List of active nationalist parties in Europe

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The popular vote in favour of the main nationalist party by European countries.

Nationalist parties in Europe have been on rise since the early 2010s[1][2][3][4][5][6] due to, according to some, austerity measures and immigration.[7][8]

Ruth Wodak stresses that the rise of populist parties across Europe has different reasons in different countries. In a March 2014 article she divided these parties into four groups: "parties [that] gain support via an ambivalent relationship with fascist and Nazi pasts" (e.g., in Austria, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and France), parties that "focus primarily on a perceived threat from Islam" (e.g., in the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland), parties that "restrict their propaganda to a perceived threat to their national identities from ethnic minorities" (e.g., in Hungary, Greece, Italy, and the United Kingdom) and parties that "endorse a fundamentalist Christian conservative-reactionary agenda" (e.g., in Poland, Romania and Bulgaria).[9] According to the Economist, the main attraction of far-right parties in the Scandinavian countries is the national culture is under threat.[10]

Overview[edit]

Different parts of Europe have nationalist parties with different ideologies and goals. Most nationalist parties in Western Europe are described as right-wing populists.[11] According to Thomas Klau of the European Council on Foreign Relations "as antisemitism was a unifying factor for far-right parties in the 1910s, 20s and 30s, Islamophobia has become the unifying factor in the early decades of the 21st century."[12] Many are Left Wing or Civic Nationalist Parties, which often advocate regionalism.

Nationalist parties are the ruling parties in the two former Yugoslav countries. In the Republic of Macedonia, the VMRO-DPMNE is one of the two major parties in the country. The Serbian Progressive Party (SNS), founded in 2008 by former Serbian Radical Party members and is led by Tomislav Nikolić. The SNS won plurality in the 2012 parliamentary election and is since the senior party in the Serbian government.

In all other countries, nationalist parties are in opposition. In some countries, nationalist parties are major players in politics, such as in the Sinn Féin in Ireland, National Front in France, True Finns in Finland, Conservative People's Party of Estonia in Estonia, in Italy, Lega Nord, in Austria, Jobbik in Hungary, LDPR in Russia, MHP in Turkey, the Golden Dawn in Greece, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation in Armenia, etc.

Most, if not all, nationalist parties represented in the European Parliament are in the Europe of Freedom and Democracy group.

Eastern Europe and the Caucasus[edit]

Nationalist parties in the Eastern European states differ from the ones in Western Europe mostly by the fact that there is virtually no immigration into these countries.[citation needed]

Governments in Belarus and Azerbaijan are often considered totalitarian and elections in these countries have been described unfair and not free and thus the parliaments are effectively controlled by the ruling party.[citation needed]

List[edit]

  •   the governing party
  •   giving parliamentary support

National[edit]

