List of active nationalist parties in Europe

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European national parliaments with representatives from right-wing populist parties in November 2019:
 Right-wing populists represented in the parliament
 Right-wing populists providing external support for government
 Right-wing populists involved in the government
 Right-wing populists appoint prime minister/president

Nationalist parties in Europe have been on the rise since the early 2010s[1][2][3][4][5][6] due to, according to some, austerity measures and immigration.[7][8]

Linguist Ruth Wodak has stated that the populist parties rising across Europe do so for different reasons in different countries. In an article published in March 2014, she divided these political parties into four groups: "parties [which] gain support via an ambivalent relationship with fascist and Nazi pasts" (in, e.g., Austria, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and France), parties which "focus primarily on a perceived threat from Islam" (in, e.g., the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland), parties which "restrict their propaganda to a perceived threat to their national identities from ethnic minorities" (in, e.g., Hungary, Greece, Italy, and the United Kingdom), and parties which "endorse a fundamentalist Christian conservative-reactionary agenda" (in, e.g., Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria).[9] According to The Economist, the main attraction of far-right parties in the Scandinavian countries is the perception that their national culture is under threat.[10]

Overview[edit]

Different parts of Europe have nationalist parties with various ideologies and goals. Most nationalist parties in Central and Western Europe are described as "right-wing populists".[11] According to Thomas Klau of the European Council on Foreign Relations "as antisemitism was a unifying factor for far-right parties in the 1910s, 20s and 30s, Islamophobia has become the unifying factor in the early decades of the 21st century."[12] Many are Left Wing or Civic Nationalist Parties, which often advocate regionalism.

Nationalist parties are the ruling party in the Republic of Macedonia the VMRO-DPMNE is one of the two major parties in the country. Switzerland is also ruled by a nationalist party by the Swiss People's Party.

In all other countries, nationalist parties are in opposition. In some countries, nationalist parties are major players in politics, such as France's National Rally, Finland's True Finns, Estonia's Conservative People's Party, Italy's Lega Nord, Austria's Freedom Party of Austria Hungary's Jobbik, Turkey's MHP, Greece's Golden Dawn , Armenia's Armenian Revolutionary Federation, the United Kingdom's UK Independence Party, Poland's Law and Justice, Slovakia's Slovak National Party, Denmark's Danish People's Party etc.

Most, if not all, nationalist parties represented in the European Parliament are in the Europe of Freedom and Democracy group.

Eastern Europe and the Caucasus[edit]

Nationalist parties in the Eastern European states differ from the ones in Western Europe mostly by the fact that there is virtually no immigration into these countries.[citation needed]

Governments in Belarus and Azerbaijan are often considered totalitarian and elections in these countries have been described unfair and not free and thus the parliaments are effectively controlled by the ruling party.[citation needed]

Recent developments[edit]

Slovenian Parliamentary Elections, 3 June 2018[edit]

Slovenia held its Parliamentary Elections to the National Assembly of Slovenia on 3 June 2018, where 90 members were elected. The Slovenian National Party and Slovenian Democratic Party are the country's two nationalist, far-rightist parties and both gained seats under this election. The Slovenian Democratic Party is the largest party by seats in the National Assembly with 25, while the Slovenian National Party is the smallest party with 4.[13] Thus 29 seats are held by nationalist parties, up 8 seats from the last elections in 2014. A new Government has yet to be formed, though in any case there will be a strong nationalist sentiment in the Assembly.

United Kingdom Local Elections, 3 May 2018[edit]

The United Kingdom held Local Elections on 3 May for around a quarter of local government seats in England. The United Kingdom Independence Party lost 103 seats during this round of elections, showing a decline in support for local government-level nationalism in the country after the Brexit referendum of 2016.

Hungarian Parliamentary Elections, 8 April 2018[edit]

Hungary held its General Parliamentary Elections on 8 April 2018, where 199 seats in the National Assembly of Hungary were filled. Two nationalist parties, emerged with seats in the new Assembly, with the new Prime Minister, Viktor Orban, being from the Fidesz-Christian Democratic People's Party. His party gained 133 seats, while the Jobbik-Movement for a Better Hungary Party gained 26 seats. This put 159 out of 199 seats in the Hungarian National Assembly under the control of nationalist parties, up 3 seats from the last election in 2014.

