List of active nationalist parties in Europe

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European national parliaments with representatives from right-wing populist parties in December 2017:
 Right-wing populists represented in the parliament
 Right-wing populists involved in the government
 Right-wing populists appoint prime minister

Nationalist parties in Europe have been on the rise since the early 2010s[1][2][3][4][5][6] due to, according to some, austerity measures and immigration.[7][8]

Linguist Ruth Wodak has stated that the populist parties rising across Europe do so for different reasons in different countries. In an article published in March of 2014, she divided these political parties into four groups: "parties [which] gain support via an ambivalent relationship with fascist and Nazi pasts" (in, e.g., Austria, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and France), parties which "focus primarily on a perceived threat from Islam" (in, e.g., the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland), parties which "restrict their propaganda to a perceived threat to their national identities from ethnic minorities" (in, e.g., Hungary, Greece, Italy, and the United Kingdom), and parties which "endorse a fundamentalist Christian conservative-reactionary agenda" (in, e.g., Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria).[9] According to The Economist, the main attraction of far-right parties in the Scandinavian countries is the perception that their national culture is under threat.[10]

Overview[edit]

Different parts of Europe have nationalist parties with various ideologies and goals. Most nationalist parties in Central and Western Europe are described as "right-wing populists".[11] According to Thomas Klau of the European Council on Foreign Relations "as antisemitism was a unifying factor for far-right parties in the 1910s, 20s and 30s, Islamophobia has become the unifying factor in the early decades of the 21st century."[12] Many are Left Wing or Civic Nationalist Parties, which often advocate regionalism.

Nationalist parties are the ruling party in the Republic of Macedonia the VMRO-DPMNE is one of the two major parties in the country. Switzerland is also ruled by a nationalist party by the Swiss People's Party.

In all other countries, nationalist parties are in opposition. In some countries, nationalist parties are major players in politics, such as France's National Rally, Finland's True Finns, Estonia's Conservative People's Party, Italy's Lega Nord, Austria's Freedom Party of Austria Hungary's Jobbik, Turkey's MHP, Greece's Golden Dawn , Armenia's Armenian Revolutionary Federation, the United Kingdom's UK Independence Party, Poland's Law and Justice, Slovakia's Slovak National Party, Denmark's Danish People's Party etc.

Most, if not all, nationalist parties represented in the European Parliament are in the Europe of Freedom and Democracy group.

Eastern Europe and the Caucasus[edit]

Nationalist parties in the Eastern European states differ from the ones in Western Europe mostly by the fact that there is virtually no immigration into these countries.[citation needed]

Governments in Belarus and Azerbaijan are often considered totalitarian and elections in these countries have been described unfair and not free and thus the parliaments are effectively controlled by the ruling party.[citation needed]

Recent Developments[edit]

Slovenian Parliamentary Elections, 3 June 2018[edit]

Slovenia held its Parliamentary Elections to the National Assembly of Slovenia on the 3rd June, 2018, where 90 members were elected. The Slovenian National Party and Slovenian Democratic Party are the country's two nationalist, far-rightist parties and both gained seats under this election. The Slovenian Democratic Party is the largest party by seats in the National Assembly with 25, while the Slovenian National Party is the smallest party with 4.[13] Thus 29 seats are held by nationalist parties, up 8 seats from the last elections in 2014. A new Government has yet to be formed, though in any case there will be a strong nationalist sentiment in the Assembly.

United Kingdom Local Elections, 3 May 2018[edit]

The United Kingdom held Local Elections on the 3rd of May for around a quarter of local government seats in England. The United Kingdom Independence Party lost 103 seats during this round of elections, showing a decline in support for local government-level nationalism in the country after the Brexit referendum of 2016.

Hungarian Parliamentary Elections, 8 April 2018[edit]

Hungary held its General Parliamentary Elections on the 8th April 2018, where 199 seats in the National Assembly of Hungary were filled. Two nationalist parties, all far-right, emerged with seats in the new Assembly, with the new Prime Minister, Viktor Orban, being from the Fidesz-Christian Democratic People's Party. His party gained 133 seats, while the Jobbik-Movement for a Better Hungary Party gained 26 seats. This put 159 out of 199 seats in the Hungarian National Assembly under the control of nationalist parties, up 3 seats from the last election in 2014.

