List of active separatist movements in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Supporters of Catalan independence in Barcelona in October 2019

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognised as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/people of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks to unify into a different state – in cases where this does not involve the creation of a new state entity, this is considered to be irredentism. Analogous irredentist movements are included in the list of active irredentist movements.

Azerbaijan[edit]

Current military situation in the region
Azerbaijan districts claimed by Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic

Territory of the former Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast

Territory of the short-lived Flag of the Talysh National Movement.svg Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic

Lezgistan

Belgium[edit]

Communities:
  Flemish and French Community
Autonomist movements

 German-speaking Community[9][10]

 Flanders

 Wallonia

Secessionist movements

 Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)

 Wallonia or French Community of Belgium (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Secessionist movements

 Republika Srpska

Autonomist movements

Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia

Croatia[edit]

The Istria County in Croatia.
Autonomist movements

Istria County[12]

Cyprus[edit]

The northern areas of the island of Cyprus administered by Turkish Cypriots

The northeastern 1/3 territory of island of Cyprus

Czech Republic[edit]

Map of the region of Moravia claimed by the Moravian autonomists, it sometimes include Czech Silesia which is also occasionally claimed by the Silesian autonomists.
Autonomist movements

Moravia

Denmark[edit]

 Faroe Islands

Minor Movements

Flag Denmark Bornholmsflaget.svg Bornholm

Finland[edit]

Åland

 Åland[17]

France[edit]

Secessionist movements
Present location of Alsace within France

 Alsace

Location of the Basque Country

French Basque Country

Location of Brittany

Historic Brittany, comprising Brittany (administrative region) and parts of  Pays de la Loire

Location of Corsica

 Corsica

Location of Occitania

Occitania

The Dutch-language Taalgebied (Sprachraum), including northern French Flanders

French Flanders[22][23]

Location of Provence

 Provence

Catalonia Northern Catalonia

Autonomist movements
Location of Normandy

 Alsace

Brittany

 Corsica

 Alpes-Maritimes

Normandy

Savoy

 Occitania

Georgia[edit]

Georgian administrative divisions are outlined in black. Occupied territories of Georgia are shown in pink.

Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia

Territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast

Javakheti

Germany[edit]

Bavaria

East Frisia and North Frisia

Flag of Saxony.svgSaxony

Italy[edit]

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Province of Trieste

Lombardy

Northern Italy

Southern Italy

Sardinia

Sicily

South Tyrol

Tuscany

Veneto

Kosovo[edit]

North Kosovo/Ibar Kolašin[47][48]

Lithuania[edit]

Samogitia[50]

Malta[edit]

Gozo[51]

Moldova[edit]

Breakaway state

Transnistria

Netherlands[edit]

Location of Friesland (left) and Groningen (right)

Frisia and Groningen

 Limburg (Netherlands)

 North Brabant

 Zeeland

Poland[edit]

Silesia on map of Poland, Germany and Czech Republic
Map of Danzig in 1939

Silesia

Kashubia

Gdańsk

Portugal[edit]

Lusitania

Romania[edit]

Transylvania and Banat[57][58][59]

Location of Transylvania (left) and Banat (right)

Székely Land

The historical Székely seats on the map of present-day Romania

Partium

Russia[edit]

Tatarstan
Map of Ingria/Leningrad Oblast claimed by the advocacy group of Free Ingria, which also likely comprises another federal subject, Saint Petersburg.
Location of Greater Ural Republic
Map of Nenetsia
Proposed divisions of the Caucasus Emirate
Ural Federal District

Sverdlovsk Oblast[73][74][75]

Volga Federal District

Idel-Ural at the center of the Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District
Republics of Idel-Ural

Idel-Ural[76][77]

Tatarstan[78][79][80]

 Udmurtia[81]

Bashkortostan[78]

Chuvashia[82]

Komi-Permyak Okrug[83]

Northwestern Federal District

Arkhangelsk Oblast

 Komi Republic[88]

 Republic of Karelia[89]

Kaliningrad Oblast[89]

Leningrad Oblast[92][93][94]

Astrakhan Oblast[95][96]

Republic of Kalmykia[97][98][99]

Krasnodar Krai[100][101]

Rostov oblast[102][103]

 Republic of Crimea

North Caucasian Federal District

Abazinia[105][106][107]

 Chechnya

Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus

Circassia

Dagestan[112][113]

Ingushetia[114][115][116]

Lezgistan

North Ossetia-Alania[116][117]

Karachay and Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg Balkaria

Serbia[edit]

Image Note: Republic of Vojvodina within federalized Serbia, proposed by the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina in 1999 – the map also includes an autonomous Sandžak, Kosovo and the metropolitan area of Belgrade as a distinctive administrative unit as well

Autonomist movements

Vojvodina Vojvodina

Sandžak

Breakaway state

 Kosovo

Slovakia[edit]

Linguistic makeup of Slovakia, according to Census 2011
Autonomist movements

Southern Slovakia:

  • People: Hungarians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of Hungarian presence,[123] or unification with  Hungary

Spain[edit]

Regions in Spain with autonomist or separatist movements
Secessionist movements

 Andalusia

 Aragon

 Asturias

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community)

Castile

 Catalonia

Galicia (Spain) Galicia

 Navarre

Valencian Community Valencia

Autonomist movements

Cartagena

León

Aran Valley

Sweden[edit]

Scania

Scania

Switzerland[edit]

Autonomist movements

Jura region

Romandy

Ticino

Ukraine[edit]

 Autonomous Republic of Crimea and  Sevastopol

 Donetsk Oblast,  Luhansk Oblast

Odessa People's Republic[135][136][137]

Flag of the Russian administered Zaporizhzhia Oblast.svg Russian-occupied Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Flag of Kherson Oblast (Russia).svg Russian-occupied Kherson Oblast, Flag of Russian occupied Kharkiv Oblast.png Russian-occupied Kharkiv Oblast[138]

Flag of Rusyns 2007.svgCarpathian Ruthenia[140][141][142][143]

United Kingdom[edit]

Countries of the United Kingdom
Map of current local administrative units in the United Kingdom
The Kingdom of the Isles about the year 1100
Major movements

 England

Northern Ireland

 Scotland

 Wales

Minor movements

 Cornwall

 London

Midlands

Northern England

Autonomist movements

Canvey Island

 England

 Scotland

 Wales

 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

 Shetland

 Yorkshire

North East England

  • People: People of North East England

 Wessex

Independence movements of dependent territories

 Isle of Man

Autonomist movements of dependent territories

 Alderney

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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