Italian General Elections, 4 March 2018[edit]

Italy held its General Elections on the 4th March, 2018, where 630 Deputies were elected to the Lower House and 315 Senators to the Upper House of the Italian Parliament. Italy's largest far-right party, the Lega Nord or "League" secured 125 seats in the Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) and 58 seats in the Senate (Upper House). The Brothers of Italy, another nationalist party, gained 32 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 18 seats in the Senate. Italy's Five Star Movement (M5S) have also been labelled as being in the far-right. Gaining 222 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 109 seats in the Senate, that would make M5S the largest far-right group in Italy, though arguably, they are not officially a far-right group.[14][15] The current government, formed with Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte as its head, supported by parties including the League, the Brothers of Italy and M5S, which together contribute 379 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 185 seats in the Senate. A large portion of the Italian Government is therefore far-rightist and/or nationalist. Between them, the three parties went up by 140 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and by 20 seats in the Senate compared to the last election in 2013.

Spanish regional election, December 2018[edit]

Vox is a Spanish right-wing to far-right political party, founded in 2012. It obtained, by surprise, 12 seats in the regional parliament of Andalusia in 2018. The majority of pre-poll predictions was a maximum four seats. The president of Vox is Santiago Abascal and its general secretary is Javier Ortega Smith.

List[edit]

  •   the governing party
  •   giving parliamentary support

National[edit]