Italian General Elections, 4 March 2018[edit]

Italy held its General Elections on the 4th March, 2018, where 630 Deputies were elected to the Lower House and 315 Senators to the Upper House of the Italian Parliament. Italy's largest far-right party, the Lega Nord or "League" secured 125 seats in the Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) and 58 seats in the Senate (Upper House). The Brothers of Italy, another nationalist party, gained 32 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 18 seats in the Senate. Italy's Five Star Movement (M5S) have also been labelled as being in the far-right. Gaining 222 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 109 seats in the Senate, that would make M5S the largest far-right group in Italy, though arguably, they are not officially a far-right group.[14][15] The current government, formed with Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte as its head, supported by parties including the League, the Brothers of Italy and M5S, which together contribute 379 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 185 seats in the Senate. A large portion of the Italian Government is therefore far-rightist and/or nationalist. Between them, the three parties went up by 140 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and by 20 seats in the Senate compared to the last election in 2013.

Spanish regional election, December 2018[edit]

Vox is a Spanish right-wing to far-right political party, founded in 2012. It obtained, by surprise, 12 seats in the regional parliament of Andalusia in 2018. The majority of pre-poll predictions was a maximum four seats. The president of Vox is Santiago Abascal and its general secretary is Javier Ortega Smith.

List[edit]

  •   the governing party
  •   giving parliamentary support

National[edit]

