List of active separatist movements in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognized as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.

Albania[edit]

Northern Epirus[5][6]

Azerbaijan[edit]

Lezgistan

Nagorno-Karabakh

Belgium[edit]

Further information: Partition of Belgium

 Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region))

 Wallonia

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

 Republika Srpska

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia

Bulgaria[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Istria

Free State of Fiume Rijeka

Cyprus[edit]

Breakaway state:

 Northern Cyprus

Czech Republic[edit]

 Moravia

Czech Silesia

Denmark[edit]

For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.

 Bornholm

 Faroe Islands

Finland[edit]

 Åland

France[edit]

Some of the claimed nations and/or regions – 1. Brittany, 2. France proper (excluding Wallonia), 3. Occitania, 4. Lorraine which is sometimes part of France proper, 5. Alsace, 6. Basque Country, 7. Catalonia and 8. Corsica.
Secessionist movements
Gradual and eventual secession
Autonomist movements

Georgia[edit]

Breakaway states:

Flag of Abkhazia.svg

Abkhazia

 South Ossetia

Proposed autonomous movements:

Armenia Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti

Azerbaijan Borchali Azerbaijanis

Germany[edit]

Bavaria

East Frisia

Franconia[23]

Lusatia

Schleswig-Holstein

Italy[edit]

Sardinia

South Tyrol

Veneto

Kosovo[edit]

Serbia North Kosovo[24]

F.Y.R.O.Macedonia[edit]

Moldova[edit]

Breakaway state:

 Transnistria

Proposed independent and autonomous movements:

 Gagauzia

Taraclia[25]

Netherlands[edit]

Frisia

  • Ethnic group: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous region: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[26]

Poland[edit]

Upper Silesia

Kashubia

  • Ethnic group: Kashubians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Kashubia
    • An association of people: Kaszëbskô Jednota who want to actively participate in the life of the Kashubian nation and who recognize its right to cultural autonomy and self-identity within the multi-ethnic society.

Romania[edit]

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Romania

Russian Federation[edit]

Russia's Black Sea[edit]

 Crimea

Russia's North Caucasus[edit]

 Chechnya

Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia

Circassia

Karachay-Balkaria

Abazinia in central-north Karachay–Cherkessia

Kumykia in north Dagestan

  • Ethnic group: Kumyks
    • Movement: Tenglik (since 1989)
    • Proposed state: Kumyk Republic (proclaimed but non-recognized in 1991 as autonomy)

Russia's other European regions[edit]

 Tyumen Oblast

Tatarstan Tatarstan

Udmurtia Udmurtia

Chuvashia Chuvashia

Mari El Mari El

Mordovia Mordovia

Bashkortostan Bashkortostan

Komi Republic Komi Republic

Karelia

Kalmykia Kalmykia[citation needed]

Rostov Oblast

Krasnodar Krai (Kuban)

North Caucasus near Terek

Kaliningrad Oblast

Serbia[edit]

Vojvodina Vojvodina

Sandžak

Breakaway state: Kosovo Republic of Kosovo (de facto state with majority international recognition)

Slovakia[edit]

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Slovakia

Southern Slovakia:

  • Ethnic group: Hungarians
  • Political parties (autonomist): Party of the Hungarian Community,[46] In 2010, the party renewed their demand for autonomy.[47]
  • Goals: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of sporadic Hungarian presence.[48]

Spain[edit]

Areas in Spain with separatist movements.
The disputed territory of Olivenza.

