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List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names

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The following is a partial list of adjectival forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these places.

Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by replacing the "-o" with "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively.

Adjectives ending -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g., the adjective Czech does not qualify).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name. (Reference: Ethnologue, Languages of the World)

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)



Entries in italics are continental regions.

Name Adjective Demonym
Afro-Eurasia Afro-Eurasian Afro-Eurasians
Africa African Africans
Eurasia Eurasian Eurasians
Asia Asian Asians
Middle East Middle Eastern Middle Easterners
Europe European Europeans
Americas American Americans
North America North American North Americans
Caribbean Caribbean Caribbeans
West Indies West Indian West Indians
Central America Central American Central Americans
Northern America Northern American Northern Americans
South America South American South Americans
Antarctica Antarctic Antarcticans
Oceania Oceanian Oceanians
Australasia Australasian Australasians
Australiaa Australiana Australiansa
Zealandia Zealandian Zealandians
Pacific Islands Pacific Islands Pacific Islanders

aUsually used to identify specifically the Commonwealth of Australia or its people.

Subcontinental regions[edit]

Countries and nations[edit]

States, provinces, regions and territories[edit]

Australian states and territories[edit]

State/territory Adjective Demonym
Australian Capital Territory Canberran Canberrans "Inlanders", "Round Abouters", "Canberries", "Pollies",[1] "Ken Behrens"[2]
New South Wales New South Welsh New South Welshmen "Waratahs", "Cockroaches", "Blues"
Northern Territory Northern Territory Northern Territorians, Territorians "Top Enders", "Ex-pats"
Queensland Queensland Queenslanders "Banana Benders", "Cane Toads", "Maroons"
South Australia South Australian South Australians "Crow Eaters"
Tasmania Tasmanian Tasmanians "Apple Eaters", "Taswegians", "Tazzies"
Victoria Victorian Victorians "Vics", "Mexicans"
Western Australia Western Australian Western Australians "Sandgropers", "Westralians"

Brazilian states[edit]

State Adjective/Demonym
Acre (AC) Acrean
Alagoas (AL) Alagoan
Amapá (AP) Amapaense
Amazonas (AM) Amazonense
Bahia (BA) Bahian
Ceará (CE) Cearense
Espírito Santo (ES) Capixaba or Espiritossantense
Federal District (DF) Brasiliense
Goiás (GO) Goian
Maranhão (MA) Maranhense
Mato Grosso (MG) Matogrossense
Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) Sul-matogrossense
Minas Gerais (MG) Mineiran
Pará (PA) Paraense
Paraíba (PB) Paraiban
Paraná (PR) Paranaense
Pernambuco (PE) Pernambucan
Piauí (PI) Piauiense
Rio de Janeiro (RJ) Fluminense
Rio Grande do Norte (RN) Potiguar or Norte-riograndense
Rio Grande do Sul (RS) Gaúcho or Sul-riograndense
Rondônia (RO) Rondonian or Rondoniense
Roraima (RR) Roraimense
Santa Catarina (SC) Catarinense
São Paulo (SP) Paulista
Sergipe (SE) Sergipan
Tocantins (TO) Tocantinense

Canadian provinces and territories[edit]

Province or Territory Adjective Demonym
Alberta (Province) Albertan


British Columbia (Province) British Columbian, BC[3] British Columbians B.C.ers
Manitoba (Province) Manitoban Manitobans
French: Manitobains m., Manitobaines f.
New Brunswick (Province) New Brunswick New Brunswickers
French: Néo-Brunswickois m., Néo-Brunswickoises f.
Herring Chokers
Newfoundland and Labrador (Province) Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundlanders, Labradorians Newfies/Newfs[3]
Northwest Territories (Territory) Northwest Territorian, NWT (also N.W.T.)[3] Northwest Territorians
Nova Scotia (Province) Nova Scotian Nova Scotians
French: Néo-Écossais m., Néo-Écossaises f.
Bluenoses, Bluenosers[3]
Nunavut (Territory) Nunavut Nunavummiut (Nunavummiuq sing.)
Ontario (Province) Ontario Ontarians
French: Ontariens m., Ontariennes f.
Prince Edward Island (Province) Prince Edward Island, PEI,[3] Island Prince Edward Islanders, Islanders
French: Prince-Édouardiens
Quebec (Province) Quebec
French: québécois m., québécoise f.
Quebecers, Quebeckers, Québécois, Québécoise[3]
French: Québécois m., Québécoises f.
French: habitants, canadiens, canadien-francais
Saskatchewan (Province) Saskatchewan Saskatchewanians Flat-landers
Yukon (Territory) Yukon Yukoners Sourdoughs

