List of active separatist movements in Africa
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This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Africa. Separatism includes autonomism and secessionism. What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:
- They are active movements with living, active members.
- They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy).
- They are the citizen/inhabitants of the conflict area and do not come from another country.
Under each region listed is one or more of the following:
- De facto state: for regions with de facto autonomy from the government
- Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding sovereign state
- Proposed autonomous area: for movements toward greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession
- De facto autonomous government: for governments with de facto autonomous control over a region
- Government-in-exile: for a government based outside of the region in question, with or without control
- Political party (or parties): for political parties involved in a political system to push for autonomy or secession
- Militant organisation(s): for armed separatist organisations
- Advocacy group(s): for non-belligerent, non-politically participatory entities
- Ethnic/ethno-religious/racial/regional/religious group(s)
- 1 Algeria
- 2 Angola
- 3 Cameroon
- 4 Central African Republic
- 5 Comoros
- 6 Republic of the Congo
- 7 Democratic Republic of the Congo
- 8 Equatorial Guinea
- 9 Ethiopia
- 10 France
- 11 Kenya
- 12 Libya
- 13 Mali
- 14 Mauritius
- 15 Morocco
- 16 Namibia
- 17 Niger
- 18 Nigeria
- 19 Rwanda
- 20 Senegal
- 21 Somalia
- 22 South Africa
- 23 South Sudan
- 24 Spain
- 25 Sudan
- 26 Tanzania
- 27 Uganda
- 28 Zambia
- 29 Zimbabwe
- 30 See also
- 31 References
- Ethnic group: Kabyle people
- Ethnic group: Lunda-Tchokwé people
- Proposed state: Democratic Republic of Lunda-Tchokwé (República Democrática da Lunda-Tchokwé) (RDLT)
- Government-in-exile: Partido Democrático da Defesa do Estado Lunda-Tchokwé (PDDELT)
- Claimant group: Manifesto Jurídico Sociológico do Povo Lunda-Tchokwé (MJSPL), also an Advocacy group
- Political party: Partido Democrático da Defesa do Estado Lunda-Tchokwé (PDDELT)
- Traditional Kingdom: Lunda-Tchokwe Kingdom
- Status: Juridical Fight on ICC
- Leaders: Dr. Jota Filipe Malakito (The Founder Leader)
- Movements: Mulher Unida da Lunda-Tchokwé (MULT), Pioneiros Unidos da Lunda-Tchokwé (PULT), Juventude Unida da Lunda-Tchokwé(JULT)
- News Broadcast: www.diariodomanifestojuridicosociologicodopovolundes.com
- Vindicating area: The Forgotten Portuguese Protectorate of Lunda (The entire East Part of current Angola) or current North-Lunda, South-Lunda, Moxico and Kuando-Kubango
- Extension Vindicating area: 602.709 Km2
- Population: 2.692.723 ( Since the 2014 )
- Ethnic group: Cabindans
- Proposed state: Republic of Cabinda
- Government-in-exile: Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda (FLEC) (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Political party: Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda (FLEC), Liberation Front of the State of Cabinda
- Militant organization: Forças Armadas de Cabinda (FAC)
- Separatist group: The Anglophones or two English Speaking (North West and South West) regions of Cameroons with over 80 ethnic groups
- Ethnic group: Anglophone Cameroonians
- Proposed state: Federal Republic of Ambazonia, Ambazonia
- Political party: No current political parties but several liberation movements, with the largest being; The Southern Cameroons National Council (SCNC)
- Pressure group: Southern Cameroon Liberation Movement
- Militant organization: Southern Cameroon Peoples Organization
Central African Republic
Northern Muslim regions[clarification needed]
- Ethnic group: Muslims in the Central African Republic
- Ethnic group:
Republic of the Congo
- South Congo (Brazzaville)
Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Kwili, Kivu, Bukavu
- Ethnic group: Bubi
- Militant organization: Gambela People's Liberation Front
- Ogaden ( Somali Region)
- Proposed state: Republic of Oromia (also known as Oromia) (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Militant organizations: Oromo Independence Movement, Oromo Liberation Front, Islamic Front for the Liberation of Oromia, Conference of Oromiya Peoples Liberation Front, Oromo Youth Revolutionary Movement (also known as Abiddaa)
- Pressure group: The National Youth Movement for Freedom and Democracy (also known as Qeerroo)
- Sidama Zone
- Secessionist movements:
- Political party: Lorganizasion Popilèr po Libèr nout Péi (Lplp) – Popular Front for National Liberation: composed of Nasion Rénioné, Mar, Drapo rouz, Patriot rénioné and Mir.
