List of active separatist movements in Africa
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This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Africa. Separatism includes autonomism and secessionism. What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:
- They are active movements with living, active members.
- They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy).
- They are the citizen/inhabitants of the conflict area and do not come from another country.
Under each region listed is one or more of the following:
- De facto state: for regions with de facto autonomy from the government
- Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding sovereign state
- Proposed autonomous area: for movements toward greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession
- Ethnic Group(s): for the ethnic groups made up of the area
- De facto autonomous government: for governments with de facto autonomous control over a region
- Government-in-exile: for a government based outside of the region in question, with or without control
- Political party (or parties): for political parties involved in a political system to push for autonomy or secession
- Militant organisation(s): for armed seporatist organisations
- Advocacy group(s): for non-belligerent, non-politically participatory entities
- Ethnic/Ethno-religious/Racial/Regional/Religious group (s): for information on what group of people calls for change for each individual movement listed
- 1 Algeria
- 2 Angola
- 3 Cameroon
- 4 Central African Republic
- 5 Comoros
- 6 Republic of the Congo
- 7 Democratic Republic of the Congo
- 8 Egypt
- 9 Equatorial Guinea
- 10 Ethiopia
- 11 France
- 12 Kenya
- 13 Libya
- 14 Mali
- 15 Mauritius
- 16 Morocco
- 17 Namibia
- 18 Niger
- 19 Nigeria
- 20 Rwanda
- 21 Senegal
- 22 Somalia
- 23 South Africa
- 24 South Sudan
- 25 Spain
- 26 Sudan
- 27 Tanzania
- 28 Uganda
- 29 Zambia
- 30 Zimbabwe
- 31 See also
- 32 References
- Ethnic group: Kabyles
- Ethnic group: The Lunda-Tchokwé
- Proposed state: Democratic Republic of Lunda-Tchokwé (República Democrática da Lunda-Tchokwé) (RDLT)
- Government-in-exile: Partido Democrático da Defesa do Estado Lunda-Tchokwé (PDDELT)
- Claimant group: Manifesto Jurídico Sociológico do Povo Lunda-Tchokwé (MJSPL), also an Advocacy group
- Political party: Partido Democrático da Defesa do Estado Lunda-Tchokwé (PDDELT)
- Traditional Kingdom: Lunda-Tchokwe Kingdom
- Status: Juridical Fight on ICC
- Leaders: Dr. Jota Filipe Malakito (The Founder Leader)
- Movements: Mulher Unida da Lunda-Tchokwé (MULT), Pioneiros Unidos da Lunda-Tchokwé (PULT), Juventude Unida da Lunda-Tchokwé(JULT)
- News Broadcast: www.diariodomanifestojuridicosociologicodopovolundes.com
- Vindicating area: The Forgotten Portuguese Protectorate of Lunda (The entire East Part of current Angola) or current North-Lunda, South-Lunda, Moxico and Kuando-Kubango
- Extension Vindicating area : 602.709 Km2
- Population : 2.692.723 ( Since the 2014 )
- Ethnic group: Cabindans
- Proposed state: Republic of Cabinda
- Government-in-exile: Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda (FLEC) (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Political party: Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda (FLEC)
- Militant organization: Forças Armadas de Cabinda (FAC)
- Ethnic group: Calabars
- Ethnic group: Southern Cameroons
Central African Republic
- Ethnic group: Muslims in the Central African Republic
- Ethnic group:
Republic of the Congo
- South Congo (Brazzaville)
Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Kwili, Kivu, Bukavu
- Ethnic group: Coptic
- Ethnic group: Bubi
- Militant organization: Gambela People's Liberation Front
- Ogaden ( Somali Region)
- Proposed state: Republic of Oromia (also known as Oromia) (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Militant organizations: Oromo Independence Movement, Oromo Liberation Front, Islamic Front for the Liberation of Oromia, Conference of Oromiya Peoples Liberation Front, Oromo Youth Revolutionary Movement (also known as Abiddaa)
- Pressure group: The National Youth Movement for Freedom and Democracy (also known as Qeerroo)
- Sidama Zone
- Secessionist movements:
- Political party: Lorganizasion Popilèr po Libèr nout Péi (Lplp) – Popular Front for National Liberation: composed of Nasion Rénioné, Mar, Drapo rouz, Patriot rénioné and Mir.
- Political party: Marxist–Leninist Communist Organisation of Réunion
- Mayotte continues to have autonomist movements despite the island having voted to become France's 101st department in 2011.
