List of active separatist movements in Europe

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Supporters of Catalan independence in Barcelona in October 2019

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognised as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks to unify into a different state – in cases where this does not involve the creation of a new state entity, this is considered to be irredentism. Analogous irredentist movements are included in the list of active irredentist movements.

Azerbaijan[edit]

Current military situation in the region
Azerbaijan districts claimed by Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic

Territory of the former Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast

Territory of the short-lived Flag of Talysh.svg Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic

Belgium[edit]

Communities:
  Flemish and French Community
Autonomist movements

 German-speaking Community[8][9]

 Flanders

 Wallonia

Secessionist movements


 Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)

 Wallonia or French Community of Belgium (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Secessionist movements

 Republika Srpska

Autonomist movements

Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia

Croatia[edit]

Map of the historical regions of Croatia. Istria is in green.
Autonomist movements

Istria[11]

Cyprus[edit]

The northern areas of the island of Cyprus administered by Turkish Cypriots

The northeastern 1/3 territory of island of Cyprus

Czech Republic[edit]

Map of the region of Moravia claimed by the Moravian autonomists, it sometimes include Czech Silesia which is also occasionally claimed by the Silesian autonomists.
Autonomist movements

Moravia

Denmark[edit]

 Faroe Islands

Finland[edit]

Åland

 Åland[16]

France[edit]

world map of French speaking countries
A map showing the (historical) linguistic groups in Metropolitan France:
  Langues d'oil speakers
Secessionist movements
Present location of Alsace within France

 Alsace

Location of the Basque Country

French Basque Country

Location of Brittany

Historic Brittany, comprising Brittany (administrative region) and parts of  Pays de la Loire

Location of the Corsica

 Corsica

Location of Occitania

Occitania

The Dutch-language Taalgebied (Sprachraum), including northern French Flanders

Flanders[21][22]

Location of Provence

 Provence

Catalonia Northern Catalonia

Autonomist movements
Location of Normandy

 Alsace

Brittany

 Corsica

 Alpes-Maritimes

Normandy

Savoy

 Occitania

Georgia[edit]

Georgian administrative divisions are outlined in black. Occupied territories of Georgia are shown in pink.

Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia

Territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast

Germany[edit]

Secessionist movements

Bavaria

Autonomist movements

Bavaria

Lusatia

Italy[edit]

Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000

Aosta Valley

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Province of Trieste

Lombardy

Northern Italy

Sardinia

Sicily

South Tyrol

Veneto

Kosovo[edit]

North Kosovo/Ibar Kolašin[42][43]

Moldova[edit]

Breakaway state

Transnistria

Proposed secessionist movements

 Gagauzia

Netherlands[edit]

Proposed secessionist or autonomist movements

Frisia

Poland[edit]

Autonomist movements

Silesia

Kashubia

Secessionist movements

Gdańsk

Romania[edit]

Transylvania and Banat[47][48]

Location of Transylvania (left) and Banat (right)

Székely Land

The historical Székely seats on the map of present-day Romania

Partium

Russia[edit]

Summary[edit]

This table shows only the list of movements. The source of each movement is cited in its own section. The population of each area is provided for information only.

Number Land Capital Area Population Ethnic Main Political Party
Ural Federal District
1 Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast.svg Ural Republic Yekaterinburg 194,800 4,300,000 Russians Ural Democratic Foundation
Volga Federal District
2 Flag of Idel-Ural State.svg Idel-Ural Kazan 321,400 11,000,000 Volga people Free Idel-Ural
3 Flag of Bashkortostan.svg Bashkortostan Ufa 143,600 4,050,000 Bashkorts The Heavenly Wolf
4 Flag of Tatarstan.svg Tatarstan Kazan 68,000 4,000,000 Tatars All-Tatar Public Center
8 Flag of Chuvashia.svg Chuvashia Cheboksary 18,300 1,250,000 Chuvash Chuvash National Movement
Northwestern Federal District
9 Flag of Komi.svg Komi Republic Syktyvkar 415,900 850,000 Komi Komi People's Congress
11 KarelianNationalFlag.svg Karelia Petrozavodsk 172,400 600,000 Karelians
12 Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg Kaliningrad Kaliningrad 84,500 1,800,000 Kaliningradians Baltic Republican Party
13 Flag of Komi-Permyak Okrug.svg Permyakia Kudymkar 32,770 120,000 Permyaks Komi People's Congress
14 Flag of Leningrad Oblast.svg Leningrad Leningrad 15,100 1,000,000 Ingrians Free Ingria
Southern Federal District
15 Flag of Don Cossacks.svg Don Republic Rostov 100,800 4,200,000 Donians Free Cossack Movement (Rostov Oblast)
16 Flag of Kuban People's Republic.svg Kuban Krasnodar 76,000 5,300,000 Kubanians Free Cossack Movement (Krasnodar Krai)
North Caucasian Federal District
19 Flag of Adygea.svg Circassia Sochi 50,000 1,000,000 Circassians Circassian nationalism
20 Flag of the Chechen Republic.svg Chechnya Grozny 17,300 1,500,000 Chechens Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
21 Flag of the Lezgi people.svg Lezgistan Derbent 10,000 800,000 Lezgins Lezgin nationalism
22 Flag of Karachay-Balkaria.svg Karachay-Balkaria Karachayevsk 10,000 300,000 Karachays & Balkars Balkar and Karachay nationalism
25 Proposed Naval Jack of the Republic of Abkhazia.svg Abazinia Adlersky 2,000 50,000 Abazins World Congress of Abkhaz-Abazin people
27 Tabasaran National Movement flag .png Tabasaranstan Khuchni 1,400 75,000 Tabasarans Tabasaran National Movement
29 Flag of Dahadaevsky rayon (Dagestan).png Darginstan Levashi Unknown 500,000 Dargwa Free Society of Dargo
31 Nogai flag.svg Nogaia Erken Unknown 100,000 Nogais Association of Nogais of Dagestan
23 Flag of Ingushetia.svg Ingushetia Magas 3,000 500,000 Ingush Ingush People Council
Tatarstan
A protest in Kaliningrad Oblast
Map of Ingria/Leningrad Oblast claimed by the advocacy group of Free Ingria, which also likely comprises another federal subject, Saint Petersburg.
Location of Greater Ural Republic
Map of Nenetsia
Proposed divisions of the Caucasus Emirate