- Political party: Marxist–Leninist Communist Organisation of Réunion
- Mayotte continues to have autonomist movements despite the island having voted to become France's 101st department in 2011.
- Wajir County, Mandera County, Garissa County (Former North Eastern Province)
- Proposed state: Western Republic of Somalia or Somalia
- Ethnic group: Libyan
- Proposed autonomous area: Semi-autonomous "State of Cyrenaica"
- Political Groups: Movement for Federal Libya, National Union Party, Cyrenaica Youth Movement
- Senior Leaders: Dr. Abubakr Buera, Mr.Faraj Kezza, Dr.Azza Huwati, Ms.Najat Obedi, Mr. Mohamed Buisir, Mr. Ahmad Sannusi, Ms.Sarah Ali
- Youth Leaders: Fathi Agori, Enas AlJazwi, Muheddine Mansuri, Osama Buera, Essa Arabi, Zeid Erragas, Mohamed Ali, Mustafa Orefy, Mabrooka Najm
- Ethnic group: Toubou
- Ethnic Groups: Tuareg, as well as Songhai, Fula and Arabs/Moors
- Ethnic group: Riffian
- Proposed state: Rif
- Political party: RIM
- Militant organisation(s): RIM
- Rif Independence Movement – occurred in Morocco during the 1920s, and was revitalized in 2013. Rif Independence Movement is a charter member of the Organization of Emerging African States.
- Ethnic Group: Lozi
- Ethnic group: Tuareg
- Ethnic group: Igbo
- Proposed state: Republic of Biafra (defunct)
- National Liberation Movement: Bilie Human Rights Initiative
- Political party: Biafran Congress Party (BCP), Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra,
- Separatist movements: The Indigenous People of Biafra, Biafra Zionist Movement, Biafra Rebirth
- Government in exile: Biafran Government in exile
- Radio News Broadcast: www
.radiobiafra .co, www .peopleofbiafra .org, www .biafragalaxy .com
- Ethnic group: Yoruba
- Proposed state: Orile-ede Olominira ile Oduduwa (Republic) 
- Capital: Ibadan
- Political Party: Action Group (Nigeria) (Defunct).
- Political Organizations: Afenifere, Afenifere Renewal Group, DAWN Commission
- Pressure group: Yoruba Liberation Command (YOLICOM), Oduduwa Grand Alliance For Independence (OGAFI), Young Yoruba for Freedom (YYF) , Movement For Oduduwa Republic (MOFORE)
- Movement Spokesperson: George Akinola.
- Militant Organization: Oodua Peoples Congress(OPC), Agbekoya, Young Yoruba for Freedom (YYF) ,
- National Anthem: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=NJeho8FBod0
- Arewa Group: Hausa
- Batwaland (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Ethnic group: Twa
- Ethnic group: Diola
- Ethnic group: Somali
- Ethnic group: Afrikaners
- Proposed state: Volkstaat
- Political Party: Freedom Front Plus (in parliament and member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization). Outside parliament: National Conservative Party of South Africa, Boerestaat Party, Herstigte Nasionale Party.
