List of active nationalist parties in Europe
Linguist Ruth Wodak has stated that the populist parties rising across Europe do so for different reasons in different countries. In an article published in March of 2014, she divided these political parties into four groups: "parties [which] gain support via an ambivalent relationship with fascist and Nazi pasts" (in, e.g., Austria, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and France), parties which "focus primarily on a perceived threat from Islam" (in, e.g., the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland), parties which "restrict their propaganda to a perceived threat to their national identities from ethnic minorities" (in, e.g., Hungary, Greece, Italy, and the United Kingdom), and parties which "endorse a fundamentalist Christian conservative-reactionary agenda" (in, e.g., Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria). According to The Economist, the main attraction of far-right parties in the Scandinavian countries is the perception that their national culture is under threat.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Recent Developments
- 3 List
- 4 European Nationalist political party
- 5 Defunct nationalist parties in Europe
- 6 References
- 7 Sources
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Different parts of Europe have nationalist parties with various ideologies and goals. Most nationalist parties in Central and Western Europe are described as "right-wing populists". According to Thomas Klau of the European Council on Foreign Relations "as antisemitism was a unifying factor for far-right parties in the 1910s, 20s and 30s, Islamophobia has become the unifying factor in the early decades of the 21st century." Many are Left Wing or Civic Nationalist Parties, which often advocate regionalism.
Nationalist parties are the ruling party in the Republic of Macedonia the VMRO-DPMNE is one of the two major parties in the country. Switzerland is also ruled by a nationalist party by the Swiss People's Party.
In all other countries, nationalist parties are in opposition. In some countries, nationalist parties are major players in politics, such as France's National Rally, Finland's True Finns, Estonia's Conservative People's Party, Italy's Lega Nord, Austria's Freedom Party of Austria Hungary's Jobbik, Turkey's MHP, Greece's Golden Dawn , Armenia's Armenian Revolutionary Federation, the United Kingdom's UK Independence Party, Poland's Law and Justice, Slovakia's Slovak National Party, Denmark's Danish People's Party etc.
Most, if not all, nationalist parties represented in the European Parliament are in the Europe of Freedom and Democracy group.
Eastern Europe and the Caucasus
Nationalist parties in the Eastern European states differ from the ones in Western Europe mostly by the fact that there is virtually no immigration into these countries.
Governments in Belarus and Azerbaijan are often considered totalitarian and elections in these countries have been described unfair and not free and thus the parliaments are effectively controlled by the ruling party.
Slovenian Parliamentary Elections, 3 June 2018
Slovenia held its Parliamentary Elections to the National Assembly of Slovenia on the 3rd June, 2018, where 90 members were elected. The Slovenian National Party and Slovenian Democratic Party are the country's two nationalist, far-rightist parties and both gained seats under this election. The Slovenian Democratic Party is the largest party by seats in the National Assembly with 25, while the Slovenian National Party is the smallest party with 4. Thus 29 seats are held by nationalist parties, up 8 seats from the last elections in 2014. A new Government has yet to be formed, though in any case there will be a strong nationalist sentiment in the Assembly.
United Kingdom Local Elections, 3 May 2018
The United Kingdom held Local Elections on the 3rd of May for around a quarter of local government seats in England. The United Kingdom Independence Party lost 103 seats during this round of elections, showing a decline in support for local government-level nationalism in the country after the Brexit referendum of 2016.
Hungarian Parliamentary Elections, 8 April 2018
Hungary held its General Parliamentary Elections on the 8th April 2018, where 199 seats in the National Assembly of Hungary were filled. Two nationalist parties, all far-right, emerged with seats in the new Assembly, with the new Prime Minister, Viktor Orban, being from the Fidesz-Christian Democratic People's Party. His party gained 133 seats, while the Jobbik-Movement for a Better Hungary Party gained 26 seats. This put 159 out of 199 seats in the Hungarian National Assembly under the control of nationalist parties, up 3 seats from the last election in 2014.
Italian General Elections, 4 March 2018
Italy held its General Elections on the 4th March, 2018, where 630 Deputies were elected to the Lower House and 315 Senators to the Upper House of the Italian Parliament. Italy's largest far-right party, the Lega Nord or "League" secured 125 seats in the Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) and 58 seats in the Senate (Upper House). The Brothers of Italy, another nationalist party, gained 32 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 18 seats in the Senate. Italy's Five Star Movement (M5S) have also been labelled as being in the far-right. Gaining 222 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 109 seats in the Senate, that would make M5S the largest far-right group in Italy, though arguably, they are not officially a far-right group. The current government, formed with Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte as its head, supported by parties including the League, the Brothers of Italy and M5S, which together contribute 379 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 185 seats in the Senate. A large portion of the Italian Government is therefore far-rightist and/or nationalist. Between them, the three parties went up by 140 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and by 20 seats in the Senate compared to the last election in 2013.
