List of active separatist movements in Europe

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Supporters of Catalan independence in Barcelona in October 2019

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognised as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks to unify into a different state – in cases where this does not involve the creation of a new state entity, this is considered to be irredentism. Analogous irredentist movements are included in the list of active irredentist movements.

Azerbaijan[edit]

Location of Nagorno-Karabakh
Breakaway state

 Nagorno-Karabakh

Belgium[edit]

Communities:
  Flemish and French Community
Autonomist movements

 German-speaking Community[7][8]

 Flanders

 Wallonia

Secessionist movements

 German-speaking Community[7][8]

 Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)

 Wallonia or French Community of Belgium (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Secessionist movements

 Republika Srpska

Autonomist movements

Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia

Cyprus[edit]

The northern areas of the island of Cyprus
De facto state

 Northern Cyprus

Czech Republic[edit]

Map of the region of Moravia claimed by the Moravian autonomists, it sometimes include Czech Silesia which is also occasionally claimed by the Silesian autonomists.
Autonomist movements

Moravia

Denmark[edit]

Location of Bornholm

 Bornholm

 Faroe Islands

Finland[edit]

Åland

 Åland[12]

France[edit]

Present location of Alsace within France
Location of the Basque Country
Location of Brittany
Location of Normandy
Location of Burgundy
Location of the Corsica
Location of Occitania
The Dutch-language Taalgebied (Sprachraum), including northern French Flanders
Location of Provence
Secessionist movements

 Alsace

French Basque Country

Historic Brittany, comprising Brittany (administrative region) and parts of  Pays de la Loire

 Corsica

Occitania

Flanders[17][18]

 Provence

 Northern Catalonia

Autonomist movements

 Alsace

Brittany

 Corsica

 Alpes-Maritimes

Normandy

Savoy

 Occitania

Chevreuse High Valley[25]

Georgia[edit]

Georgian administrative divisions are outlined in black. Russian-occupied territories (Abkhazia and South Ossetia) are shown in pink.
Breakaway states

Abkhazia

 South Ossetia

Autonomist movement

Armenians in Javakheti

Germany[edit]


Secessionist movements

Bavaria

Autonomist movements

Bavaria

East Frisia (the latter includes  Saterland)

Lusatia

North Frisia


Schleswig-Holstein

Italy[edit]

Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Province of Trieste

Lombardy

Northern Italy

Sardinia

Sicily

South Tyrol

Veneto

Kosovo[edit]

North Kosovo/Ibar Kolašin[39][40]

Lithuania[edit]

Autonomist movements

Samogitia

Moldova[edit]

Breakaway state

Transnistria

Proposed secessionist or autonomist movements

 Gagauzia

Netherlands[edit]

Proposed secessionist or autonomist movements

Frisia

Poland[edit]

Autonomist movements

Upper Silesia

Kashubia

Secessionist movements

Gdańsk

Romania[edit]

Hungarian community in Romania

Other administrative proposals by regionalist organisations
  • Banat[51]
  • Transylvania[52]
    • Political organisations: Liga Transilvania-Banat, a regionalist party led by Sabin Gherman.[50]
    • Advocacy organisations: Autonomy for Transylvania (AFT) campaign, it demands autonomy for Transylvania.[53] Democratic League of Transylvania (Liga Transilvania Democrată), a regionalist NGO,[52] an active supporter of the "Autonomy for Transylvania" campaign,[54] League of Banat (Liga Banateana), a regionalist NGO.[51][55] Also, from 2015 another group advocating for the reunification and independence of the Banat started to merge, under the leadership of the titular Duke Clovis-William I of Stepanescu-Vlaicu, the current head of House Vlaicu from the Osli-Csornay clan, and a direct descendant of House Csanád via female line. This group, with no political organisation yet, advocates for clan and peerage revival, complete independence or condominium, conservative nationalism, the constitution of an Intermarium Commonwealth under the symbolic rulership of House Habsburg-Lothringen, and euroscepticism.

Russia[edit]

Summary[edit]

This table shows only the list of movements. The source of each movement is cited in its own section. The population of each area is provided for information only.