Federated states and other territories of Germany[edit]

State/territory Adjective Demonym
Baden-Württemberg (federated state)


Swabians (Schwaben)
Bavaria (federated state) Bavarian Bavarians
Berlin (federated state) Berliners
Brandenburg (federated state) Brandenburgish Brandenburgers
Franconia Franconian Franconians
Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg Hamburgish Hamburgians Hamburgers
Hannover (ancient German state) Hanoverian Hanoverians Hannoveraners
Hesse (federated state) Hessian Hessians
Lower Saxony (federated state) Lower Saxon Lower Saxons
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (federated state)
  • Mecklenburg
  • Western Pomerania


North Rhine-Westphalia (federated state)
  • North Rhine
  • Westphalia
North Rhine - Westphalian
North Rhine - Westphalians
Pomerania (ancient German territory) Pomeranian Pomeranians
Prussia (ancient German state) Prussian Prussians
Rhineland (area) Rhenish Rhinelanders
Rhineland-Palatinate (federated state)
  • Rhineland
  • Palatinate



Saarland (federated state) Saarlanders
Saxony (federated state) Saxon Saxons
Saxony-Anhalt (federated state)
  • Saxony
  • Anhalt


Silesia (ancient German territory) Silesian Silesians
Schleswig-Holstein (federated state)
  • Schleswig
  • Holstein


Swabia (South German area and ancient territory) Swabian Swabians
Thuringia (federated state) Thuringian Thuringians

Indian states and territories[edit]

State or territory Adjective Demonym
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andamanese[4]
Andhra Pradesh Andhrulu Andhraites, Andhrites, Andhra Pradeshis, Andhrulu Teluguvaaru
Arunachal Pradesh Arunachali Arunachalis
Assam Assamese[4] Assamese
Bihar Bihari[4] Biharis
Chandigarh Chandigarhi Chandigarhis
Chhattisgarh Chhattisgarhi Chhattisgarhis
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Dadran
Nagar Havelian
Nagar Havelian
Delhi Delhiite, Delhian Delhiites, Delhians
Goa Goan,[4] Goans, Goenkars
Gujarat Gujarati[4] Gujaratis
Haryana Haryanvi Haryanvis
Himachal Pradesh Himachali Himachalis
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu
Jharkhand Jharkhandi Jharkhandis
Karnataka Karnatakan, Canarese[4] Karnatakans, Canarese, Kannadiga Kannadiga
Kerala Keralite Keralites, Malayalis Malayali
Ladakh Ladakhi Ladakhi
Lakshadweep (Laccadives) Laccadivian Laccadivians
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradeshi Madhya Pradeshis
Maharashtra Maharashtrian[4] Maharashtrians Marathi
Manipur Manipuri[4] Manipuris Meiteis
Meghalaya Meghalayan Meghalayans
Mizoram Mizo[4] Mizos
Nagaland Naga,[4] Nagalandese Nagas, Nagalanders
Odisha Odia[4] (Odia) [of the people]
Odishan (Orissan) [of the state]
Odissi (Orissi)[4]
Odias (Odias)
Odishans (Orissans)
Puducherry (formerly Pondicherry) Pondicherrian Pondicherrians
Punjab Punjabi[4] Punjabis
Rajasthan Rajasthani[4] Rajasthanis
Sikkim Sikkimese[4] Sikkimese
Tamil Nadu Tamil,[4] Tamilian Tamils, Tamilians Tamizhan
Telangana Telanganite Telanganites Teluguvaaru
Tripura Tripuri, Tripuran Tripuris, Tripurans
Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradeshi Uttar Pradeshis
Uttarakhand Uttarakhandi Uttarakhandis
West Bengal (West) Bengali,[4] (West) Bengalese (archaic)[4] (West) Bengalis

