded in 2012. During the 2019 Estonian parliamentary election it had the largest gain overall of all parties, increasing their seat count by 12 to a total of 19 seats. Its public support is on the rise, according to opinion polls.

Spanish General election, November 2019[edit]

Vox is a Spanish right-wing to far-right political party, founded in 2012. It obtained, by surprise, 24 seats in the Spanish parliament in the April 2019 election. In the November 2019 election Vox obtained 52 seats (an increase) from what it got in early 2019. The president of Vox is Santiago Abascal and its general secretary is Javier Ortega Smith. Its public support is on the rise, according to results of subsequent regional elections, and opinion polls.

Hungarian Parliamentary Elections, 3 April 2022[edit]

Hungary held its General Parliamentary Elections on 3 April 2022, where 199 seats in the National Assembly of Hungary were filled. Two nationalist parties, emerged with seats in the new Assembly, with the new Prime Minister, Viktor Orban, being from the Fidesz-Christian Democratic People's Party. His party gained 135 seats, while the Our Homeland Movement gained 7 seats. This put 142 out of 199 seats in the Hungarian National Assembly under the control of nationalist parties..

Swedish General Elections, 11 September 2022[edit]

Sweden held its 2022 Swedish general election on 11 September 2022, where 349 seats in the Riksdag were filled. Sweden Democrats Sweden's far-right political party made gains winning 73 seats and becoming the 2nd largest party in Sweden.

Italian General Elections, 25 September 2022[edit]

Italy held its General Elections on 25 September 2022, where 400 Deputies were elected to the Lower House and 200 Senators to the Upper House of the Italian Parliament. Italy's largest far-right party, the Lega Nord or "League" secured 125 seats in the Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) and 58 seats in the Senate (Upper House). The Brothers of Italy, another nationalist party, gained 32 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 18 seats in the Senate.

Observers commented that the results shifted the geopolitics of the European Union, following far-right gains in France, Spain, and Sweden.[13][14][15] It was also noted that the election outcome would mark Italy's first far-right-led government and the country's most right-wing government since 1945.[16][17][18]

List[edit]

  •   the governing party
  •   giving parliamentary support

National[edit]

