List of active separatist movements in Europe

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This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognised as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks to unify into a different state – in cases where this does not involve the creation of a new state entity, this is considered to be irredentism. Analogous irredentist movements are included in the list of active irredentist movements.

Albania[edit]

Autonomist movement

Northern Epirus[5][6]

Azerbaijan[edit]

Breakaway state

 Artsakh

Belgium[edit]

Autonomist movements

 German-speaking Community

Secessionist movements

 Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)

 Wallonia

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

 Republika Srpska

Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia

Czech Republic[edit]

Autonomist movements

Moravia

Czech Silesia

Denmark[edit]

For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.

 Bornholm

 Faroe Islands

Finland[edit]

 Åland

France[edit]

Secessionist movements

French Basque Country

Historic Brittany, comprising Brittany (administrative region) and parts of  Pays de la Loire

Catalonia Northern Catalonia / Roussillon (predominantly Pyrénées-Orientales)

 Corsica

Savoy

Occitania

 Provence

Autonomist movements

 Alsace

Brittany

 Corsica

 Alpes-Maritimes

Normandy

Savoy

 Occitania

Georgia[edit]

Breakaway states

Abkhazia

 South Ossetia

Germany[edit]

Secessionist movements
Bavaria

Bavaria

Autonomist movements

East Frisia

Franconia[19]

Sorbs

Lusatia

North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate

Schleswig-Holstein

Baden-Württemberg

Greece[edit]

Chameria

Italy[edit]

Emilia-Romagna

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Insubria[dubious ]

Liguria

Lombardy

Marche

Piedmont

Southern Italy[dubious ]

Map of the EU, showing Padania (as claimed by Lega Nord) in dark green

Northern Italy

Sardinia

Sicily

South Tyrol

Tuscany

Trentino

Aosta Valley

Umbria

Veneto

Kosovo[edit]

Serbia North Kosovo[33]

Lithuania[edit]

Autonomist movements

Poland Polish National-Territorial Region[dubious ]

Macedonia[edit]

Albanian community in Macedonia

Moldova[edit]

Breakaway state

Transnistria

Proposed independent and autonomous movements

 Gagauzia

Taraclia[34]

Netherlands[edit]

Autonomist movements

Frisia

  • People: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous area: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[35]

Groningen

Limburg[citation needed]

Poland[edit]

Autonomist movements

Upper Silesia

Kashubia

Romania[edit]

Hungarian community in Romania

Other administrative proposals by regionalist organisations

Russia[edit]

Karelia

Tatarstan

Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg Kaliningrad


 Bashkortostan [50]


 Udmurtia[51]


Russia's North Caucasus

Insurgency in the North Caucasus

 Chechnya

Circassia

Karachay-Balkaria

Serbia[edit]

Republic of Vojvodina within federalized Serbia, proposed by the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina in 1999 – the map also includes an autonomous Sandžak and Kosovo.

Vojvodina Vojvodina


Preševo


Autonomist movements

Sandžak

Breakaway state

Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

Slovakia[edit]

Autonomist movements

Southern Slovakia:

  • People: Hungarians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of Hungarian presence.[59]

Spain[edit]

Secessionist movements

 Andalusia

 Aragon

 Asturias

 Balearic Islands

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community)

 Canary Islands

 Cantabria

Castile

 Catalonia

Galicia (Spain) Galicia

León

 Navarre

Valencian Community Valencia

Additionally, there are a number of almost extinct secessionist or soveranist movements in other autonomous communities and historical territories, e.g. Extremadura and Murcia.

Cartagena

 Extremadura

 Castilla–La Mancha

 Murcia

Local secessionist (mostly autonomist) movements include Aranesism, Bercianism, Cartagenism, Majorcanism, Manchego autonomism, Navarrism, Valencian Blaverism and Eastern Andalusian autonomism.

Aran Valley

Switzerland[edit]

Secessionist movements

Canton of Jura or wider Jura region (including the three districts of Bernese Jura and the Laufen District)[65]

Autonomist movements

Jura region

Ukraine[edit]

A map of the 2014 pro-Russian protests and unrest in Ukraine, by oblast. Severity of the unrest, at its peak, is indicated by the colouring. 'RSA' indicates 'Regional State Administration', the name for the governments of the oblasts (regions) of Ukraine.
Proposed autonomous regions

Subcarpathian Ruthenia

Breakaway state

Autonomous Republic of Crimea Autonomous Republic of Crimea

United Kingdom[edit]

Secessionist movements

 Cornwall

Northern Ireland

 Scotland

 Shetland

 Wales

Autonomist movements

 England

 Scotland

 Wales

London

  • People: Londoners
    • Proposed autonomous area: London

Canvey Island[79][80][81]

 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

Wessex[88]

 Yorkshire

North East England or North East Combined Authority area (which excludes Tees Valley)

Northern Isles

 Orkney

 Shetland

Na h-Eileanan Siar

Mercia

Independence movements of dependent territories

 Isle of Man

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  6. ^ Andreevska, Elena (1998). The national minorities in the Balkans under the European and UN system of protection of human and minority rights. Magor. ISBN 978-998985105-6. Retrieved 10 April 2014. Omonia's previous policy of improvements for ethnic Greeks within Albania has been progressively abandoned in favour of either autonomy or enosis
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External links[edit]