List of active separatist movements in Europe

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Active separatist movements in Europe.

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognized as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

  • De facto state (de facto entity): for unrecognized regions with de facto autonomy;
  • Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding sovereign state;
  • Proposed autonomous area: for movements towards greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession;

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.

Active separatist movements by country[edit]

Albania[edit]

Northern Epirus[5][6]

Belgium[edit]

Further information: Partition of Belgium

 Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)

 Wallonia

Province of Luxembourg

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

 Republika Srpska

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia

Bulgaria[edit]

Blagoevgrad Province

Croatia[edit]

Istria

Free State of Fiume Rijeka

Republic of Cyprus[edit]

Breakaway states:

 Northern Cyprus

Czech Republic[edit]

Moravia

Czech Silesia

Denmark[edit]

For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.

 Bornholm

 Faroe Islands

Finland[edit]

 Åland

France[edit]

Secessionist movements

French Basque Country

Brittany and parts of  Pays de la Loire

Main article: Breton nationalism

Catalonia Northern Catalonia / Roussillon (predominantly Pyrénées-Orientales)

 Corsica

Main article: Corsican nationalism

Savoy

Main article: Savoyan nationalism

 Occitania

Main article: Occitan nationalism

 Provence

Autonomist movements

 Alsace

Brittany

 Corsica

County of Nice

Normandy

Savoy

 Occitania

Georgia[edit]

Breakaway states:

Flag of Abkhazia.svg

Abkhazia

 South Ossetia

Germany[edit]

Bavaria

East Frisia

Franconia[20]

Lusatia

Schleswig-Holstein

Italy[edit]

Sardinia

Main article: Sardinian nationalism

Sicily Sicily

Main article: Sicilian nationalism

South Tyrol

Veneto

Main article: Venetian nationalism

Kosovo[edit]

Serbia North Kosovo[26]

Gora region

Latvia[edit]

Latgale

Lithuania[edit]

Samogitia

Macedonia[edit]

Albanian community in Macedonia

Main article: Albanian nationalism

Moldova[edit]

Breakaway state:

 Transnistria

Proposed independent and autonomous movements:

 Gagauzia

Taraclia[27]

Montenegro[edit]

Kraja

Netherlands[edit]

Frisia

  • People: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous area: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[28]

Groningen

Limburg

Poland[edit]

Upper Silesia

Romania[edit]

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Romania

Hungarian community in Romania

Russia[edit]

Russia's Black Sea

Crimean Federal District ( Crimea and  Sevastopol)

Russia's North Caucasus

 Chechnya

North Caucasus

Circassia

Karachay-Balkaria

Abazinia in central-north Karachay–Cherkessia

Kumykia in north Dagestan

Russia's other European regions

Tatarstan Tatarstan

Udmurtia Udmurtia

Chuvashia Chuvashia

Mari El Mari El

Mordovia Mordovia

Bashkortostan Bashkortostan

Komi Republic Komi Republic

Karelia

Kalmykia Kalmykia[citation needed]

Rostov Oblast

Krasnodar Krai (Kuban)

North Caucasus near Terek

Serbia[edit]

Vojvodina Autonomous Province of Vojvodina

Preševo Valley

Sandžak

Breakaway state:

Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (Kosovo)

Slovakia[edit]

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Slovakia

Southern Slovakia:

  • People: Hungarians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of sporadic Hungarian presence.[42]

Spain[edit]

Areas in Spain with separatist or autonomist movements, as well as their claims to territory in neighbouring countries.
The disputed territory of Olivenza.

 Andalusia

 Aragon

Main article: Aragonese nationalism

 Asturias

Main article: Asturian nationalism

 Balearic Islands

Main article: Catalan nationalism

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community)

 Canary Islands

Main article: Canarian nationalism

 Cantabria

 Catalonia

Castile

Main article: Castilian nationalism

Galicia (Spain) Galicia

León

Main article: Leonese nationalism

 Navarre

Main article: Basque nationalism

Territory of Olivenza (Olivença)

Valencian Community Valencia

Additionally, there are a number of almost extinct secessionist or soveranist movements in other autonomous communities and historical territories, e.g. Extremadura and Murcia.

 Extremadura

 Murcia

Main article: Murcian nationalism

Local secessionist (mostly autonomist) movements include Aranesism, Bercianism, Cartagenism, Majorcanism, Manchego autonomism, Navarrism, Valencian Blaverism and Eastern Andalusian autonomism.

Aran Valley

Sweden[edit]

Scania

Switzerland[edit]

Flag of Canton of Jura.svg Jura[48]

Flag of Canton of Tessin.svg Ticino

  • Regional group: Ticinesi (Italian speaking)
  • Proposed state: annexation to the Lombardy

Turkey[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

Breakaway states
Map of protests by region, indicating severity of the unrest at its peak

 Luhansk Oblast (partially)

 Donetsk Oblast (partially)

Disputed status

 Republic of Crimea

City of Sevastopol

Proposed autonomous regions

Subcarpathian Ruthenia

United Kingdom[edit]

Secessionist movements

 Scotland

 Shetland

 Wales

Northern Ireland

London

  • People: Londoners
    • Proposed state: London
    • Movement: London Independence[59]
Autonomist movements

 England

 Scotland

 Wales

London

 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

Wessex[70]

 Yorkshire

North East England or North East Combined Authority area (which excludes Tees Valley)

Northern Isles

 Orkney

 Shetland

Na h-Eileanan Siar

Independence movements of dependant territories

 Isle of Man

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  6. ^ Andreevska, Elena (1998). The national minorities in the Balkans under the European and UN system of protection of human and minority rights. Magor. ISBN 978-998985105-6. Retrieved 10 April 2014. Omonia's previous policy of improvements for ethnic Greeks within Albania has been progressively abandoned in favour of either autonomy or enosis 
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External links[edit]

"Manifest" (PDF), Politiskaprogram [Political program], AX: Ålands framtid, 2011 .