List of active separatist movements in Europe

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This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognised as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks to unify into a different state – in cases where this does not involve the creation of a new state entity, this is considered to be irredentism. Analogous irredentist movements are included in the list of active irredentist movements.


Autonomist movement

Northern Epirus[5][6]


Breakaway state



Autonomist movements

 German-speaking Community

Secessionist movements

 Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes  Brussels-Capital Region)


Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

 Republika Srpska

Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia

Czech Republic[edit]

Autonomist movements


Czech Silesia


For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.


 Faroe Islands




Secessionist movements

French Basque Country

Historic Brittany, comprising Brittany (administrative region) and parts of  Pays de la Loire

Catalonia Northern Catalonia / Roussillon (predominantly Pyrénées-Orientales)





Autonomist movements









Breakaway states


 South Ossetia


Secessionist movements


Autonomist movements

East Frisia




North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate







Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Insubria[dubious ]





Southern Italy[dubious ]

Map of the EU, showing Padania (as claimed by Lega Nord) in dark green

Northern Italy



South Tyrol



Aosta Valley




Serbia North Kosovo[33]


Autonomist movements

Poland Polish National-Territorial Region[dubious ]


Albanian community in Macedonia


Breakaway state


Proposed independent and autonomous movements




Autonomist movements


  • People: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous area: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[35]


Limburg[citation needed]


Autonomist movements

Upper Silesia



Hungarian community in Romania

Other administrative proposals by regionalist organisations




Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg Kaliningrad

 Bashkortostan [50]


Russia's North Caucasus

Insurgency in the North Caucasus





Republic of Vojvodina within federalized Serbia, proposed by the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina in 1999 – the map also includes an autonomous Sandžak and Kosovo.

Vojvodina Vojvodina


Autonomist movements


Breakaway state

Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija


Autonomist movements

Southern Slovakia:

  • People: Hungarians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of Hungarian presence.[59]


Secessionist movements




 Balearic Islands

Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community)

 Canary Islands




Galicia (Spain) Galicia



Valencian Community Valencia

Additionally, there are a number of almost extinct secessionist or soveranist movements in other autonomous communities and historical territories, e.g. Extremadura and Murcia.



 Castilla–La Mancha


Local secessionist (mostly autonomist) movements include Aranesism, Bercianism, Cartagenism, Majorcanism, Manchego autonomism, Navarrism, Valencian Blaverism and Eastern Andalusian autonomism.

Aran Valley


Secessionist movements

Canton of Jura or wider Jura region (including the three districts of Bernese Jura and the Laufen District)[65]

Autonomist movements

Jura region


A map of the 2014 pro-Russian protests and unrest in Ukraine, by oblast. Severity of the unrest, at its peak, is indicated by the colouring. 'RSA' indicates 'Regional State Administration', the name for the governments of the oblasts (regions) of Ukraine.
Proposed autonomous regions

Subcarpathian Ruthenia

Breakaway state

Autonomous Republic of Crimea Autonomous Republic of Crimea

United Kingdom[edit]

Secessionist movements


Northern Ireland




Autonomist movements





  • People: Londoners
    • Proposed autonomous area: London

Canvey Island[79][80][81]

 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)



North East England or North East Combined Authority area (which excludes Tees Valley)

Northern Isles



Na h-Eileanan Siar


Independence movements of dependent territories

 Isle of Man

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]