Party Country Date established  % of popular vote Votes Seats Ideology, description Europarty
VMRO-DPMNE  Macedonia 1990 43.0% (2014) 481,615
51 / 123
Macedonian nationalism,[13] Christian democracy,[14] National conservatism[15] EPP
Law and Justice  Poland 2001 37.6% (2015) 5,711,687
235 / 460
National conservatism,[16][17] Christian democracy, soft euroscepticism[18][19] AECR
Swiss People's Party   Switzerland 1971 29.4% (2015) 740,954
65 / 200
National conservatism,[20][21] Economic liberalism,[21] Agrarianism,[22][23] Euroscepticism[24]
Danish People's Party  Denmark 1995 21.1% (2015) 741,746
37 / 179
National conservatism, Danish nationalism, Anti-immigration,[25][26] Euroscepticism[27][28] MELD
Freedom Party of Austria  Austria 1956 20.5% (2013) 962,313
40 / 183
National conservatism, right-wing populism, anti-immigration,[29][30] euroscepticism MENL
New Flemish Alliance  Belgium 2001 20.3% (2014) 1,366,397
33 / 150
Flemish nationalism, conservatism, separatism[31] EFA
Jobbik  Hungary 2003 20.2% (2014) 985,029
23 / 199
Hungarian nationalism,[32][33] Anti-Zionism,[34] Greater Hungary[35] AENM
Finns Party  Finland 1995 17.7% (2015) 524,054
38 / 200
Finnish nationalism,[36] Anti-Immigration,[37][38] Euroscepticism AECR
National Alliance  Latvia 2010 16.6% (2014) 151,567
17 / 100
Latvian nationalism[39] AECR
Progress Party  Norway 1973 16.3% (2013) 463,560
29 / 169
Anti-immigration[40]
Sinn Féin  Ireland 1905 13.8% (2016) 295,319
23 / 166
Irish republicanism, Left-wing nationalism, Democratic Socialism
National Front  France 1972 13.6% (2012) 3,528,373
2 / 577
French nationalism, Anti-Immigration, Euroscepticism[41][42][43] MENL
Sweden Democrats  Sweden 1988 12.9% (2014) 801,178
49 / 349
Swedish nationalism,[44] Anti-immigration,[45] Euroscepticism[46] ADDE
United Kingdom Independence Party  United Kingdom 1993 12.6% (2015) 3,881,129
1 / 650
Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism ADDE
LDPR  Russia 1991 11.7% (2011) 7,664,570
56 / 450
Russian nationalism, Russian imperialism, Anti-Americanism[47][48]
Party for Freedom  Netherlands 2006 13.1% (2017) 1,372,941
20 / 150
Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam, Euroscepticism
Slovak National Party  Slovakia 1989 8.64% (2016) 225,386
15 / 150
Slovak ultra-nationalist,[49][50][51][52][53][54] extremist,[55][56][57] Hungarophobia,[58][not in citation given] Antiziganism[59][60][61] MELD
Conservative People's Party of Estonia  Estonia 2012 8.1% (2015) 46,772
7 / 101
Estonian nationalism, national conservatism, anti-immigration, Euroscepticism, Ethnopluralism
Serbian Radical Party  Serbia 1991 8.1% (2016) 306,052
22 / 250
Serbian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism, National conservatism, Russophilia
Kotleba - People’s Party Our Slovakia  Slovakia 2011 8.04% (2016) 209,779
14 / 150
Slovak ultra-nationalist, extremist APF
National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria  Bulgaria 2011
7.28% (2014)
239,101
10 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism, national conservatism, Euroscepticism MELD
IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement  Bulgaria 1999
8 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism, conservatism, traditionalism
Golden Dawn  Greece 1993 6.99% (2015) 379,581
18 / 300
Greek nationalism, Anti-immigration, Megali Idea,[62] Ultranationalism,[63] Neo-fascist[64] APF
Alternative Democratic Reform Party  Luxembourg 1987 6.6% (2013) 217,683
3 / 60
conservatism AECR
Armenian Nationalist party  Armenia 1890 5.7% (2012) 85,550
5 / 131
Armenian nationalism, United Armenia[65][66] PES
Order and Justice  Lithuania 2002 5.33% (2016) 67,794
5 / 141
Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism ADDE
Coalition for the Renewal of the Republic–Liberty and Hope  Poland 2015 4.76% (2015) 722,999
0 / 460
Euroscepticism
Alternative for Germany  Germany 2013 4.7% (2013) 2,056,985
0 / 631
Euroscepticism, National conservatism
Svoboda  Ukraine 1991 4.7% (2014) 742,022
7 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism,[67] Anti-Russian[68]
Attack  Bulgaria 2005 4.52% (2014) 148,262
11 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism,[69] ultranationalism,[70][71]
Lega Nord  Italy 1991 4.08% (2013) 1,390,156
18 / 630
Regionalism,[72][73][74] Anti-immigration,[75] Euroscepticism,[76] Anti-globalization[77] MENL
National Popular Front  Cyprus 2008 3.71% (2016) 13,041
2 / 56
Greek nationalism
Flemish Interest  Belgium 2004 3.7% (2014) 247,738
3 / 150
Flemish nationalism, separatism[31] MENL
Croatian Party of Rights  Croatia 1990 3.0% (2011) 72,360
0 / 151
Croatian nationalism[78][79][80]
United Romania Party  Romania 2015 2.8% (2016) 196,397
0 / 137
Romanian nationalism,
Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starčević  Croatia 2009
2.8% (2011)
66,150
1 / 151
National conservatism, social conservatism, Euroscepticism AECR
Croatian Pure Party of Rights  Croatia 1992
0 / 151
Croatian nationalism, national conservatism, protectionism
Slovenian National Party  Slovenia 1991 2.2% (2014) 19,218
0 / 90
Slovenian nationalism[81]
Brothers of Italy – National Alliance  Italy 2012 2.0% (2013) 666,035
9 / 630
Italian nationalism[82]
Right Sector  Ukraine 2014 1.8% (2014) 284,943
1 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism
National Democratic Party  Germany 1964 1.5% (2013) 635,135
0 / 631
German nationalism APF
Greater Romania Party  Romania 1991 1.5% (2012) 108,911
0 / 137
Romanian nationalism, Union with Moldova, Anti-Hungarian sentiment
Workers' Party  Czech Republic 2010 0.86% (2013) 42,906
0 / 200
Czech nationalism APF
Lithuanian Nationalist Union  Lithuania 1924
0.54% (2016)
6,855
0 / 141
Lithuanian nationalism, national conservatism, Eurosceptism, Anti-globalism
Young Lithuania  Lithuania 2009
0 / 141
Lithuanian nationalism, national conservatism, protectionism
National Renovator Party  Portugal 2000 0.50% (2015) 27,286
0 / 230
Portuguese nationalism AENM
National Liberal Party  Moldova 1993 0.43% (2014) 6,859
0 / 101
Liberalism, Moldovan-Romanian unionism
Albanian National Front Party  Albania 1989 0.28% (2013) 4,868
0 / 140
Albanian nationalism, national conservatism, Greater Albania
New Force  Italy 1997 0.26% (2013) 89,826
0 / 630
APF
Estonian Independence Party  Estonia 1999 0.18% (2015) 1,047
0 / 101
Estonian nationalism, Euroscepticism
Tricolour Flame  Italy 1995 0.13% (2013) 44,753
0 / 630
AENM
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists  Ukraine 1992 0.05% (2014) 8,976
0 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism
Spanish Falange of the JONS  Spain 1976 0.04% (2016) 9,862
0 / 350
Falangism
España 2000  Spain 2002 0.04% (2011) 9,266
0 / 350
Spanish nationalism
Congress of the New Right  Poland 2011 0.03% (2015) 4,852
0 / 460
Euroscepticism
Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland  Poland 1992 0.03% (2015) 4,266
0 / 460
Polish nationalism
National Democracy  Spain 1995 0.01% (2011) 1,867
0 / 350
Spanish nationalism APF
British National Party  United Kingdom 1982 0.00% (2015) 1,667
0 / 650
White nationalism,[83][84][85] Fascism,[86][87][88] Euroscepticism[89] AENM
La Falange  Spain 1999 0.00% (2016) 254
0 / 350
Falangism, national syndicalism, Spanish nationalism
Swedish Resistance Movement  Sweden 2015 0.00% 0
0 / 349
Militant neo-nazi[90]
Conservative Party of Georgia  Georgia 2001
part of Georgian Dream alliance
6 / 150
Georgian nationalism, National conservatism AECR
National Movement  Poland 2012
part of Kukiz'15 alliance
5 / 460
Polish nationalism, national conservatism, anti-globalization
Belarusian Popular Front  Belarus 1988 N/A N/A
0 / 110
Belarusian nationalism,[91][92] Christian democracy,[93] Conservatism EPP
Party of the Danes  Denmark 2011 N/A N/A
0 / 179
Danish Nationalism, Anti-immigration, Eurosceptism, Anti-globalism, Danish Social Conservatism, Ethnopluralism APF