Country Party Date established % of popular vote Votes Seats Ideology, description Europarty
 Albania Albanian National Front Party 1989
0 / 140
Albanian nationalism, national conservatism, Greater Albania
 Armenia Armenian Revolutionary Federation 1890
7 / 105
Armenian nationalism, United Armenia[19][20] PES
 Austria Freedom Party of Austria 1956 16.2% (2019) 772,666
31 / 183
National conservatism, right-wing populism, anti-immigration,[21] euroscepticism ID
 Belgium New Flemish Alliance 2001 16.03% (2019) 1,086,787
25 / 150
Flemish nationalism, Regionalism, Separatism, Conservatism, Liberal conservatism,[22] Republicanism EFA
Vlaams Belang 2004 11.95% (2019) 810,177
18 / 150
Flemish nationalism[23]
Right-wing populism
Separatism[23]
National conservatism[24]
Euroscepticism[25]
ID
 Bulgaria IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement 1999
0 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism, national conservatism, traditionalism
National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria 2011
0 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism, national conservatism, Euroscepticism
Attack 2005
0 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism,[26] ultranationalism,[27][28]
Bulgarian National Union – New Democracy 2014
0 / 240
National Socialism, Ultranationalism
Revival (Bulgarian political party)
2014
9.83% (2022)
254,925
27 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism, national conservatism, Euroscepticism, anti-Western.
 Croatia Homeland Movement 2020 10.8% (2020) 12,000 (2021)
6 / 151
Croatian nationalism, Right-wing populism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Conservatism, Soft Euroscepticism
Croatian Party of Rights 1990 3.0% (2011) 72,360
0 / 151
Croatian nationalism[29][30][31]
Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starčević 2009
2.8% (2011)
66,150
1 / 151
National conservatism, social conservatism, Euroscepticism AECR
Croatian Pure Party of Rights 1992
0 / 151
Croatian nationalism, National conservatism, Protectionism
 Cyprus National Popular Front 2008 6.8% (2021) 24,255
4 / 56
Greek nationalism
 Czech Republic Freedom and Direct Democracy 2015 9.56% (2021) 513,900
20 / 200
Czech nationalism, Anti-immigrant, Anti-Muslim Eurosceptism ID
 Denmark Danish People's Party 1995 8.7% (2019) 308,513
16 / 179
National conservatism, Danish nationalism, Anti-immigration,[32][33] Euroscepticism[34][35] ID
The New Right 2015 2.4 % (2019) 83,201
4 / 179
Conservatism, National conservatism, Economic liberalism, Danish nationalism, Euroscepticism, Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam
Hard Line 2017 1.8 % (2019) 63,114
0 / 179
Ethnonationalism, Identitarianism, Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam, Hard Euroscepticism
 Estonia Conservative People's Party of Estonia 2012 17.8% (2019) 99,672
19 / 101
Estonian nationalism, national conservatism, anti-immigration, Euroscepticism, Ethnopluralism ID
Estonian Independence Party 1999 0.18% (2015) 1,047
0 / 101
Estonian nationalism, Euroscepticism
 Finland Finns Party 1995 17.7% (2019) 538,805
38 / 200
Finnish nationalism,[36] Anti-Immigration,[37][38] Euroscepticism ID
 France National Rally 1972 18.68% (2022) 4,248,626
89 / 577
French nationalism, Anti-Immigration, Euroscepticism[39][40][41] ID
Reconquête 2021 4.24 (2022) 964,868
0 / 577
French nationalism, Anti-Immigration, Euroscepticism
 Georgia Georgian March 2017 0.25% (2020) 4,769
0 / 150
Georgian nationalism, Anti-immigration, Social conservatism,
 Germany Alternative for Germany 2013 10.3% (2021) 4,803,902
67 / 736
Euroscepticism, National conservatism ID
National Democratic Party 1964 0.1% (2021) 64,574
0 / 736
German nationalism APF
 Greece Golden Dawn 1993 2.93% (2019) 165,711
0 / 300
Greek nationalism, Anti-immigration, Megali Idea,[42] Ultranationalism,[43] Neo-fascist[44]
Greek Solution 2016 3.70% (2019) 208,806
10 / 300
National conservatism, Religious conservatism, Greek nationalism, Economic nationalism, Ultranationalism, Euroscepticism, Anti-immigration, Right-wing populism
Popular Orthodox Rally 2000 1.03% (2015) 97,099
0 / 300
National conservatism, Religious conservatism, Greek nationalism, Economic nationalism, Ultranationalism, Euroscepticism, Anti-immigration, Right-wing populism
 Hungary Fidesz 1988 54.10% (2022) 3,057,195
135 / 199
Hungarian nationalism, national conservatism, anti-immigration, right-wing populism
Our Homeland Movement 2018 6.18% (2022) 332,440
7 / 199
Hungarian nationalism, anti-immigration, Hungarian irredentism
 Ireland Sinn Féin 1905 24.5% (2020) 535,595
37 / 166
Irish republicanism, Left-wing nationalism
Irish Freedom Party 2018 0.3% (2020) 5,495
0 / 160
Hard Euroscepticism, Irish nationalism
National Party 2016 0.2% (2020) 4,773
0 / 166
Nationalism, Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam
 Italy Brothers of Italy 2012 26.0% (2022) 7,284,952
118 / 400
National conservatism,[45] Right-wing populism AECR
League 1991 8.7% (2022) 2,458,752
66 / 400
Right-wing populism, Sovereigntism, Conservatism ID
 Latvia National Alliance 2010 11.01% (2018) 92,963
13 / 100
Latvian nationalism[46] AECR
Latvian Nationalists 2018 0.50% (2018) 4,245
0 / 100
Latvian nationalism[47]
 Lithuania Lithuanian Nationalist and Republican Union 1990
2.36 % (2020)
26,767
0 / 141