 Canary Islands (Main article: Canarian nationalism)

 Andalusia (Main article: Andalusian nationalism)

 Aragon

Asturias Asturias (Main article: Asturian nationalism)

Balearic Islands Balearic Islands

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community) (Main article: Basque nationalism)

Cantabria Cantabria

 Catalonia (Catalan independence)

 Castile

Galicia (Main article: Galician nationalism and Galician independence)

Bandera del País Leonés.svg

Leonese Country (Main article: Leonesismo)

Bandera de Olivenza.svg

Territory of Olivenza (Olivença) (Main article: Disputed status of Olivenza)

Switzerland[edit]

Geneva

  • Regional group: Genevan
    • Proposed state: "La République de Genève" or "Free State of Geneva"

Flag of Canton of Jura.svg Jura[49]

Flag of Canton of Tessin.svg Ticino

Turkey[edit]

Flag of Kurdistan.svg Northern Kurdistan[53]

Ukraine[edit]

Breakaway state:

Map of protests by region, indicating severity of the unrest at its peak

 Novorossiya (New Russia)

Disputed status:

 Republic of Crimea

City of Sevastopol

Proposed autonomous regions:

Ukrainian Bessarabia

 Crimea

Subcarpathian Ruthenia

United Kingdom, its territories, and the Crown dependencies[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Secessionist movements

 Scotland

 Wales

 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

Northern Ireland

United Ireland

Autonomist movements

 England

 Scotland

 Wales

London

Greater Manchester

 West Midlands

 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

Wessex[66]

 Yorkshire

Northern Isles

 Orkney

 Shetland

Na h-Eileanan Siar

Isle of Man[edit]

Gibraltar[edit]