Disputed, de facto independent areas[edit]

Party Country Date established  % of popular vote (legislature) Votes (legislature) Seats Ideology, description
Unity Party Georgia (country)  South Ossetia 2003 46.3% (2009) 21,246
17 / 34
Free Motherland Azerbaijan  Nagorno-Karabakh 2005 44.2% (2010) 29,252
14 / 33
National Unity Party Cyprus  Northern Cyprus 1975 44.1% (2009) 622,804
27 / 50
Democratic Party of Kosovo Serbia  Kosovo 1999 30.38% (2014) 222,181
37 / 120
Renewal Moldova  Transnistria 2000  % (2010)
25 / 43
United Abkhazia Georgia (country)  Abkhazia 2004  % (2012)
0 / 35

Regional[edit]

Party Country Date established  % of popular vote (legislature) Votes (legislature) Seats Ideology
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats Bosnia and Herzegovina  Republika Srpska 2001 50.5% (2010) 319,615
37 / 83
Serbian nationalism
Scottish National Party United Kingdom  Scotland 1934 45.4% (2011) 902,915
65 / 129
Scottish nationalism
Basque National Party Spain Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque Autonomous Community 1895 34.6% (2012) 383,565
27 / 75
Basque nationalism
Geroa Bai (Basque National Party + other minor parties) Spain Navarre 2011 15.8% (2015) 53,497
9 / 50
Basque nationalism
EH Bildu Spain Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque Autonomous Community

Spain Navarre

2011 24.7% (2012)

14.2% (2015)

277,923

48,166

21 / 75
8 / 50
Basque nationalism
New Flemish Alliance Belgium  Flanders 2001 31.9% (2014) 1,339,943
43 / 124
Flemish nationalism, conservatism, separatism[31]
Convergence and Union Spain  Catalonia 1978 30.7% (2012) 1,116,259
50 / 135
Catalan nationalism
Sinn Féin  Northern Ireland 1905 26.3% (2016) 166,785
29 / 108
Irish nationalism
Party of Democratic Action[94] Bosnia and Herzegovina  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990 20.2% (2010) 206,926
23 / 98
Bosniak nationalism
Plaid Cymru United Kingdom  Wales 1925 20,5% (2016) 209,376
12 / 60
Welsh nationalism
Pè a Corsica France  Corse 2002 35.34% (2015) 52,839
24 / 51
Corse nationalism
Croatian Democratic Union Bosnia and Herzegovina  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990 10.6% (2010) 108,943
12 / 98
Croatian nationalism
Galician Nationalist Bloc Spain  Galicia 1982 10.1% (2012) 146,027
7 / 75
Galician nationalism
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians Serbia  Vojvodina 1994 4.8% (2016) 47,034
6 / 120
Hungarian nationalism
Flemish Interest Belgium  Flanders 1992 5.9% (2014) 248,840
6 / 124
Flemish nationalism

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