Party Country Date established % of popular vote Votes Seats Ideology, description Europarty
Nationalist Movement Party  Turkey 1969 11.10% (2018) 5,565,331
49 / 600
Turkish ultranationalism,Euroscepticism, right-wing populism,Turkish-Islamic synthesis
Fidesz  Hungary 1988 49.21% (2018) 2,637,436
134 / 199
Hungarian nationalism, national conservatism, right-wing populism EPP
VMRO-DPMNE  Macedonia 1990 38.1% (2016) 481,615
51 / 123
Macedonian nationalism,[16] Christian democracy,[17] National conservatism[18] EPP
Law and Justice  Poland 2001 37.6% (2015) 5,711,687
235 / 460
National conservatism,[19][20] Christian democracy, soft euroscepticism[21][22] AECR
Swiss People's Party   Switzerland 1971 29.4% (2015) 740,954
65 / 200
National conservatism,[23][24] Economic liberalism,[24] Agrarianism,[25][26] Euroscepticism[27]
Freedom Party of Austria  Austria 1956 26.0% (2017) 1,310,614
51 / 183
National conservatism, right-wing populism, anti-immigration,[28][29] euroscepticism MENL
Danish People's Party  Denmark 1995 21.1% (2015) 741,746
37 / 179
National conservatism, Danish nationalism, Anti-immigration,[30][31] Euroscepticism[32][33] MELD
New Flemish Alliance  Belgium 2001 20.3% (2014) 1,366,397
33 / 150
Flemish nationalism, Regionalism, Separatism, Conservatism, Liberal conservatism[34], Republicanism EFA
Jobbik  Hungary 2003 19.06% (2018) 1,092,669
26 / 199
Hungarian nationalism,[35][36] Anti-Zionism,[37] Greater Hungary[38] AENM
Finns Party  Finland 1995 17.7% (2015) 524,054
38 / 200
Finnish nationalism,[39] Anti-Immigration,[40][41] Euroscepticism AECR
Sweden Democrats  Sweden 1988 17.53% (2018) 1,135,627
62 / 349
Swedish nationalism,[42] Anti-immigration,[43] Euroscepticism[44] ADDE
Lega Nord  Italy 1991 17.37% (2018) 5,691,921
125 / 630
Regionalism,[45][46][47] Anti-immigration,[48] Euroscepticism,[49] Anti-globalization[50] MENL
National Alliance  Latvia 2010 16.6% (2014) 151,567
17 / 100
Latvian nationalism[51] AECR
Progress Party  Norway 1973 15.2% (2017) 444,681
27 / 169
Right-wing populism,[52] Conservative liberalism,[53][52] Anti-immigration,[54] Euroscepticism[55]
Sinn Féin  Ireland 1905 13.8% (2016) 295,319
23 / 166
Irish republicanism, Left-wing nationalism, Democratic Socialism
National Rally  France 1972 13.20% (2017) 2.46246
8 / 577
French nationalism, Anti-Immigration, Euroscepticism[56][57][58] MENL
Party for Freedom  Netherlands 2006 13.1% (2017) 1,372,941
20 / 150
Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam, Euroscepticism
Alternative for Germany  Germany 2013 12.6% (2017) 5,877,094
94 / 631
Euroscepticism, National conservatism
LDPR  Russia 1991 11.7% (2016) 6,917,063
39 / 450
Russian nationalism, Russian imperialism, anti-Americanism[59][60]
Centre Party  Norway 1920 10.3% (2017) 302,017
19 / 169
Norwegian nationalism (Civic nationalism),[61] Euroscepticism,[62] Agrarianism[62]
IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement  Bulgaria 1999
9.07% (2017)
318,513
11 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism, national conservatism, traditionalism
National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria  Bulgaria 2011
9 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism, national conservatism, Euroscepticism MELD
Attack  Bulgaria 2005
7 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism,[63] ultranationalism,[64][65]
Slovak National Party  Slovakia 1989 8.64% (2016) 225,386
15 / 150
Slovak ultra-nationalist,[66][67][68][69][70][71] extremist,[72][73][74] Hungarophobia,[75][not in citation given] Antiziganism[76][77][78] MELD
Alternative Democratic Reform Party  Luxembourg 1987 8.28% (2018) 292,388
4 / 60
conservatism AECR
Conservative People's Party of Estonia  Estonia 2012 8.1% (2015) 46,772
7 / 101
Estonian nationalism, national conservatism, anti-immigration, Euroscepticism, Ethnopluralism
Serbian Radical Party  Serbia 1991 8.1% (2016) 306,052
22 / 250
Serbian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism, National conservatism, Russophilia
Kotleba - People's Party Our Slovakia  Slovakia 2011 8.04% (2016) 209,779
14 / 150
Slovak ultra-nationalist, extremist APF
Golden Dawn  Greece 1993 6.99% (2015) 379,581
18 / 300
Greek nationalism, Anti-immigration, Megali Idea,[79] Ultranationalism,[80] Neo-fascist[81] APF
Armenian Revolutionary Federation  Armenia 1890 6.6% (2017) 85,550
7 / 105
Armenian nationalism, United Armenia[82][83] PES
Order and Justice  Lithuania 2002 5.33% (2016) 67,794
5 / 141
Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism ADDE