Country Party Date established % of popular vote Votes Seats Ideology, description Europarty
 Albania Albanian National Front Party 1989
0 / 140
Albanian nationalism, national conservatism, Greater Albania
 Armenia Armenian Revolutionary Federation 1890
7 / 105
Armenian nationalism, United Armenia[16][17] PES
 Austria Freedom Party of Austria 1956 26.0% (2017) 1,310,614
51 / 183
National conservatism, right-wing populism, anti-immigration,[18][19] euroscepticism ID
 Belgium New Flemish Alliance 2001 16.03% (2019) 1,086,787
25 / 150
Flemish nationalism, Regionalism, Separatism, Conservatism, Liberal conservatism,[20] Republicanism EFA
Flemish Interest 2004 11.95% (2019) 810,177
18 / 150
Flemish nationalism[21]
Right-wing populism
Separatism[21]
National conservatism[22]
Euroscepticism[23]
ID
 Bulgaria IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement 1999
9.07% (2017)
318,513
11 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism, national conservatism, traditionalism
National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria 2011
9 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism, national conservatism, Euroscepticism MELD
Attack 2005
7 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism,[24] ultranationalism,[25][26]
Bulgarian National Union – New Democracy 2014 0.17% (2014) 5,559
0 / 240
National Socialism, Ultranationalism
 Croatia Croatian Party of Rights 1990 3.0% (2011) 72,360
0 / 151
Croatian nationalism[27][28][29]
Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starčević 2009
2.8% (2011)
66,150
1 / 151
National conservatism, social conservatism, Euroscepticism AECR
Croatian Pure Party of Rights 1992
0 / 151
Croatian nationalism, national conservatism, protectionism
 Cyprus National Popular Front 2008 3.71% (2016) 13,041
2 / 56
Greek nationalism
 Czech Republic Freedom and Direct Democracy 2010 10.64% (2017) 538,574
22 / 200
Czech nationalism, Anti-immigrant, Anti-Muslim Eurosceptism ID
 Denmark Danish People's Party 1995 8.7% (2019) 308,513
16 / 179
National conservatism, Danish nationalism, Anti-immigration,[30][31] Euroscepticism[32][33] ID
The New Right (Denmark) 2015 2.4 % (2019) 83,201
4 / 179
Conservatism, National conservatism, Economic liberalism, Danish nationalism, Euroscepticism, Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam
Hard Line 2017 1.8 % (2019) 63,114
0 / 179
Ethnonationalism, Identitarianism, Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam, Hard Euroscepticism
 Estonia EKRE 2012 17.8% (2019) 99,672
19 / 101
Estonian nationalism, national conservatism, anti-immigration, Euroscepticism, Ethnopluralism ID
Estonian Independence Party 1999 0.18% (2015) 1,047
0 / 101
Estonian nationalism, Euroscepticism
 Finland Finns Party 1995 17.7% (2019) 538,805
39 / 200
Finnish nationalism,[34] Anti-Immigration,[35][36] Euroscepticism ID
 France National Rally 1972 13.20% (2017) 2,990,454
8 / 577
French nationalism, Anti-Immigration, Euroscepticism[37][38][39] ID
 Georgia Conservative Party of Georgia 2001
part of Georgian Dream alliance
6 / 150
Georgian nationalism, National conservatism AECR
 Germany Alternative for Germany 2013 12.6% (2017) 5,877,094
94 / 631
Euroscepticism, National conservatism ID
National Democratic Party 1964 1.5% (2013) 635,135
0 / 631
German nationalism APF
 Greece Golden Dawn 1993 2.93% (2019) 165,711
0 / 300
Greek nationalism, Anti-immigration, Megali Idea,[40] Ultranationalism,[41] Neo-fascist[42] APF
Greek Solution 2016 3.70% (2019) 208,806
10 / 300
National conservatism, Religious conservatism, Greek nationalism, Economic nationalism, Ultranationalism, Euroscepticism, Anti-immigration, Right-wing populism
 Hungary Fidesz 1988 49.21% (2018) 2,637,436
134 / 199
Hungarian nationalism, national conservatism, right-wing populism EPP
Jobbik 2003 19.06% (2018) 1,092,669
26 / 199
Hungarian nationalism,[43][44] Hungarian irredentism[45] AENM
Our Home Movement (Hungary) 2018 TBD TBD
4 / 199
Hungarian nationalism, Anti-immigration, right-wing populism
 Ireland Sinn Féin 1905 24.5% (2016) 295,319
37 / 166
Irish republicanism, Left-wing nationalism, Democratic Socialism
National Party 2016 0.2% (2020) 4,773
0 / 166
Irish nationalism, Anti-immigration, Social conservatism
 Italy Lega Nord 1991 17.37% (2018) 5,691,921
125 / 630
Regionalism,[46][47][48] Anti-immigration,[49] Euroscepticism,[50] Anti-globalization[51] ID
Brothers of Italy – National Alliance 2012 4.35% (2018) 1,426,564
19 / 630
Italian nationalism[52]
CasaPound 2003 0.95% (2018) 312,432
0 / 630
Neofascism
New Force 1997
0.39% (2018)
126,543
0 / 630
Neofascism, Italian nationalism, Traditionalism APF
Tricolour Flame 1995
0 / 630
Neofascism, Italian nationalism AENM