Autonomist movements[edit]

Komi-Permyak Okrug[59]

Ural Federal District[edit]

Sverdlovsk Oblast[60][61][62]

Volga Federal District[edit]

Idel-Ural at the center of the Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District
Republics of Idel-Ural

Idel-Ural[63][64]

Tatarstan[65][66][67]

  • People: Tatars
    • Militant organisation: All-Tatar Public Center
      • Advocacy groups: The Union of Tatar Youth, Tatar Patriotic Front Altyn Urda, Tatar Social Center
      • Government in exile: Tatar Government in Exile
      • Organisation: Ittifaq Party
    • Proposed state: Tatarstan

 Udmurtia[68]

Bashkortostan[65]

  • People: Bashkir
    • Advocacy groups: Bashkort Public Organization, Bashkir Human Rights Movement, Council of Aksakals of Bashkortostan, Bashkir Social Movement
      • Political party: The Heavenly Wolf
    • Proposed state: Bashkortostan

Chuvashia[69]

  • People: Chuvash
    • Proposed state: Chuvashia
      • Movements: Chuvash National Movement, Chuvash Republican Youth
      • Organisation: Chuvash Ireklekh Society of National-Cultural Rebirth

Northwestern Federal District[edit]

 Komi Republic[70]

  • People: Komi
    • Proposed state:  Komi Republic
      • Political organisations: Komi Republican Organization
      • Advocacy movements: Komi Voityr, Finno-Ugric Peoples Consultative Committee
      • Organisation: Komi People's Congress

Leningrad Oblast[71][72]

 Karelia

Kaliningrad Oblast

Southern Federal District[edit]

Kalmykia[74][75]

Kuban[76][77]

Don Republic[78][79]

 Republic of Crimea

North Caucasian Federal District[edit]

Map of the North Caucasus region

 Chechnya

Greater Sochi map (Abazinia)/Adlersky City District and Khostinsky City District

Abazinia[84][85][86]

Circassia

Nogaia

Karachay-Balkaria

Lezgistan

Tabasaran National Movement flag .png Tabasaranstan

  • People: Tabasaran
    • Proposed state: Tabasaran National Movement flag .png Tabasaranstan[89]
      • Movement: Tabasaran National Movement
      • Militant organisation: Tabasaran Republican Front
    • Proposed entity: Tabasaranstan, including all ethnic Tabasaran parts and/or districts of Dagestan
    • Tabasaranstan coverage area: Khiv, Tabasaransky

Serbia[edit]

Image Note: Republic of Vojvodina within federalized Serbia, proposed by the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina in 1999 – the map also includes an autonomous Sandžak, Kosovo and the metropolitan area of Belgrade as a distinctive administrative unit as well

Autonomist movements

Vojvodina Vojvodina

Sandžak

Breakaway state

Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

Slovakia[edit]

Linguistic makeup of Slovakia, according to Census 2011
Autonomist movements

Southern Slovakia:

  • People: Hungarians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of Hungarian presence,[91] or unification with  Hungary

Spain[edit]

Regions in Spain with autonomist or separatist movements
Secessionist movements

 Andalusia

 Aragon

 Asturias

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community)

Castile

 Catalonia

Galicia (Spain) Galicia

León

 Navarre

Valencian Community Valencia

Additionally, there are a number of almost extinct secessionist or soveranist movements in other autonomous communities and historical territories, e.g. Extremadura and Murcia.

Aran Valley

Switzerland[edit]

Autonomist movements

Jura region

Sweden[edit]

Scania

Scania

Ukraine[edit]

 Autonomous Republic of Crimea and  Sevastopol

 Donetsk Oblast,  Luhansk Oblast

United Kingdom[edit]

Countries of the United Kingdom
Map of current local administrative units in the United Kingdom
The Kingdom of the Isles about the year 1100
Secessionist movements

 Cornwall

 England

Fife

Northern Ireland

 Scotland

Northern England

 Wales

 London

Autonomist movements

Canvey Island

 England

 Scotland

 Wales

 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

North East England

 Shetland

Wessex[125]

 Yorkshire

Independence movements of dependent territories

 Isle of Man

Autonomist movements of dependent territories

 Alderney

See also[edit]

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External links[edit]