Spanish regional election, December 2018
Vox is a Spanish right-wing to far-right political party, founded in 2012. It obtained, by surprise, 12 seats in the regional parliament of Andalusia in 2018. The majority of pre-poll predictions was a maximum four seats. The president of Vox is Santiago Abascal and its general secretary is Javier Ortega Smith.
- the governing party
- giving parliamentary support
Disputed, de facto independent areas
|Party||Country||Date established||% of popular vote (legislature)||Votes (legislature)||Seats||Ideology, description|
|Unity Party||South Ossetia||2003||46.3% (2009)||21,246|
17 / 34
|Free Motherland||Nagorno-Karabakh||2005||44.2% (2010)||29,252|
14 / 33
|National Unity Party||Northern Cyprus||1975||44.1% (2009)||622,804|
27 / 50
|Democratic Party of Kosovo||Kosovo||1999||30.38% (2014)||222,181|
37 / 120
25 / 43
|United Abkhazia||Abkhazia||2004||% (2012)|
0 / 35
|Party||Country||Date established||% of popular vote (legislature)||Votes (legislature)||Seats||Ideology|
|Basque National Party||Basque Autonomous Community||1895||37.4% (2016)||398,168||
28 / 75
|Geroa Bai (Basque National Party + other minor parties)||Navarre||2011||15.8% (2015)||53,497||
9 / 50
|EH Bildu||Basque Autonomous Community||2011||21.1% (2016)
18 / 75
8 / 50
|Alliance of Independent Social Democrats||Republika Srpska||2001||50.5% (2010)||319,615||
37 / 83
|Junts per Catalunya||Catalonia||2017||21.6% (2017)||940,602||
34 / 135
|Republican Left of Catalonia–Catalonia Yes||Catalonia||2017||21.4% (2017)||929,407||
32 / 135
|Popular Unity Candidacy–Constituent Call||Catalonia||2017||8.2% (2017)||193,352||
4 / 135
|Pè a Corsica||Corsica||2002||45.4% (2017)
(54.5% in second round)
(67,253 in second round)
32 / 63
|Scottish National Party||Scotland||1934||44.1% (2016)
(Constituency vote: 46.5%)
(Regional vote: 41.7%)
(Constituency vote: 1,059,897)
(Regional vote: 953,587)
63 / 129
|New Flemish Alliance||Flanders||2001||31.9% (2014)||1,339,943||
43 / 124
|Flemish Interest||Flanders||2004||5.9% (2014)||248,840||
6 / 124
|Martinican Independence Movement||Martinique||2002||30.3% (2015)
(54.1% in second round)
(83,541 in second round)
33 / 51
|Sinn Féin||Northern Ireland / Ireland||1905||27.9% (2016)||224,245||
27 / 90
|Plaid Cymru||Wales||1925||20.7% (2016)
(Constituency vote: 20.5%)
(Regional vote: 20.8%)
(Constituency vote: 209,376)
(Regional vote: 211,548)
12 / 60
|Party of Democratic Action||Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina||1990||20.2% (2010)||206,926||
23 / 98
|Croatian Democratic Union||Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina||1990||10.6% (2010)||108,943||
12 / 98
|Galician Nationalist Bloc||Galicia||1982||10.1% (2012)||146,027||
7 / 75
|Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians||Vojvodina||1994||4.8% (2016)||47,034||
6 / 120
European Nationalist political party
Defunct nationalist parties in Europe
Party of the Danes (2011–2017)
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The ARF strives for the solution of the Armenian Cause and formation of the entire motherland with all Armenians. The party made it abundantly clear that historical justice will be achieved once ethnic Armenian repatriate to united Armenia, which in addition to its existing political boundaries would include Western Armenian territories (Eastern Turkey), Mountainous Karabagh and Nakhijevan (in Azerbaijan), and the Samtskhe-Javakheti region of the southern Georgia, bordering Armenia.
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The boundaries of united Armenia must incorporate the territories awarded to Armenia by the Treaty of Sevres, as well as the regions of Nakhijevan, Javakhk, and Artsakh.
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