Number Land Capital Area Population Ethnic Main Political Party
Ural Federal District of European Russia
1 Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast.svg Ural Republic Yekaterinburg 194,800 4,300,000 Russian people Ural Democratic Foundation
Volga Federal District of European Russia
2 Flag of Idel-Ural State.svg Idel-Ural Kazan 321,400 11,000,000 Volga people Free Idel-Ural
3 Flag of Bashkortostan.svg Bashkortostan Ufa 143,600 4,050,000 Bashkorts The Heavenly Wolf
4 Flag of Tatarstan.svg Tatarstan Kazan 68,000 4,000,000 Tatars All-Tatar Public Center
5 Flag of Udmurtia.svg Udmurtia Izhevsk 42,100 1,500,000 Udmurts Udmurt Republican National Party
6 Flag of Mordovia.svg Mordovia Saransk 26,200 800,000 Mordovians Democracy and Independence Mordvin Front
7 Flag of Mari El.svg Mari El Yoshkar-Ola 23,200 700,000 Maris Mari Ushem
8 Flag of Chuvashia.svg Chuvashia Cheboksary 18,300 1,250,000 Chuvash Chuvash National Movement
Northwestern Federal District of European Russia
9 Flag of Komi.svg Komi Republic Syktyvkar 415,900 850,000 Komi Komi People's Congress
10 Flag of Nenets Autonomous District.svg Nenetsia Naryan-Mar 176,700 45,000 Western Nenets Nenet National Movement
11 Flag of Karel.svg Karelia Petrozavodsk 172,400 600,000 Karelians
12 Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg Kaliningrad Kaliningrad 84,500 1,800,000 Kaliningradians
13 Flag of Komi-Permyak Okrug.svg Permyakia Kudymkar 32,770 120,000 Permyaks Komi People's Congress
14 Flag of Leningrad Oblast.svg Leningrad Leningrad 15,100 1,000,000 Ingrians Free Ingria
Southern Federal District of European Russia
15 Flag of Don Cossacks.svg Don Republic Rostov 100,800 4,200,000 Donians Free Cossack Movement (Rostov Oblast)
16 Flag of Kuban People's Republic.svg Kuban Krasnodar 76,000 5,300,000 Kubanians Free Cossack Movement (Krasnodar Krai)
17 Flag of Kalmykia.svg Kalmykia Elista 76,000 300,000 Kalmyk people
North Caucasian Federal District of European Russia
19 Flag of Adygea.svg Circassia Sochi 50,000 1,000,000 Circassians Circassian nationalism
20 Flag of the Chechen Republic.svg Chechnya Grozny 17,300 1,500,000 Chechens Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
21 Flag of the Lezgi people.svg Lezgistan Derbent 10,000 800,000 Lezgins Lezgin nationalism
22 Flag of Karachay-Balkaria.svg Karachay-Balkaria Karachayevsk 10,000 300,000 Karachays & Balkars Balkar and Karachay nationalism
23 Flag of Ingushetia.svg Ingushetia Magas 3,000 500,000 Ingush Ingush People Council
24 Rutulia proprosed flag .jpg Rutulstan Rutul 2,170 20,000 Rutuls Rutul National Revival Front
25 Proposed Naval Jack of the Republic of Abkhazia.svg Abazinia Adlersky 2,000 50,000 Abazins World Congress of Abkhaz-Abazin people
26 Flag of the Lak People v2.svg Lakistan Kumukh 1,500 200,000 Laks Lak National Council
27 Tabasaran National Movement flag .png Tabasaranstan Khuchni 1,400 75,000 Tabasarans Tabasaran National Movement
28 Khunz Wolf 3b.svg Avaria Khunzakh Unknown 850,000 Avars Avar National Union
29 Flag of Dahadaevsky rayon (Dagestan).png Darginstan Levashi Unknown 500,000 Dargwa Free Society of Dargo
30 Flag of the Kumukh people.png Kumykia Tarki Unknown 500,000 Kumyks Tenglik
31 Nogai flag.svg Nogaia Erken Unknown 100,000 Nogais Association of Nogais of Dagestan
32 Aghul flag.svg Aghulistan Aguldere Unknown 25,000 Aghuls Agul Gelinbatan
Tatarstan
A protest in Kaliningrad Oblast
Map of Ingria/Leningrad Oblast claimed by the advocacy group of Free Ingria, which also likely comprises another federal subject, Saint Petersburg.
Location of Greater Ural Republic
Map of Nenetsia
Map of the Republic of Kalmykia
Proposed divisions of the Caucasus Emirate