Lithuanian nationalism, national conservatism, Eurosceptism, Anti-globalism
Young Lithuania 2009
0 / 141
Lithuanian nationalism, national conservatism, protectionism
 Luxembourg Alternative Democratic Reform Party 1987 8.28% (2018) 292,388
4 / 60
conservatism AECR
 Malta Moviment Patrijotti Maltin 2016 0.36% (2017) 1,117
0 / 67
Maltese nationalism, right-wing populism, anti-immigration, anti-Islam
Imperium Europa 2000 3.17% (2019) 1,117
0 / 67
Maltese nationalism, Pan-European nationalism, anti-immigration, anti-Zionism
 Netherlands Party for Freedom 2006 10.87% (2021) 1,116,037
17 / 150
Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam, Euroscepticism ID
Forum for Democracy 2016 5.03% (2021) 516,723
8 / 150
Anti-immigration, National conservatism, Euroscepticism
 North Macedonia VMRO-DPMNE 1990 34.57% (2020) 315,344
44 / 120
Macedonian nationalism,[48] Christian democracy,[49] National conservatism[50] EPP
 Norway Progress Party 1973 11.7% (2021) 346,053
21 / 169
Right-wing populism,[51] Conservative liberalism,[52][51] Anti-immigration,[53] Euroscepticism[54]
Centre Party 1920 13.6% (2021) 402,481
28 / 169
Norwegian nationalism (Civic nationalism),[55] Euroscepticism,[56] Agrarianism[56]
 Poland United Right 2015 43.6% (2019) 8,051,935
235 / 460
National conservatism,[57][58] Christian democracy, soft euroscepticism[59][60] AECR
Law and Justice 2001
part of United Right alliance
197 / 460
Christian democracy, Soft Euroscepticism, Economic Nationalism AECR
United Poland 2012
part of United Right alliance
19 / 460
National conservatism, Euroscepticism, Political Catholicism AECR
Confederation Liberty and Independence 2018 6.81% (2019) 1,256,953
11 / 460
Hard Euroscepticism, Polish Nationalism, Ordoliberalism
National Movement 2012
part of Confederation alliance
5 / 460
Polish nationalism, national conservatism, anti-globalization
 Portugal Rise Up 2000 0.09% (2022) 5,236
0 / 230
Portuguese nationalism AENM
Chega 2019 7.28% (2022) 410,965
12 / 230
Portuguese nationalism, national conservatism ID
 Romania United Romania Party 2015 >0.50% (2020) >50,000
0 / 329
Romanian nationalism
Greater Romania Party 1991 0.55% (2020) 32,654
0 / 329
Romanian nationalism, Union with Moldova, Anti-Hungarian sentiment
Rational Romania 2019 - - - Romanian rational nationalism. Neutral, Objective, Patriotic
Alliance for the Union of Romanians 2019 8.99% (2020) 535,828
47 / 329
Romanian nationalism, Union with Moldova, Anti-Hungarian sentiment, Christian Nationalism
 Russia LDPR 1991 7.55% (2021) 4,252,096
21 / 450
Russian nationalism, Russian imperialism, anti-Americanism[61][62]
 Serbia Serbian People's Party 2014
2 / 250
Serbian nationalism, Right-wing populism, National conservatism
Serbian Party Oathkeepers 2012 3.87% (2022) 138,260
10 / 250
Serbian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Russophilia
Dveri 1999 3.84% (2022) 140,100
6 / 250
Serbian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Christian right, Conservatism, Monarchism, Economic nationalism, Eco-nationalism, Euroscepticism
Serbian Radical Party 1991 2.23% (2022) 80,218
0 / 250
Serbian nationalism, Serbian irredentism, Right-wing populism, Hard Euroscepticism, National conservatism, Russophilia
 Slovakia Slovak National Party 1989 3.16% (2020) 91,171
0 / 150
Slovak ultra-nationalist,[63][64][65][66][67][68] Antiziganism[69][70][71] MELD
Kotleba - People's Party Our Slovakia 2011 8.0% (2020) 229,581
17 / 150
Neo-fascism APF
 Slovenia Slovenian Democratic Party 1989 23.5 (2022) 279,897
27 / 90
Slovenian nationalism, National conservatism, Right-wing populism, Social conservatism EPP
Slovenian National Party 1991 1.5% (2022) 17,736
0 / 90
Slovenian nationalism[72]
 Spain Vox 2013 15.1% (2019) 3,639,772
52 / 350
Spanish nationalism, National Conservatism[73] AECR
Spanish Falange of the JONS 1976 0.04% (2016) 9,862
0 / 350
Falangism
España 2000 2002 0.04% (2011) 9,266
0 / 350
Spanish nationalism
National Democracy 1995 0.01% (2011) 1,867
0 / 350
Spanish nationalism APF
La Falange 1999 0.00% (2016) 254
0 / 350
Falangism, national syndicalism, Spanish nationalism
 Sweden Sweden Democrats 1988 20.53% (2022) 1,322,214
73 / 349
Swedish nationalism,[74] Anti-immigration,[75] Euroscepticism[76] AECR
Alternative for Sweden 2018 0.26% (2022) 16,646
0 / 349
Swedish nationalism, Anti-immigration, Euroscepticism
Swedish Resistance Movement 1997 0.03% (2018) 2,106
0 / 349
Militant national socialist[77] (part of the Nordic Resistance Movement)
 Switzerland Swiss People's Party 1971 25.6% (2019) 740,954
53 / 200
National conservatism,[78][79] Economic liberalism,[79] Agrarianism,[80][81] Euroscepticism[82]
 Ukraine Right Sector 2014 2.15% (2019) 315,568
0 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism
Svoboda 1991 2.15% (2019) 315,568
1 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism,[83] Anti-Russian[84]
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 1992 2.15% (2019) 315,568
0 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism
 United Kingdom British National Party 1982 0.00% (2019) 510
0 / 650
White supremacism, British nationalism, British Fascism, Right-wing populism AENM
National Front 1967 0.00% (2015) 1,114
0 / 650
White supremacism, British nationalism, British Fascism
Patriotic Alternative 2019
0 / 650
White nationalism, British nationalism, Anti-immigration