- Pressure group: Orania Movement
- Status: Accord on Afrikaner self-determination
- Linguistic group: Afrikaans speakers
- Ethnic group: Nuer
- Ethnic group: Canarians
- Political parties (autonomist): Coalición Canaria, Partido Nacionalista Canario, Centro Canario Nacionalista, Nueva Canarias
- Political parties (secessionist): FREPIC-AWAÑAK, Alternativa Nacionalista Canaria, Alternativa Popular Canaria, Unidad del Pueblo, Inekaren
- Youth movement: Azarug
- Proposed state: Canary Islands (sometimes also Western Sahara and Tamazgha)
- Ethnic group: Fur, Zaghawe, Masalit
- Ethnic group: Swahili
- Ethnic group: Ganda
- Ethnic group: Lozi
- Ethnic group: Matabele
- Grace Young. "Kabyle people". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Missing or empty
- The 2nd Kabylian Movement for Self-Determination Congress (10 December 2011). "Kabylian Movement for Self-Determination Status" (Chapter VIII): Art. 19. 21. 22. 23.
- Ferhat Mehenni. "Blog". Mak-Anavad Leader Blog. Missing or empty
- MAK- Mouvement pour l'Autodétermination de la Kabylie. "Official Website".
- "Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Official Website of the Government of the Federal Republic of Ambazonia (2016). "Government of Ambazonia". Government of Ambazonia Official Website. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Government of Ambazonia Official Website (2016). "Government of Ambazonia". Government of Ambazonia.
- "Southern Cameroons National Council plans street protests to have activists freed". The Post News. 2005-11-27. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- "Central African Republic rebels declare autonomous state in north". The Washington Post. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
- Chris Roth. "Springtime of Nations". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "MPA - Mouvement Populaire Anjouanais". MweziNet. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Comoros : Overview". UNHCR. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- "ETAT DU SUD CONGO". ETAT DU SUD CONGO. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "(Congo-Brazzaville) Etat du Sud-Congo : drapeau, devise, armoiries et limites géographiques". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- Patrick, André. "Site Officiel du Royaume Loango - Soyez les Bienvenus !". www.royaumeloango.org. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- "SPECIAL INQUIRY INTO THE BAS CONGO EVENTS OF FEBRUARY AND MARCH 2008" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. May 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 30, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- "United Republic of Kivu". Federation of Free States of Africa. Retrieved 2015-11-05.
- Iain Dalton (2008-11-19). "Democratic republic of Congo: Civil war erupts once again". The Socialist (UK). Retrieved 2009-04-12.
- "CASE N° GEQ/07 - MARCELO LOHOSO - EQUATORIAL GUINEA". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Luc Torres. "The separatist map of Africa: interactive". the Guardian. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- In Fula: Fulɓe; in French: Peul
- "Cri de Liberté". Mathaba News Network. 2008-04-21. Archived from the original on 2015-06-19. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- White Gypsies: Race and Stardom in Spanish Musical Films - Eva Woods Peiró. p. 46.
- What the Arabs think - William Roe Polk. p. 52.
- "The Rif Independence Movement Joins OEAS". Scribd. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- "Caprivi Liberation Front". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Forrest, Joshua B. (2003). Subnationalism in Africa: Ethnicity, Alliances, and Politics. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 188. ISBN 1-58826-227-8.
- "Voice of Biafra International". www.biafraland.com. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- "Why we want Oduduwa Republic?".
- "Mouvement des Forces Démocratiques du le Casamance (MFDC)". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- "'Ek is wit en trots daarop'". Mail & Guardian. 2008-10-12. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Members: Afrikaner, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- "An independent Western Cape? - OPINION - Politicsweb". www.politicsweb.co.za. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- "Cape Party still wants to 'free' Western Cape from rest of SA". Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- "Contagion of discontent: Muslim extremism spreads down east Africa coastline". The Economist. 3 November 2012.
- "Assessment for Lozi in Zambia". Minorities at Risk. Archived from the original on 2010-06-03. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- "Bulawayo24 NEWS -". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "Matabeleland Freedom Party". Archived from the original on 19 March 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014.