Autonomist movements[edit]

Komi-Permyak Okrug[56]

Ural Federal District[edit]

Sverdlovsk Oblast[57][58][59]

Volga Federal District[edit]

Idel-Ural at the center of the Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District
Republics of Idel-Ural

Idel-Ural[60][61]

Mari El

 Mordovia

Tatarstan[63][64][65]

  • People: Tatars
    • Militant organisation: All-Tatar Public Center
      • Advocacy groups: The Union of Tatar Youth, Tatar Patriotic Front Altyn Urda, Tatar Social Center
      • Government in exile: Tatar Government in Exile
      • Organization: Ittifaq Party
    • Proposed state: Tatarstan

 Udmurtia[66]

Bashkortostan[63]

  • People: Bashkir
    • Advocacy groups: Bashkort Public Organization, Bashkir Human Rights Movement, Council of Aksakals of Bashkortostan, Bashkir Social Movement
      • Political party: The Heavenly Wolf
    • Proposed state: Bashkortostan

Chuvashia[67]

  • People: Chuvash
    • Proposed state: Chuvashia
      • Movements: Chuvash National Movement, Chuvash Republican Youth
      • Organization: Chuvash Ireklekh Society of National-Cultural Rebirth

Northwestern Federal District[edit]

Nenetsia

 Komi Republic[68]

  • People: Komi
    • Proposed state:  Komi Republic
      • Political organizations: Komi Republican Organization
      • Advocacy movements: Komi Voityr, Finno-Ugric Peoples Consultative Committee
      • Organization: Komi People's Congress

Leningrad Oblast[69][70]

 Karelia

Kaliningrad Oblast

Southern Federal District[edit]

Kuban[72][73]

Don Republic[74][75]

Kalmykia[76][77]

North Caucasian Federal District[edit]

A map of list federal subjects and districts that has separatist movements in North Caucasus Federal District.
Map of the North Caucasus region

 Chechnya

Greater Sochi map (Abazinia)/Adlersky City District and Khostinsky City District

Abazinia[82][83][84]

Circassia

Aghulistan

Avaria[86]

Flag of Dahadaevsky rayon (Dagestan).png Darginstan

 Ingushetia

  • People: Ingush
    • Advocacy groups: Zaschita
    • Militant organizations: Ingush Self Defense Force, Ingush National Front
    • Political party: Ingush People Council

Karachay-Balkaria

Kumyk population in the native regions of the Caucasus

Kumykia

Lakistan

Lezgistan

Nogaia

Rutulia proprosed flag .jpg Rutulstan

Tabasaran National Movement flag .png Tabasaranstan

Serbia[edit]

Image Note: Republic of Vojvodina within federalized Serbia, proposed by the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina in 1999 – the map also includes an autonomous Sandžak, Kosovo and the metropolitan area of Belgrade as a distinctive administrative unit as well

Autonomist movements

Vojvodina Vojvodina

Sandžak

Breakaway state

Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

Slovakia[edit]

Linguistic makeup of Slovakia, according to Census 2011
Autonomist movements

Southern Slovakia:

  • People: Hungarians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of Hungarian presence.[97], or unification with  Hungary

Spain[edit]

Regions in Spain with autonomist or separatist movements
Secessionist movements

 Andalusia

 Aragon

 Asturias

 Balearic Islands

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community)

 Canary Islands

Castile

 Catalonia

Galicia (Spain) Galicia

León

 Navarre

Valencian Community Valencia

Additionally, there are a number of almost extinct secessionist or soveranist movements in other autonomous communities and historical territories, e.g. Extremadura and Murcia.

Aran Valley

Switzerland[edit]

Autonomist movements

Jura region

Sweden[edit]

Scania

Scania

Turkey[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Countries of the United Kingdom
Map of current local administrative units in the United Kingdom
Map of England in the late ninth century
Wessex and Northumbria - England in the late 9th century
The Kingdom of the Isles about the year 1100
Secessionist movements

 Cornwall

 England

Northern Ireland

 Scotland

 Wales

Autonomist movements

 England

 Scotland

 Wales

 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

Mercia

North East England

Wessex[119]

 Yorkshire

Independence movements of dependent territories

 Isle of Man

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]