List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations

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The following is a list of adjectival and demonymic forms of countries and nations in English and their demonymic equivalents. A country adjective describes something as being from that country, for example, "Italian cuisine" is "cuisine of Italy". A country demonym denotes the people or the inhabitants of or from there, for example, "Germans" are people of or from Germany. Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final s or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (i.e. Irishman, Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / -ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding e (-oise / -aise) makes them singular feminine; es (-oises / -aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish and Portuguese terminations -o usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the -o and adding -a. The plural forms are usually -os and -as respectively.

Adjectives ending in -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g. the adjective Czech does not qualify).

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cuisines, cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)

In cases where two or more adjectival forms are given, there is often a subtle difference in usage between the two. This is particularly the case with Central Asian countries, where one form tends to relate to the nation and the other tends to relate to the predominant ethnic group (e.g. Uzbek is primarily an ethnicity, Uzbekistani relates to citizens of Uzbekistan).

In addition, several countries have a large number of sub-names for their citizens in the form of nicknames for people of certain different areas; these are usually related to something typical of the area. In Puerto Rico for example, people who come from the town of Bayamón are referred to as "Cowboy(s)" or "Cowgirl(s)"; those from Caguas are referred to as "Criollo(s)" or "Criolla(s)". Except in cases such as Spain, in which sub-names have been used interchangeably by others, sub-names belonging to some areas in a country are not listed here.

List[edit]