Disputed[edit]

Party Country Date established % of popular vote (legislature) Votes (legislature) Seats Ideology
Peace to Luhansk region  Luhansk People's Republic 2014 74.12% (2018)
37 / 50
Russian nationalism, Luhansk separatism
Donetsk Republic  Donetsk People's Republic 2005 72.38% (2018)
74 / 100
Russian nationalism, Donbass separatism
Unity Party  South Ossetia 2003 46.3% (2009) 21,246
17 / 34
Ossetia
Free Motherland  Artsakh 2005 44.2% (2010) 29,252
14 / 33
Armenian nationalism, United Armenia
National Unity Party Cyprus  Northern Cyprus 1975 44.1% (2009) 622,804
27 / 50
Turkish Nationalism
Vetëvendosje  Kosovo 2005 26.27% (2019) 221,001
29 / 120
Albanian Nationalism & Greater Albania
Renewal  Pridnestrovia 2000 % (2010) 75,800
25 / 43
Centrism, Russian Nationalism
United Abkhazia  Abkhazia 2004 % (2012)
3 / 35
Republicanism

Regional[edit]

Party Country Date established % of popular vote (legislature) Votes (legislature) Seats Ideology
Basque National Party Spain Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque Autonomous Community 1895 37.4% (2016) 398,168
28 / 75
Basque nationalism
Geroa Bai (Basque National Party + other minor parties) Spain Navarre 2011 15.8% (2015) 53,497
9 / 50
Basque nationalism
EH Bildu Spain Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque Autonomous Community

Spain Navarre

2011 21.1% (2016)

14.2% (2015)

225,172

48,166

18 / 75
8 / 50
Basque nationalism
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats Bosnia and Herzegovina  Republika Srpska 2001 50.5% (2010) 319,615
37 / 83
Serbian nationalism
Together for Catalonia Spain  Catalonia 2017 21.6% (2017) 940,602
34 / 135
Catalan independentism Liberalism
Republican Left of Catalonia–Catalonia Yes Spain  Catalonia 2017 21.4% (2017) 929,407
32 / 135
Catalan independentism Social democracy
Popular Unity Candidacy Spain  Catalonia 2017 8.2% (2017) 193,352
4 / 135
Catalan inedependentism Anticapitalism
Pè a Corsica France  Corsica 2002 45.4% (2017)
(54.5% in second round)
54,212
(67,253 in second round)
32 / 63
Corsican nationalism
New Flemish Alliance Belgium  Flanders 2001 24.83% (2019) 1,052,252
35 / 124
Flemish nationalism
Regionalism
Separatism[23]
Conservatism
Liberal conservatism
Republicanism
Flemish Interest Belgium  Flanders 2004 18.50% (2019) 783,977
23 / 124
Flemish nationalism
Right-wing populism
Separatism
National conservatism
Euroscepticism
Republicanism
ID
Martinican Independence Movement France  Martinique 2002 30.3% (2015)
(54.1% in second round)
36,523
(83,541 in second round)
33 / 51
Martinican nationalism
Scottish National Party United Kingdom  Scotland 1934 44.1% (2016)
(Constituency vote: 46.5%)
(Regional vote: 41.7%)
2,013,484
(Constituency vote: 1,059,897)
(Regional vote: 953,587)
63 / 129
Scottish independence,