Note: Proposal was declined by the British Government after being rejected by 99% of Gibraltarian voters in a referendum in 2002.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Separatism", Free Dictionary 
  2. ^ Merriam; Webster, "Separatism", Dictionary 
  3. ^ "Separatism", The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English, Encyclopedia, 2008 
  4. ^ Harris, Jerry (2009). The Nation in the Global Era Conflict and Transformation. Brill. p. 320. ISBN 90-04-17690-X. 
  5. ^ "Directory of Minorities". Minority rights. Retrieved 10 April 2014. he size of the Greek minority is especially contentious on account of the history of claims to southern Albania made by the Greek government in Athens, and of the substantial support within Greece and among Greeks in Albania, for the establishment of an autonomous district of ‘Northern Epirus’. 
  6. ^ Andreevska, Elena (1998). The national minorities in the Balkans under the European and UN system of protection of human and minority rights. Magor. ISBN 978-998985105-6. Retrieved 10 April 2014. Omonia's previous policy of improvements for ethnic Greeks within Albania has been progressively abandoned in favour of either autonomy or enosis 
  7. ^ "Nagorno Karabagh Republic: History and Current Reality". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Retrieved 10 April 2009. 
  8. ^ "Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno Karabakh". Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh and Shusha Executive Power Authority. Archived from the original on 2011-03-08. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  9. ^ Armed Peacekeepers in Bosnia. Diane. 2004. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-4289-1020-1. 
  10. ^ "Lista za Rijeku" [List of Rijeka] (in Bosnian). Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  11. ^ Maxmilián Strmiska. "Rise and Fall of Moravian Regionalist Parties". The International Institute of Political Science. Retrieved 10 April 2009. 
  12. ^ a b "Silesian Autonomy Movement". Silesian Autonomy Movement. Retrieved 10 April 2009. 
  13. ^ "Free Bornholm,". Retrieved 4 October 2014. 
  14. ^ "Amtsradsvalg,". Retrieved 4 October 2014. 
  15. ^ a b Zubiaga, M. et al.: Towards a Basque State. Nation-building and institutions, Bilbo: UEU, 2012 ISBN 978-84-8438-421-2.
  16. ^ Mateos, T. et al.: Towards a Basque State. Citizenship and culture, Bilbo: UEU, 2012 ISBN 978-84-8438-422-9.
  17. ^ Antiguedad, I. et al.: Towards a Basque State. Territory and socioeconomics, Bilbo: UEU, 2012 ISBN 978-84-8438-423-6.
  18. ^ a b c d e f "Current Campaigns". Celtic League. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
  19. ^ "Presentació del Grup de Suport a la CUP de Perpinyà" [Presentation of Candidatura d'Unitat Popular at Northern Catalonia's capital, Perpignan]. Llibertat.cat (in Catalan). 6 November 2014. 
  20. ^ Parti niçois [Nice party] (in French) 
  21. ^ "Russia’s Javakhk Diaspora demands autonomous region status for Samtskhe-Javakhk". Times.am. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  22. ^ "US State Department and Javakhk: The WikiLeaks Cables Part I". Asbarez. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  23. ^ Stehle, Anja (2014-09-13), "Freiheit für Bayern – mei‘, wär‘ des schee: Nach Schottland referendum entscheidend ist dass die bevölkerung das will" [Freedom for Bavaria — please consider the schee: Scotland referendum is crucial for the population will], Handelsblatt (in German) 
  24. ^ "The Brussels Agreement and Serbia‘s National Interests: A Positive Balance Sheet?" (PDF). KONRAD -ADE NAUER -ST I FT UNG. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  25. ^ "Bulgarii din Republica Moldova cer autonomie și amenință Chișinăul cu alipirea la Găgăuzia". paginaeuropeana.ro. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  26. ^ "FNP program for the Provincial Elections 2007". Frisian National Party. Archived from the original on 2007-10-06. Retrieved 12 April 2009. 
  27. ^ ""Dobrogea ar trebui să fie autonomă faţă de restul ţării". Independenţa regiunii de sud-est, vehiculată la Constanţa" ["Dobrogea should be independent of the rest of the country." Independence of the South-East, circulated in Constanta] (in Romanian). Adevarul. 10 July 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  28. ^ "După aşa-zisul Ţinut Secuiesc, altă regiune vrea Autonomie" [After the so-called Szekely Land, another region wants autonomy] (in Romanian). Provincia news. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-07-16. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  29. ^ "Regionaliștii Din Dobrogea, Chemați Să Susțină Proiectul Autonomiei Maghiare" [Regionalists in Dobrogea invited to support Hungarian Autonomy Project] (in Romanian). Ziua constanta. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  30. ^ "Borbély az autonómiatervezet ről: ejnye, hogy megijedtünk!" [Barber's autonomy from the draft: ahem, that scared!] (in Romanian). kronika. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  31. ^ "Jövő héten egyeztet az MPP és az RMDSZ az autonómia-tervezetről". transindex.ro. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  32. ^ "Cultural autonomy and territorial federalism: two voting options for Hungarians in Transylvania". Nationalia. 13 November 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  33. ^ "Megalakult a Partiumi Autonómia Tanács" [The formation of the Partium Council Autonomy] (in Hungarian). Kitekinto. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  34. ^ "Nyílt pályázat a Partium jelképeinek megtervezésére" [Open tender for the design of the Partium symbols] (in Hungarian). Erdely. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  35. ^ a b c "Cooperating regionalist and autonomy movements in Europe" (PDF). Central European University. 2007. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  36. ^ "Szekler National Council". Transilvania. Retrieved 12 April 2009. 