Bangladeshi divisions[edit]

Division Adjective Demonym
Barisal Division Barisali Barisali (Borishali) Barisailla (Borishailla)
Chittagong Division Chittagonian Chãtgaiya (Satgaiya) Chittagainga (Sitainga)
Dhaka Division Dhakai Dhakaiya Dhakaiya
Khulna Division Khulnaiya Khulnaiya Khulnaiya
Mymensingh Division Mymensinghiya Mymensinghi Mymensinghiya
Rajshahi Division Rajshahiya Rajshahiya (Rajshahiyo) Rajshahiya
Rangpur Division Rangpuri Rangpuri (Rongpuri) Rangpuri
Sylhet Division Sylheti Sylheti (Sileti) Siloti

Malaysian states and territories[edit]

State / Territory Adjective Demonym
Johor Johorean Johoreans Southerners
Kedah Kedahan Kedahans Northerners
Kelantan Kelantanese Kelantanese East Coasters
Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpurian Kuala Lumpurians Federal Territorians, KL-ites
Labuan Labuanese Labuanese Federal Territorians
Malacca Malaccan Malaccans
Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilanese Negeri Sembilanese Negrians
Pahang Pahangite Pahangites East Coasters
Penang Penangite Penangites
Perak Perakian Perakians
Perlis Perlisian Perlisians
Putrajaya Putrajayan Putrajayans Federal Territorians
Sabah Sabahan Sabahans Borneans
Sarawak Sarawakian Sarawakians Borneans
Selangor Selangorean Selangoreans
Terengganu Terengganuan Terengganuans East Coasters
West Malaysia West Malaysian West Malaysians Malayans
East Malaysia East Malaysian East Malaysians Borneans

States of Mexico[edit]

Federal entity Adjective Demonym
Aguascalientes Hydrocalid Hidrocálido/-a, aguascalentense
Baja California Lower Californian Bajacaliforniano/-a
Baja California Sur South Lower Californian Sudcaliforniano/-a
Campeche Campechan Campechano/-a
Chiapas Chiapan Chiapaneco/-a
Chihuahua Chihuahuan Chihuahuense "Norteño/a"
Coahuila de Zaragoza Coahuilan Coahuilense
Colima Colimean Colimense
Durango Durangolese Duranguense
Guanajuato Guanajuatean Guanajuatense
Guerrero Guerreran Guerrerense
Hidalgo Hidalgolese Hidalguense
Jalisco Jaliscan Jalisciense "Jalisquillo" "Tapatio/ Tapatia"
State of Mexico Mexican Mexiquense
Ciudad de México (México D.F.) (México Distrito Federal) (Mexico City) Mexiqueño/-a, defeño/-a "Chilango"
Michoacán Michoacanese Michoacano/-a
Morelos Morelese Morelense
Nayarit Nayarita Nayarita
Nuevo León New Leonese Neoleonés, neoleonense "Regio/a"
Oaxaca Oaxacan Oaxaqueño/-a "Oaxaco"
Puebla Pueblan/Poblano Poblano/-a
Querétaro Queretan Queretano/-a
Quintana Roo Quintanaroan Quintanarroense
San Luis Potosí Potosinian Potosino/-a
Sinaloa Sinaloan Sinaloense
Sonora Sonoran Sonorense
Tabasco Tabascan Tabasqueño/-a
Tamaulipas Tamaulipan Tamaulipeco/-a
Tlaxcala Tlaxcaltheque Tlaxcalteco/ -a
Veracruz Veracruzan Veracruzano/-a "Jarocho/a"
Yucatán Yucatec/Yucatecan Yucateco/-a "Costeño/a"
Zacatecas Zacatecan Zacatecano/-a
  1. Capitalino is often used to refer to people from Mexico City; however, capitalino can be used to refer to people from any state capital. "Defeño" and "Chilango" are listed by the Royal Spanish Academy