Country/entity name Adjectivals Demonyms
Abkhazia Abkhazians
Afghanistan Afghan Afghans
Åland Åland Island Ålanders
Albania Albanian Albanians
Algeria Algerian Algerians
American Samoa American Samoan American Samoans
Andorra Andorran Andorrans
Angola Angolan Angolans
Anguilla Anguillan Anguillans
Antarctica[a] Antarctic Antarcticans
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia Armenian Armenians
Aruba Aruban Arubans
Australia Australian Australians
Austria Austrian Austrians
Azerbaijan
The Bahamas Bahamian Bahamians
Bahrain Bahraini Bahrainis
Bangladesh Bangladeshi Bangladeshis
Barbados Barbadian Barbadians
Belarus Belarusian Belarusians
Belgium Belgian Belgians
Belize Belizean Belizeans
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan Bhutanese Bhutanese
Bolivia Bolivian Bolivians
Bonaire Bonaire Dutch
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana Botswanian[3] Batswana (singular Motswana), Botswanians
Bouvet Island Bouvet Island Bouvet Islanders
Brazil Brazilian Brazilians
British Indian Ocean Territory BIOT British
Brunei Bruneian Bruneians
Bulgaria Bulgarian Bulgarians
Burkina Faso Burkinabé
Burma[b] Burmese
Burundi Burundian
Cabo Verde[c] Cabo Verdean Cabo Verdeans
Cambodia Cambodian Cambodians
Cameroon Cameroonian Cameroonians
Canada Canadian Canadians
Cayman Islands Caymanian Caymanians
Central African Republic Central African Central Africans
Chad Chadian Chadians
Chile Chilean Chileans
China Chinese Chinese
Christmas Island Christmas Island Christmas Islanders
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos Island Cocos Islanders
Colombia Colombian Colombians
Comoros
Democratic Republic of the Congo Congolese Congolese
Republic of the Congo Congolese Congolese
Cook Islands Cook Cook Islanders
Costa Rica Costa Rican Costa Ricans
Croatia Croatian
Cuba Cuban Cubans
Curaçao Curaçaoan Curaçaoans
Cyprus Cypriot Cypriots
Czech Republic Czech Czechs
Denmark Danish Danes
Djibouti Djiboutian Djiboutians
Dominica Dominican[d] Dominicans[d]
Dominican Republic Dominican[e] Dominicans[e]
East Timor[f] Timorese Timorese
Ecuador Ecuadorian Ecuadorians
Egypt Egyptian Egyptians
El Salvador Salvadoran
England English
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea Eritrean Eritreans
Estonia Estonian Estonians
Eswatini[g] Swazis
Ethiopia Ethiopian
European Union[h] European[i] Europeans[i]
Falkland Islands Falkland Island Falkland Islanders
Faroe Islands Faroese Faroese
Fiji Fijian Fijians
Finland Finnish Finns
France French
French Guiana French Guianese French Guianese
French Polynesia French Polynesian French Polynesians
French Southern Territories French Southern Territories French
Gabon Gabonese
The Gambia Gambian Gambians
Georgia Georgian Georgians
Germany German Germans
Ghana Ghanaian Ghanaians
Gibraltar Gibraltar Gibraltarians
Greece
Greenland Greenland Greenlanders
Grenada Grenadian Grenadians
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe
Guam Guamanian Guamanians
Guatemala Guatemalan Guatemalans
Guernsey Guernsey Guernseyman and Guernseywoman
Guinea Guinean Guineans
Guinea-Bissau Bissau-Guinean Bissau-Guineans
Guyana Guyanese Guyanese
Haiti Haitian Haitians
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Honduras Honduran Hondurans
Hong Kong
Hungary
Iceland Icelandic Icelanders
India Indian Indians
Indonesia Indonesian Indonesians
Iran
Iraq Iraqi Iraqis
Ireland[j] Irish
Isle of Man Manx Manx
Israel Israelis
Italy Italian Italians
Ivory Coast[k] Ivorian Ivorians
Jamaica Jamaican Jamaicans
Jan Mayen Jan Mayen Jan Mayen residents
Japan Japanese Japanese
Jersey Jersey
  • Jerseyman and Jerseywoman
  • Jersian
  • Jèrriais
Jordan Jordanian Jordanians
Kazakhstan
Kenya Kenyan Kenyans
Kiribati Kiribati I-Kiribati
North Korea North Korean
South Korea South Korean
Kosovo Kosovars
Kuwait Kuwaiti Kuwaitis
Kyrgyzstan
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon Lebanese Lebanese
Lesotho Basotho Basotho (singular Mosotho)
Liberia Liberian Liberians
Libya Libyan Libyans
Liechtenstein Liechtensteiner Liechtensteiners
Lithuania Lithuanian Lithuanians
Luxembourg Luxembourgers
Macau Macanese
Madagascar Malagasy, Madagascan Malagasy, Madagascans
Malawi Malawian Malawians
Malaysia Malaysian Malaysians
Maldives Maldivian Maldivians
Mali Malians
Malta Maltese Maltese
Marshall Islands Marshallese Marshallese
Martinique
Mauritania Mauritanian Mauritanians
Mauritius Mauritian Mauritians
Mayotte Mahoran Mahorans
Mexico Mexican Mexicans
Micronesia Micronesian Micronesians
Moldova Moldovan Moldovans
Monaco
Mongolia Mongolian
Montenegro Montenegrin Montenegrins
Montserrat Montserratian Montserratians
Morocco Moroccan Moroccans
Mozambique Mozambican Mozambicans
Myanmar[l] Myanmars
Namibia Namibian Namibians
Nauru Nauruan Nauruans
Nepal
Netherlands Dutch
New Caledonia New Caledonian New Caledonians
New Zealand New Zealand New Zealanders
Nicaragua Nicaraguan Nicaraguans
Niger Nigerien
Nigeria Nigerian Nigerians
Niue Niuean Niueans
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island Norfolk Islanders
North Macedonia Macedonian Macedonians
Northern Ireland Northern Irish
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Marianan Northern Marianans
Norway Norwegian Norwegians
Oman Omani Omanis
Pakistan Pakistani Pakistanis
Palau Palauan Palauans
Palestine Palestinian Palestinians
Panama Panamanian Panamanians
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay Paraguayan Paraguayans
Peru Peruvian Peruvians
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Islanders
Poland Polish Poles
Portugal Portuguese Portuguese
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Puerto Ricans
Qatar Qatari Qataris
Réunion
Romania Romanian Romanians
Russia[m] Russian Russians
Rwanda Rwandan
Saba Saba Dutch
Saint Barthélemy Barthélemois
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Helenian Saint Helenians
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia Saint Lucian Saint Lucians
Saint Martin Saint-Martinoise
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Sahrawi
Samoa Samoan Samoans
San Marino Sammarinese Sammarinese
São Tomé and Príncipe São Toméan São Toméans
Saudi Arabia
Scotland Scottish
Senegal Senegalese Senegalese
Serbia Serbian
Seychelles Seychellois Seychellois/Seychelloises
Sierra Leone Sierra Leonean Sierra Leoneans
Singapore Singaporeans[4][5]
Sint Eustatius Statians
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten Sint Maarteners
Slovakia Slovak
Slovenia
Solomon Islands Solomon Island Solomon Islanders
Somalia
Somaliland Somalilander Somalilanders
South Africa South African South Africans
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Ossetia South Ossetian South Ossetians
South Sudan South Sudanese South Sudanese
Spain Spanish Spaniards
Sri Lanka Sri Lankan Sri Lankans
Sudan Sudanese Sudanese
Suriname Surinamese Surinamers
Svalbard Svalbard Svalbard residents
Sweden Swedish Swedes
Switzerland Swiss Swiss
Syria Syrian Syrians
Taiwan
Tajikistan Tajikistani
Tanzania Tanzanian Tanzanians
Thailand Thai Thai
Timor-Leste[n] Timorese Timorese
Togo Togolese Togolese
Tokelau Tokelauan Tokelauans
Tonga Tongan Tongans
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia Tunisian Tunisians
Turkey Turkish Turks
Turkmenistan Turkmen Turkmens
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Island Turks and Caicos Islanders
Tuvalu Tuvaluan Tuvaluans
Uganda Ugandan Ugandans
Ukraine Ukrainian Ukrainians
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
United States of America Americans[o], New Englanders
Uruguay Uruguayan Uruguayans
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu
Vatican City Vaticanian Vaticanians
Venezuela Venezuelan Venezuelans
Vietnam Vietnamese Vietnamese
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Island British Virgin Islanders
United States Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Island U.S. Virgin Islanders
Wales Welsh
Wallis and Futuna
Western Sahara
Yemen Yemeni Yemenis
Zambia Zambian Zambians
Zanzibar Zanzibari Zanzibaris
Zimbabwe Zimbabwean Zimbabweans