Scottish nationalism,

Regionalism

Plaid Cymru United Kingdom  Wales 1925 20.7% (2016)
(Constituency vote: 20.5%)
(Regional vote: 20.8%)
420,924
(Constituency vote: 209,376)
(Regional vote: 211,548)
12 / 60
Welsh nationalism,

Welsh independence,

Civil nationalism,

Regionalism

Sinn Féin Northern Ireland Northern Ireland 1905 27.9% (2016) 224,245
27 / 90
Irish republicanism,

Left-wing nationalism

Party of Democratic Action[85] Bosnia and Herzegovina  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990 20.2% (2010) 206,926
23 / 98
Bosniak nationalism
Croatian Democratic Union Bosnia and Herzegovina  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990 10.6% (2010) 108,943
12 / 98
Croatian nationalism
Galician Nationalist Bloc Spain  Galicia 1982 23.79% (2020) 311,340
19 / 75
Galician nationalism
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians Serbia  Vojvodina 1994 9.29% (2020) 75,218
11 / 120
Hungarian nationalism

European Nationalist political party[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "EU president warns against rising nationalism in Europe". Today's Zaman. 11 November 2010. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  2. ^ "Special report: The rise of the right in Europe". Special Broadcasting Service. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  3. ^ "Rising European nationalism chills investors". CBS News. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  4. ^ "Fascism and Ultranationalism on the Rise in Countries Across Europe". Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. 27 June 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  5. ^ "Peter Popham: Rise of far right threatens to pollute politics across Europe". The Independent. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  6. ^ Smith-Spark, Laura (9 May 2012). "Anger at austerity, immigration feeds far right's rise in Europe". CNN. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  7. ^ "Rise of anti-immigration, anti-EU far right parties in Europe causes concern". Today's Zaman. 27 April 2012. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  8. ^ Wodak, Ruth (4 March 2014). "Right wing populist parties on the rise". Cyprus Mail. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  9. ^ "Culture matters more". The Economist. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  10. ^ "Continent of Fear: The Rise of Europe's Right-Wing Populists". Spiegel Online. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  11. ^ Walker, Peter; Taylor, Matthew (6 November 2011). "Far right on rise in Europe, says report". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  12. ^ d.o.o., SRC. volitve.gov.si http://volitve.gov.si/dz2018/#/rezultati. Retrieved 4 June 2018. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ D'Emilio, Frances; Winfield, Nicole; Zampano, Giada (26 September 2022). "Italy shifts to the right as voters reward Meloni's party". AP News. Associated Press. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  14. ^ Horowitz, Jason (25 September 2022). "Giorgia Meloni Wins Voting in Italy, in Breakthrough for Europe's Hard Right". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 September 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  15. ^ Lemire, Jonathan (26 September 2022). "White House anxiously watches Meloni's rise to power". Politico. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  16. ^ "Italy election: Meloni says center-right bloc has 'clear' mandate". Deutsche Welle. 26 September 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  17. ^ Leali, Giorgio; Roberts, Hannah (25 September 2022). "Italy on track to elect most right-wing government since Mussolini". Politico. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  18. ^ Braithwaite, Sharon; DiDonato, Valentina; Fox, Kara; Mortensen, Antonia; Nadeau, Barbie Latza; Ruotolo, Nicola (26 September 2022). "Giorgia Meloni claims victory to become Italy's most far-right prime minister since Mussolini". CNN. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  19. ^ Harutyunyan, Arus (2009). Contesting National Identities in an Ethnically Homogeneous State: The Case of Armenian Democratization. p. 89. ISBN 9781109120127. The ARF strives for the solution of the Armenian Cause and formation of the entire motherland with all Armenians. The party made it abundantly clear that historical justice will be achieved once ethnic Armenian repatriate to united Armenia, which in addition to its existing political boundaries would include Western Armenian territories (Eastern Turkey), Mountainous Karabagh and Nakhijevan (in Azerbaijan), and the Samtskhe-Javakheti region of the southern Georgia, bordering Armenia.