  37. ^ "Petiţie pentru autonomia Transilvaniei, depusă la Prefectura Cluj" [Petition for the autonomy of Transylvania, Cluj filed Prefecture] (in Romanian). Romania libera. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  38. ^ "De ce "Liga Transilvania Democrată"" [Why "Transylvania Democratic League"] (in Romanian). Neuerweg. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  39. ^ "Liga Transilvania Democrată a mai anunţat că se va implica şi din punct de vedere logistic pentru a obţine numărul necesar de semnături" [Transylvania Democratic League announced that it will involve and logistically to get the required number of signatures] (in Romanian). Nova TV. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  40. ^ "Program" (in Romanian). Liga Banateana. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  41. ^ "Bănăţenii vor autonomie economică şi administrativă: "Acest lucru nu înseamnă independenţa sau ruperea de România"" [Economic and administrative autonomy of Banat: "This does not mean independence or breaking of Romania"] (in Romanian). Adevarul. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  42. ^ a b Shlapentokh, Dmitry (3 December 2009). "The Kremlin's renegade puppet in Chechnya". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on 2009-12-04. 
  43. ^ Shlapentokh, Dmitry (3 December 2009). "Chechen President". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  44. ^ Fred Weir, A Baltic province's story, in one man's life, Christian Science Monitor, 25 July 2002
  45. ^ "Zukorlić: Autonomija Sandžaka sve izvesnija". 
  46. ^ "Head of party for ethnic Hungarians in Slovakia says autonomy necessary for minority’s survival". politics.hu. 17 April 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  47. ^ "A felvidéki önrendelkezés kilátásairól az autonómia albizottság ülésén". mkp.sk. 16 April 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  48. ^ "Berényi: A tömbnek területi, a szórványnak kulturális autonómiát". bumm.sk. 20 July 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  49. ^ Daftary, Troebst (2004). Radical Ethnic Movements in Contemporary Europe. Berghahn Books. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-57181-695-5. 
  50. ^ "Mouvement Indépendantiste Jurassien" [Movement Indépendantiste Jura] (in French). Juralibre.chez.com. Retrieved 23 June 2015. 
  51. ^ "Mouvement autonomiste jurassien" [Jura autonomist movement] (in French). Maj.ch. Retrieved 23 June 2015. 
  52. ^ "Groupe Bélier — Mouvement de lutte pour l'Unité du Jura" [Aries Group — Movement struggling for Jura Unity] (in French). Groupebelier.ch. 14 March 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015. 
  53. ^ Pike, John (21 May 2004). "Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 23 July 2008. 
  54. ^ "The Hungarians of Transcarpathia demand autonomy and double citizenship". nevnov.ru. 2014-03-30. Retrieved 2014-05-14. 
  55. ^ "Hungarians, Rusyns in Zakarpatie afraid of forced Ukrainization, want autonomy". voiceofrussia.com. 2014-04-23. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  56. ^ "Section 5: Solutions – Economic, Legal and Political Measures", Restoring Britishness: UKIP Policy, UK Independence Party, archived from the original on 28 September 2011, retrieved 6 April 2010 
  57. ^ "Scottish government renews call for extra powers on tax and welfare". The Guardian. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  58. ^ Daniel Boffey (30 May 2015). "London should be treated as city state, says Labour mayoral hopeful". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  59. ^ a b Helen Pidd; Patrick Wintour (23 October 2014). "Cameron hails plan to fast-track devolution for English cities". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  60. ^ "Green Party will support calls for a Cornish Assembly". The Cornish Guardian. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014. 
  61. ^ Graeme Demianyk (10 March 2014). "Liberal Democrats vote for Cornish Assembly". The Western Morning News. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  62. ^ "Spring Conference 2014". Liberal Democrats. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  63. ^ "Cornish Nation". Archived from the original on 2007-06-11. 
  64. ^ Stoyle, Professor Mark (17 February 2011), "The Cornish: A Neglected Nation?", British History, BBC 
  65. ^ Robins, David; Xylas, Nick (15 March 2003). The Case for Wessex (PDF). Wessex Constitutional Convention. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-9544667-0-1. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  66. ^ Robins, David; Xylas, Nick (15 March 2003). The Case for Wessex (PDF). Wessex Constitutional Convention. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-9544667-0-1. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  67. ^ Mark Stead (24 March 2012). "We want devolution, says York council leader". The York Press. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  68. ^ "The official website of the "Yorkshire Independence – Campaign for devolution"". 22 November 2010. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. 
  69. ^ The Yorkshire devolution movement, Face book 
  70. ^ "David Blunkett MP suggests "Yorkshire Parliament"". News (BBC). 27 October 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2014. 
  71. ^ The Yorkshire devolution movement, Word press 
  72. ^ Yorkshire devolution 
  73. ^ a b c d e f Dean Herbert (18 March 2013). "Lib Dem's Scott wants 'home rule' for Shetland isles". Scottish Express. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  74. ^ a b Severin Carrell (17 March 2013). "Scottish independence: islands consider their own 'home rule'". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  75. ^ Gold, Peter (2005). Gibraltar: British or Spanish?. Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-415-34795-2. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 

External links[edit]

"Manifest" (PDF), Politiskaprogram [Political program], AX: Ålands framtid, 2011 .