Southern Action League 1992
0 / 630
 Latvia National Alliance 2010 11.01% (2018) 92,963
13 / 100
Latvian nationalism[53] AECR
Latvian Nationalists 2018 0.50% (2018) 4,245
0 / 100
Latvian nationalism[54]
 Lithuania Order and Justice 2002 5.33% (2016) 67,794
5 / 141
Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism ADDE
Lithuanian Nationalist and Republican Union 1990
0.54% (2016)
6,855
0 / 141
Lithuanian nationalism, national conservatism, Eurosceptism, Anti-globalism
Young Lithuania 2009
0 / 141
Lithuanian nationalism, national conservatism, protectionism
 Luxembourg Alternative Democratic Reform Party 1987 8.28% (2018) 292,388
4 / 60
conservatism AECR
 Malta Moviment Patrijotti Maltin 2016 0.36% (2017) 1,117
0 / 67
Maltese nationalism, right-wing populism, anti-immigration, anti-Islam
Imperium Europa 2000 3.17% (2019) 1,117
0 / 67
Maltese nationalism, right-wing populism, anti-immigration, anti-Zionism
 Netherlands Party for Freedom 2006 13.1% (2017) 1,372,941
20 / 150
Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam, Euroscepticism ID
Forum for Democracy 2016 1.78% (2017) 187.162
2 / 150
Anti-immigration, National conservatism, Euroscepticism
 North Macedonia VMRO-DPMNE 1990 38.1% (2016) 481,615
51 / 123
Macedonian nationalism,[55] Christian democracy,[56] National conservatism[57] EPP
 Norway Progress Party 1973 15.2% (2017) 444,681
26 / 169
Right-wing populism,[58] Conservative liberalism,[59][58] Anti-immigration,[60] Euroscepticism[61]
Centre Party 1920 10.3% (2017) 302,017
19 / 169
Norwegian nationalism (Civic nationalism),[62] Euroscepticism,[63] Agrarianism[63]
 Poland United Right 2015 43.6% (2019) 8,051,935
235 / 460
National conservatism,[64][65] Christian democracy, soft euroscepticism[66][67] AECR
Law and Justice 2001
part of United Right alliance
197 / 460
Christian democracy, Soft Euroscepticism, Economic Nationalism AECR
United Poland 2012
part of United Right alliance
19 / 460
National conservatism, Euroscepticism, Political Catholicism AECR
Confederation Liberty and Independence 2018 6.81% (2019) 1,256,953
11 / 460
Hard Euroscepticism, Polish Nationalism, Ordoliberalism
National Movement 2012
part of Confederation alliance
5 / 460
Polish nationalism, national conservatism, anti-globalization
 Portugal National Renovator Party 2000 0.33% (2019) 17,126
0 / 230
Portuguese nationalism AENM
Enough! 2019 1.29% (2019) 67 826
1 / 230
Portuguese nationalism
 Romania United Romania Party 2015 2.79% (2016) 196,397
0 / 329
Romanian nationalism,
Greater Romania Party 1991 1.04% (2016) 73,264
0 / 329
Romanian nationalism, Union with Moldova, Anti-Hungarian sentiment
 Russia LDPR 1991 11.7% (2016) 6,917,063
39 / 450
Russian nationalism, Russian imperialism, anti-Americanism[68][69]
 Serbia Serbian Radical Party 1991 8.1% (2016) 306,052
22 / 250
Serbian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism, National conservatism, Russophilia
 Slovakia Slovak National Party 1989 3.16% (2020) 91,171
0 / 150
Slovak ultra-nationalist,[70][71][72][73][74][75] Antiziganism[76][77][78] MELD
Kotleba - People's Party Our Slovakia 2011 7.97% (2020) 229,660
17 / 150
Neo-fascism APF
 Slovenia Slovenian Democratic Party 1989 24.9 (2018) 222,042
26 / 90
Slovenian nationalism, National conservatism, Right-wing populism, Social conservatism EPP
Slovenian National Party 1991 4.17% (2018) 37,182
3 / 90
Slovenian nationalism[79]
 Spain Vox 2013 15.1% (2019) 3,639,772
52 / 350
Spanish nationalism, National Conservatism[80] AECR
Spanish Falange of the JONS 1976 0.04% (2016) 9,862
0 / 350
Falangism
España 2000 2002 0.04% (2011) 9,266
0 / 350
Spanish nationalism
National Democracy 1995 0.01% (2011) 1,867
0 / 350
Spanish nationalism APF
La Falange 1999 0.00% (2016) 254
0 / 350
Falangism, national syndicalism, Spanish nationalism
 Sweden Sweden Democrats 1988 17.53% (2018) 1,135,627
62 / 349
Swedish nationalism,[81] Anti-immigration,[82] Euroscepticism[83] AECR
Swedish Resistance Movement 1997 0.03% (2018) 2,106
0 / 349
Militant national socialist[84] (part of the Nordic Resistance Movement)
  Switzerland Swiss People's Party 1971 25.6% (2019) 740,954
53 / 200
National conservatism,[85][86] Economic liberalism,[86] Agrarianism,[87][88] Euroscepticism[89]
 Ukraine Right Sector 2014 2.15% (2019) 315,568
0 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism
Svoboda 1991 2.15% (2019) 315,568
1 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism,[90] Anti-Russian[91]
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 1992 2.15% (2019) 315,568
0 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism
 United Kingdom United Kingdom Independence Party 1993
0 / 650
Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism ADDE