  20. ^ "The Supreme Goals of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation". ARF Shant Student Association. Archived from the original on 11 August 2006. Retrieved 21 January 2013. The boundaries of united Armenia must incorporate the territories awarded to Armenia by the Treaty of Sevres, as well as the regions of Nakhijevan, Javakhk, and Artsakh.
  21. ^ "Far-Right, Anti-Immigrant Parties Make Gains in Austrian Elections". New York Times. 28 September 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  22. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Belgium". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  23. ^ a b c Wingfield, George (2008). Belgium. Infobase Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7910-9670-3.
  24. ^ Thompson, Wayne C. (2008). Western Europe 2008. Stryker Post Pubns. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-887985-98-7.
  25. ^ Belgians' pride in EU role quells euroscepticism. EUobserver. Published 6 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  26. ^ Magone, José M. (2011), Comparative European Politics: An Introduction, Routledge, p. 386
  27. ^ Katsikas, Stefanos (2011), Negotiating Diplomacy in the New Europe: Foreign Policy in Post-Communist Bulgaria, I.B. Tauris, p. 64
  28. ^ Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2007), The Balkans: A Post-Communist History, Routledge, p. 120
  29. ^ "Political Parties". University of North Carolina. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  30. ^ "Ultra-right nationalist Croatian Party of Rights holding hate conference Friday". romea.cz. 11 April 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  31. ^ "Ante Pavelić". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  32. ^ "Leader of Danish anti-immigrant party steps down". Reuters. 7 August 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  33. ^ "Anti-immigrant Danish party jumps in poll". Financial Times. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  34. ^ Kelstrup, Morten (2006), "Denmark in the Process of European Integration: Dilemmas, Problems, and Perspectives", National Identity and the Varieties of Capitalism: The Danish Experience, McGill-Queen's University Press, p. 390
  35. ^ Lenz, Hartmut; Dorussen, Han (2006), "Denmark: the Nordic model as an effort to bridge elite Euro-optimism and popular Euro-skepticism", Policy Making Processes and the European Constitution, Routledge, p. 70
  36. ^ "Nationalist True Finns make gains in Finland vote". BBC News. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  37. ^ "Populist anti-immigration parties are performing strongly across northern Europe". The Economist. 17 March 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  38. ^ "The True Finns followed a well-known recipe for success". The Guardian. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  39. ^ "Europe's far-right in steady crawl toward power". FOX News. 4 May 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  40. ^ "José Manuel Barroso hits back at criticism from French minister". Financial Times. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  41. ^ "France's far-right steal votes from Hollande's left". Reuters. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  42. ^ "Greek 'Führer' vows to 'take back İzmir' after Istanbul". Hürriyet Daily News. 15 June 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  43. ^ "Golden Dawn and Syriza clash over 'Heil Hitler' cries in Greek parliament". 17 May 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  44. ^ Smith, Helena (1 June 2013). "Golden Dawn: 'Greece belongs to Greeks. Long live victory!'". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  45. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck (2013). "Italy". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  46. ^ "Parties and Elections in Europe, "Latvia", The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck". Parties & Elections. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  47. ^ "Politisko partiju apvienība - LATVIEŠU NACIONĀLISTI (LN)". Latviešu Nacionālisti (in Latvian). Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  48. ^ Janusz Bugajski (1995). Ethnic Politics in Eastern Europe: A Guide to Nationality Policies, Organizations, and Parties. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 463–. ISBN 978-0-7656-1911-2.
  49. ^ "Key political Parties in Macedonia", Balkan Insight, 27 September 2012
  50. ^ Sabrina P. Ramet (18 February 2010). Central and Southeast European Politics since 1989. Cambridge University Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-521-88810-3.
  51. ^ a b Wolfram Nordsieck (2013). "Parties and Elections in Europe: Norway". parties-and-elections.eu. Parties and Elections in Europe.
  52. ^ "Norway – Political parties". Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