Coalition for the Renewal of the Republic–Liberty and Hope  Poland 2015 4.76% (2015) 722,999
0 / 460
Euroscepticism
Svoboda  Ukraine 1991 4.7% (2014) 742,022
7 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism,[84] Anti-Russian[85]
Brothers of Italy – National Alliance  Italy 2012 4.35% (2018) 1,426,564
19 / 630
Italian nationalism[86]
Slovenian National Party  Slovenia 1991 4.17% (2018) 37,182
0 / 90
Slovenian nationalism[87]
National Popular Front  Cyprus 2008 3.71% (2016) 13,041
2 / 56
Greek nationalism
Flemish Interest  Belgium 2004 3.7% (2014) 247,738
3 / 150
Flemish nationalism[88]
Right-wing populism
Separatism[88]
National conservatism[89]
Euroscepticism[90]
Republicanism
MENL
Croatian Party of Rights  Croatia 1990 3.0% (2011) 72,360
0 / 151
Croatian nationalism[91][92][93]
United Romania Party  Romania 2015 2.8% (2016) 196,397
0 / 137
Romanian nationalism,
Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starčević  Croatia 2009
2.8% (2011)
66,150
1 / 151
National conservatism, social conservatism, Euroscepticism AECR
Croatian Pure Party of Rights  Croatia 1992
0 / 151
Croatian nationalism, national conservatism, protectionism
Right Sector  Ukraine 2014 1.8% (2014) 284,943
1 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism
United Kingdom Independence Party  United Kingdom 1993 1.8% (2017) 594,068
0 / 650
Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism ADDE
Forum for Democracy  Netherlands 2016 1.78% (2017) 187.162
2 / 150
Anti-immigration, National conservatism, Euroscepticism
National Democratic Party  Germany 1964 1.5% (2013) 635,135
0 / 631
German nationalism APF
Greater Romania Party  Romania 1991 1.5% (2012) 108,911
0 / 137
Romanian nationalism, Union with Moldova, Anti-Hungarian sentiment
CasaPound  Italy 2003 0.95% (2018) 312,432
0 / 630
Neofascism
Workers' Party  Czech Republic 2010 0.86% (2013) 42,906
0 / 200
Czech nationalism APF
Lithuanian Nationalist Union  Lithuania 1924
0.54% (2016)
6,855
0 / 141
Lithuanian nationalism, national conservatism, Eurosceptism, Anti-globalism
Young Lithuania  Lithuania 2009
0 / 141
Lithuanian nationalism, national conservatism, protectionism
National Renovator Party  Portugal 2000 0.50% (2015) 27,286
0 / 230
Portuguese nationalism AENM
New Force  Italy 1997
0.39% (2018)
126,543
0 / 630
Neofascism, Italian nationalism, Traditionalism APF
Tricolour Flame  Italy 1995
0 / 630
Neofascism, Italian nationalism AENM
Southern Action League  Italy 1992
0 / 630
Moviment Patrijotti Maltin  Malta 2016 0.36% (2017) 1,117
0 / 67
Maltese nationalism, right-wing populism, anti-immigration, anti-Islam
Albanian National Front Party  Albania 1989 0.28% (2013) 4,868
0 / 140
Albanian nationalism, national conservatism, Greater Albania
Estonian Independence Party  Estonia 1999 0.18% (2015) 1,047
0 / 101
Estonian nationalism, Euroscepticism
Bulgarian National Union – New Democracy  Bulgaria 2014 0.17% (2014) 5,559
0 / 240
National Socialism, Ultranationalism
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists  Ukraine 1992 0.05% (2014) 8,976
0 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism
Spanish Falange of the JONS  Spain 1976 0.04% (2016) 9,862
0 / 350
Falangism
España 2000  Spain 2002 0.04% (2011) 9,266
0 / 350
Spanish nationalism
Congress of the New Right  Poland 2011 0.03% (2015) 4,852
0 / 460
Euroscepticism
Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland  Poland 1992 0.03% (2015) 4,266
0 / 460
Polish nationalism
National Democracy  Spain 1995 0.01% (2011) 1,867
0 / 350
Spanish nationalism APF
British National Party  United Kingdom 1982 0.00% (2017) 4,580
0 / 650
White nationalism,[94][95][96] Fascism,[97][98][99] Euroscepticism[100] AENM
Britain First  United Kingdom 2011 0.00% (2017) 3,595
0 / 530
British nationalism, British unionism, Euroscepticism, Christian fundamentalism, Anti-Islam
Swedish Resistance Movement  Sweden 1997 0.03% (2018) 2,106
0 / 349
Militant national socialist[101] (part of the Nordic Resistance Movement)
La Falange  Spain 1999 0.00% (2016) 254
0 / 350
Falangism, national syndicalism, Spanish nationalism
Our Home Movement (Hungary)  Hungary 2018 TBD TBD
4 / 199
Hungarian nationalism,Anti-immigration, right-wing populism
Conservative Party of Georgia  Georgia 2001
part of Georgian Dream alliance
6 / 150
Georgian nationalism, National conservatism AECR
National Movement  Poland 2012
part of Kukiz'15 alliance
5 / 460
Polish nationalism, national conservatism, anti-globalization