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Antarctica is the southernmost continent and not a country. The Antarctic Treaty System governs Antarctica, the Southern Ocean, and all territory south of the 60th parallel south.
  2. ^ The official name of Burma is the Republic of the Union of Myanmar.
  3. ^ The Republic of Cabo Verde was formerly known as Cape Verde.
  4. ^ a b The third syllable of Dominican (from Dominica) is stressed.
  5. ^ a b The second syllable of Dominican (from the Dominican Republic) is stressed.
  6. ^ East Timor is now officially known as the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste.
  7. ^ Eswatini was formerly known as Swaziland.
  8. ^ The European Union is a politico-economic union of sovereign states.
  9. ^ a b The demonym European may be used to designate either a citizen of a member state of the European Union or a resident of the greater European subcontinent.
  10. ^ There is no adjective or demonym that distinguishes the Republic of Ireland from the entire island of Ireland. When distinction from Northern Ireland is necessary, the colloquial Southern Irish or Southerner is sometimes used; some people may find this offensive, and others may find it equally offensive in not distinguishing the Republic of Ireland from the island. As an alternative, an adjectival phrase may be used—for instance, "a law of the Republic of Ireland"—or, as a last resort, the name "Republic of Ireland" may be used as if it were an adjective (as in "a Republic of Ireland law").
  11. ^ The Ivory Coast is now officially known as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire.
  12. ^ The official name of Myanmar is the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, although the nation is still commonly known as Burma.
  13. ^ The official name of Russia is the Russian Federation.
  14. ^ The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste was formerly known as East Timor.
  15. ^ a b Citizens of the United States of America are known as Americans, although any resident of the Americas may share this demonym. Many other names for United States citizens have been proposed to avoid confusion.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Argentinian".
  2. ^ "Nationalities | EF | Global Site".
  3. ^ "BOTSWANAN | Meaning & Definition for UK English | Lexico.com". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2021-11-07.
  4. ^ a b "Dictionary – Singapore / Singaporean". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  5. ^ a b "Dictionary – Singapore". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  6. ^ a b "Africa :: Somalia — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
  7. ^ a b "Definition of SOMALIAN by Oxford Dictionary on Lexico.com also meaning of SOMALI".

External links[edit]