  53. ^ Donnelly, Laura (23 July 2011). "Norway attacks: Anders Behring Breivik was active member of far-right party". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  54. ^ "Frp sier nei til EU for første gang". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). NTB. 4 September 2016.
  55. ^ "Rekordmåling for Senterpartiet: - Norsk nasjonalisme er en positiv kraft". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). 9 February 2017.
  56. ^ a b "Norway – Political parties". Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  57. ^ Hloušek, Vít; Kopeček, Lubomír (2010), Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared, Ashgate, p. 196
  58. ^ Nodsieck, Wolfram, "Poland", Parties and Elections in Europe, retrieved 28 March 2012
  59. ^ Myant et al (2008), p. 88
  60. ^ Szczerbiak, Aleks; Taggart, Paul A. (2008). Opposing Europe?. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-19-925830-7.
  61. ^ "Vladimir Zhirinovsky". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  62. ^ "Vladimir Zhirinovsky and the LDPR". Foreign Policy Journal. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  63. ^ New Slovak Government Embraces Ultra-Nationalists, Excludes Hungarian Coalition Party Archived 2011-01-05 at the Wayback Machine HRF Alert: "Hungarians are the cancer of the Slovak nation, without delay we need to remove them from the body of the nation." (Új Szó, 15 April 2005)
  64. ^ Auer, Stefan (2004). Liberal nationalism in Central Europe. Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe. Vol. 1. Routledge. p. 44. ISBN 9780415314794. Miroslav Sladek in the Czech Republic and Jan Slota in Slovakia stand out as two leaders of extreme nationalist parties who...
  65. ^ Jeffries, Ian (2002). Eastern Europe at the turn of the twenty-first century. Routledge. p. 352. ISBN 9780415236713. Slovak National Party: led by Jan Slota. Extreme nationalist
  66. ^ P. Ramet, Sabrina (1997). Whose democracy?: nationalism, religion, and the doctrine of collective rights in post-1989 Eastern Europe. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 128. ISBN 9780847683246. ...Meciar established his 1994 coalition government with the extreme-nacionalist Slovak National Party (SNS), led by Ján Slota, mayor of Zilina...
  67. ^ "International Herald Tribune's article about Hungarian-Slovak relations". International Herald Tribune. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
  68. ^ "Official Results: Slovak Ultra-Nationalists Grab Seat In EU Vote". Nasdaq.com. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
  69. ^ "European Roma Rights Centre". Errc.org. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
  70. ^ "Slovakia's new rulers, strange bedfellows". Isn.ethz.ch. Archived from the original on 5 February 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
  71. ^ Kristina Mikulova's (Financial Times) article on the pages of CEPA Archived 20 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  72. ^ Rizman, Rudolf M. (1999), "Radical Right Politics in Slovenia", The radical right in Central and Eastern Europe since 1989, Penn State Press, p. 152, ISBN 978-0271043791
  73. ^ "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  74. ^ "Partiledningen vann strid om principprogrammet | SvD".
  75. ^ "Anti-Immigrant Party Rises in Sweden". New York Times. 13 September 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  76. ^ "Why anti-EU Sweden Democrats care about European elections". The Local. 13 January 2014.
  77. ^ "Nazisters vapengömma sprängd | SvD".
  78. ^ Skenderovic 2009, p. 124: "... and prefers to use terms such as 'national-conservative' or 'conservative-right' in defining the SVP. In particular, 'national-conservative' has gained prominence among the definitions used in Swiss research on the SVP".
  79. ^ a b Geden 2006, p. 95.
  80. ^ Svante Ersson; Jan-Erik Lane (28 December 1998). Politics and Society in Western Europe. SAGE. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-0-7619-5862-8. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  81. ^ Aleks Szczerbiak; Paul Taggart (2008). Opposing Europe?: The Comparative Party Politics of Euroscepticism: Volume 2: Comparative and Theoretical Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 70–. ISBN 978-0-19-925835-2.
  82. ^ Alexandre Afonso. "What does the Swiss immigration vote mean for Britain and the European Union?". Political Studies Association.
  83. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram, "Ukraine", Parties and Elections in Europe, retrieved 5 November 2012
  84. ^ "Svoboda Fuels Ukraine's Growing Anti-Semitism". Algemeiner Journal. 24 May 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  85. ^ Party of Democratic Action, SDA. "SDA won the general elections in Bosnia, nationalist on the top again!". klix.ba. Retrieved 16 October 2014.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]