Disputed, de facto independent areas[edit]

Party Country Date established % of popular vote (legislature) Votes (legislature) Seats Ideology, description
Unity Party Georgia (country)  South Ossetia 2003 46.3% (2009) 21,246
17 / 34
Free Motherland Azerbaijan  Nagorno-Karabakh 2005 44.2% (2010) 29,252
14 / 33
National Unity Party Cyprus  Northern Cyprus 1975 44.1% (2009) 622,804
27 / 50
Democratic Party of Kosovo Serbia  Kosovo 1999 30.38% (2014) 222,181
37 / 120
Renewal Moldova  Transnistria 2000 % (2010)
25 / 43
United Abkhazia Georgia (country)  Abkhazia 2004 % (2012)
0 / 35

Regional[edit]

Party Country Date established % of popular vote (legislature) Votes (legislature) Seats Ideology
Basque National Party Spain Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque Autonomous Community 1895 37.4% (2016) 398,168
28 / 75
Basque nationalism
Geroa Bai (Basque National Party + other minor parties) Spain Navarre 2011 15.8% (2015) 53,497
9 / 50
Basque nationalism
EH Bildu Spain Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque Autonomous Community

Spain Navarre

2011 21.1% (2016)

14.2% (2015)

225,172

48,166

18 / 75
8 / 50
Basque nationalism
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats Bosnia and Herzegovina  Republika Srpska 2001 50.5% (2010) 319,615
37 / 83
Serbian nationalism
Junts per Catalunya Spain  Catalonia 2017 21.6% (2017) 940,602
34 / 135
Catalan nationalism
Republican Left of Catalonia–Catalonia Yes Spain  Catalonia 2017 21.4% (2017) 929,407
32 / 135
Catalan nationalism
Popular Unity Candidacy–Constituent Call Spain  Catalonia 2017 8.2% (2017) 193,352
4 / 135
Catalan nationalism
Pè a Corsica France  Corsica 2002 45.4% (2017)
(54.5% in second round)
54,212
(67,253 in second round)
32 / 63
Corsican nationalism
Scottish National Party United Kingdom  Scotland 1934 44.1% (2016)
(Constituency vote: 46.5%)
(Regional vote: 41.7%)
2,013,484
(Constituency vote: 1,059,897)
(Regional vote: 953,587)
63 / 129
Scottish nationalism
New Flemish Alliance Belgium  Flanders 2001 31.9% (2014) 1,339,943
43 / 124
Flemish nationalism
Regionalism
Separatism[88]
Conservatism
Liberal conservatism
Republicanism
Flemish Interest Belgium  Flanders 2004 5.9% (2014) 248,840
6 / 124
Flemish nationalism
Right-wing populism
Separatism
National conservatism
Euroscepticism
Republicanism
Martinican Independence Movement France  Martinique 2002 30.3% (2015)
(54.1% in second round)
36,523
(83,541 in second round)
33 / 51
Martinican nationalism
Sinn Féin United Kingdom  Northern Ireland /  Ireland 1905 27.9% (2016) 224,245
27 / 90
Irish nationalism
Plaid Cymru United Kingdom  Wales 1925 20.7% (2016)
(Constituency vote: 20.5%)
(Regional vote: 20.8%)
420,924
(Constituency vote: 209,376)
(Regional vote: 211,548)
12 / 60
Welsh nationalism
Party of Democratic Action[102] Bosnia and Herzegovina  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990 20.2% (2010) 206,926
23 / 98
Bosniak nationalism
Croatian Democratic Union Bosnia and Herzegovina  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990 10.6% (2010) 108,943
12 / 98
Croatian nationalism
Galician Nationalist Bloc Spain  Galicia 1982 10.1% (2012) 146,027
7 / 75
Galician nationalism
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians Serbia  Vojvodina 1994 4.8% (2016) 47,034
6 / 120
Hungarian nationalism

European Nationalist political party[edit]

Defunct nationalist parties in Europe[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Party of the Danes (2011–2017)

References[edit]

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