- Wajir County, Mandera County, Garissa County (Former North Eastern Province)
- Proposed state: Western Republic of Somalia
- Ethnic group: Libyan
- Proposed autonomous area: Semi-autonomous "State of Cyrenaica"
- Political Groups: Movement for Federal Libya, National Union Party, Cyrenaica Youth Movement
- Senior Leaders: Dr. Abubakr Buera, Mr.Faraj Kezza, Dr.Azza Huwati, Ms.Najat Obedi, Mr. Mohamed Buisir, Mr. Ahmad Sannusi, Ms.Sarah Ali
- Youth Leaders: Fathi Agori, Enas AlJazwi, Muheddine Mansuri, Osama Buera, Essa Arabi, Zeid Erragas, Mohamed Ali, Mustafa Orefy, Mabrooka Najm
- Ethnic group: Toubou
- Ethnic Groups: Tuareg, as well as Songhai, Fula and Arabs/Moors
De facto states:
- Ethnic group: Sahrawi
- Proposed state: Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
- De facto state: Free Zone
- Government-in-exile: Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic based in refugee camps in Tindouf Province, Algeria
- Political party: Polisario Front
- Militant organisation: Sahrawi People's Liberation Army
- Status: Western Sahara conflict
- Ethnic group: Riffian
- Proposed state: Rif
- Political party: RIM
- Militant organisation(s) : RIM
- Rif Independence Movement – occurred in Morocco during the 1920s, and was revitalized in 2013. Rif Independence Movement is a charter member of the Organization of Emerging African States.
- Ethnic Group: Lozi
- Ethnic Group: Tuareg
- Ethnic group: Igbo
- Proposed state: Republic of Biafra (defunct)
- National Liberation Movement: Bilie Human Rights Initiative
- Political party: Biafran Congress Party .BCP., Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra,
- Separatist movements: The Indigenous People of Biafra, Biafra Zionist Movement, Biafra Rebirth
- Government in exile: Biafran Government in exile
- Radio News Broadcast: www.radiobiafra.co, www.peopleofbiafra.org, www.biafragalaxy.com
- Batwaland (member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization)
- Ethnic group: Twa
- Ethnic group: Diola
- Ethnic group: Somali
- Ethnic group: Afrikaners
- Proposed state: Volkstaat
- Political Party: Freedom Front Plus (in parliament and member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization). Outside parliament: National Conservative Party of South Africa, Boerestaat Party, Herstigte Nasionale Party.
- Pressure group: Orania Movement
- Status: Accord on Afrikaner self-determination
- Ethnic Group: Nuer
- Ethnic group: Canarians
- Political parties (autonomist): Coalición Canaria, Partido Nacionalista Canario, Centro Canario Nacionalista, Nueva Canarias
- Political parties (secessionist): FREPIC-AWAÑAK, Alternativa Nacionalista Canaria, Alternativa Popular Canaria, Unidad del Pueblo, Inekaren
- Youth movement: Azarug
- Proposed state: Canary Islands (sometimes also Western Sahara and Tamazgha)
- Ethnic group: Fur, Zaghawe, Masalit
- Ethnic group: Swahili
- Ethnic group: Ganda
- Ethnic Group: Matabele
- Adam Shatz (2003-06-08). "The other intifada" (PDF). Berberworld.com, republished article from Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Anavad. "www. kabylia-gov.org". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Gilbert da Costa (2006-07-07). "Bakassi Region Residents Protest Handover of Region to Cameroon". Voice of America. Retrieved 2009-04-12.[dead link]
- Ndi Eugene Ndi. "News Watch Cameroon". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "Southern Cameroons National Council plans street protests to have activists freed". The Post News. 2005-11-27. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- "Central African Republic rebels declare autonomous state in north". The Washington Post. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
- Chris Roth. "Springtime of Nations". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "MPA - Mouvement Populaire Anjouanais". MweziNet. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Comoros : Overview". UNHCR. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- "ETAT DU SUD CONGO". ETAT DU SUD CONGO. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "(Congo-Brazzaville) Etat du Sud-Congo : drapeau, devise, armoiries et limites géographiques". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "SPECIAL INQUIRY INTO THE BAS CONGO EVENTS OF FEBRUARY AND MARCH 2008" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. May 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 30, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- "United Republic of Kivu". Federation of Free States of Africa. Retrieved 2015-11-05.
- Iain Dalton (2008-11-19). "Democratic republic of Congo: Civil war erupts once again". The Socialist (UK). Retrieved 2009-04-12.
- The Coptic Question in the Mubarak Era
- Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 472. ISBN 0-313-32384-4.
- "CASE N° GEQ/07 - MARCELO LOHOSO - EQUATORIAL GUINEA". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Luc Torres. "The separatist map of Africa: interactive". the Guardian. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- In Fula: Fulɓe; in French: Peul
- "Cri de Liberté". Mathaba News Network. 2008-04-21. Archived from the original on 2015-06-19. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- White Gypsies: Race and Stardom in Spanish Musical Films - Eva Woods Peiró. p. 46.
- What the Arabs think - William Roe Polk. p. 52.
- The Rif Independence Movement Joins OEAS
- "Caprivi Liberation Front". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Forrest, Joshua B. (2003). Subnationalism in Africa: Ethnicity, Alliances, and Politics. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 188. ISBN 1-58826-227-8.
- "Mouvement des Forces Démocratiques du le Casamance (MFDC)". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- "'Ek is wit en trots daarop'". Mail & Guardian. 2008-10-12. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- Members: Afrikaner, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- "Contagion of discontent: Muslim extremism spreads down east Africa coastline". The Economist. 3 November 2012.
- "Assessment for Lozi in Zambia". Minorities at Risk. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
- "Bulawayo24 NEWS -". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "Matabeleland Freedom Party". Archived from the original on 19 March 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014.