Disputed, de facto independent areas[edit]

Party Country Date established % of popular vote (legislature) Votes (legislature) Seats Ideology
Unity Party Georgia (country)  South Ossetia 2003 46.3% (2009) 21,246
17 / 34
Ossetia
Free Motherland Azerbaijan  Nagorno-Karabakh 2005 44.2% (2010) 29,252
14 / 33
Armenian nationalism, United Armenia
National Unity Party Cyprus  Northern Cyprus 1975 44.1% (2009) 622,804
27 / 50
Turkish Nationalism
Vetëvendosje Serbia  Kosovo 2005 26.27% (2019) 221,001
29 / 120
Albanian Nationalism & Greater Albania
Renewal Moldova  Transnistria 2000 % (2010) 75,800
25 / 43
Centrism, Russian Nationalism
United Abkhazia Georgia (country)  Abkhazia 2004 % (2012)
0 / 35
Republicanism

Regional[edit]

Party Country Date established % of popular vote (legislature) Votes (legislature) Seats Ideology
Basque National Party Spain Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque Autonomous Community 1895 37.4% (2016) 398,168
28 / 75
Basque nationalism
Geroa Bai (Basque National Party + other minor parties) Spain Navarre 2011 15.8% (2015) 53,497
9 / 50
Basque nationalism
EH Bildu Spain Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque Autonomous Community

Spain Navarre

2011 21.1% (2016)

14.2% (2015)

225,172

48,166

18 / 75
8 / 50
Basque nationalism
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats Bosnia and Herzegovina  Republika Srpska 2001 50.5% (2010) 319,615
37 / 83
Serbian nationalism
Junts per Catalunya Spain  Catalonia 2017 21.6% (2017) 940,602
34 / 135
Catalan nationalism
Republican Left of Catalonia–Catalonia Yes Spain  Catalonia 2017 21.4% (2017) 929,407
32 / 135
Catalan nationalism
Popular Unity Candidacy–Constituent Call Spain  Catalonia 2017 8.2% (2017) 193,352
4 / 135
Catalan nationalism
Pè a Corsica France  Corsica 2002 45.4% (2017)
(54.5% in second round)
54,212
(67,253 in second round)
32 / 63
Corsican nationalism
Scottish National Party United Kingdom  Scotland 1934 44.1% (2016)
(Constituency vote: 46.5%)
(Regional vote: 41.7%)
2,013,484
(Constituency vote: 1,059,897)
(Regional vote: 953,587)
63 / 129
Scottish nationalism
New Flemish Alliance Belgium  Flanders 2001 24.83% (2019) 1,052,252
35 / 124
Flemish nationalism
Regionalism
Separatism[21]
Conservatism
Liberal conservatism
Republicanism
Flemish Interest Belgium  Flanders 2004 18.50% (2019) 783,977
23 / 124
Flemish nationalism
Right-wing populism
Separatism
National conservatism
Euroscepticism
Republicanism
ID
Martinican Independence Movement France  Martinique 2002 30.3% (2015)
(54.1% in second round)
36,523
(83,541 in second round)
33 / 51
Martinican nationalism
Sinn Féin Northern Ireland Northern Ireland 1905 27.9% (2016) 224,245
27 / 90
Irish nationalism
Plaid Cymru United Kingdom  Wales 1925 20.7% (2016)
(Constituency vote: 20.5%)
(Regional vote: 20.8%)
420,924
(Constituency vote: 209,376)
(Regional vote: 211,548)
12 / 60
Welsh nationalism
Party of Democratic Action[92] Bosnia and Herzegovina  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990 20.2% (2010) 206,926
23 / 98
Bosniak nationalism
Croatian Democratic Union Bosnia and Herzegovina  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990 10.6% (2010) 108,943
12 / 98
Croatian nationalism
Galician Nationalist Bloc Spain  Galicia 1982 10.1% (2012) 146,027
7 / 75
Galician nationalism
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians Serbia  Vojvodina 1994 4.8% (2016) 47,034
6 / 120
Hungarian nationalism

European Nationalist political party[edit]

References[edit]

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