Regions of New Zealand[edit]

Region/Island Adjective Demonym
Auckland Region Auckland Aucklanders "Jafas"
Bay of Plenty Region Bay of Plenty Bay of Plentiers[5] "BOPians"[citation needed]
Canterbury Region Canterbury Cantabrians "Cantabs"
Gisborne Region Gisborne, East Coast Gisbornians,[5] East Coasters
Hawke's Bay Region Hawke's Bay Hawke's Bayers
Manawatū-Whanganui Region Manawatū-Whanganui, Manawatu, Wanganui Manawatū-Whanganuians, Manawatuans, Whanganuians
Marlborough Region Marlborough Marlburians
Nelson Region Nelsonian Nelsonians
Northland Region Northland Northlanders
Otago Region Otago Otagoites,[5] Otagoans
Southland Region Southland Southlanders
Taranaki Region Taranaki Taranakians "'Nakians"
Tasman Region Tasman Tasmanites
Waikato Region Waikato Waikatoans "Mooloos"[6]
Wellington Region Wellington, Wellingtonian Wellingtonians
West Coast Region West Coast West Coasters "Coasters"
North Island North Island North Islanders
South Island South Island / Mainland South Islanders "Mainlanders"
Stewart Island Stewart Island, Rakiuran Stewart Islanders, Rakiurans
Chatham Islands Chatham Chatham Islanders

Philippine provinces[edit]

U.S. states[edit]

Regions in Greco-Roman antiquity[edit]

Regions tracing their origins (or otherwise referenced) in Greco-Roman antiquity [in cases where ancient regions are extant, this table is limited to cases where the present-day regional names retain their original/ancient form].

(References: Herodotus' "Histories"; Thucydides' "Peloponnesian War"; Pausanias' "Description of Greece"; Lemprière's Bibliotheca Classica; Leverett's 1838 edition of the "Lexicon of the Latin Language"; Freeman's "The History of Sicily..."; et al.)

Name Adjective Demonym
Acarnania Acarnanian Acarnanians
Achaea Achaean Achaeans
Aegina Aeginetan Aeginetans
Aethaea Aethaean Aethaeans
Aetolia Aetolian Aetolians
Andalusia Andalusian Andalusians
Apulia Apulian Apulians
Aquitania Aquitanian Aquitanians
Arcadia Arcadian Arcadians
Argos Argive Argives
Arretium Arretine Arretines
Athens Athenian Athenians
Bactria, Bactriana Bactrian Bactrians
Bavaria Bavarian Bavarians
Boeotia Boeotian, Beotian Boeotians, Beotians
Boiohaemum Boius Boii
Bosporus, Bosphorus Bosporan, Bosphoran Bosporans, Bosphorans
Bruttium (Bruttus ?), Bruttian Brutti, Bruttians
Byzantium Byzantine Byzantines
Calabria Calabrian Calabrians
Campania Campanian Campanians
Cantabria Cantabrian Cantabrians
Caria Carian Carians
Carthage Carthaginian Carthaginians
Carystus Carystian Carystians
Catalonia Catalan, Catalonian Catalans, Catalonians
Cephalonia Cephalonian Cephalonians
Chalcis Chalcidian Chalcidians
Chios Chiot Chiots
Colchis Colchian Colchians
Colossae Colossian Colossians
Consentia Consentian Consentians
Corcyra Corcyrean Corcyreans
Corsica Corsican Corsicans
Crete Cretan Cretans
Croton Crotonian Crotonians
Cyclades Cycladian Cycladians
Cyprus Cypriot, Cypriote Cypriots, Cypriotes
Cyrenaica Cyrenaic Cyrenaics
Cyrene Cyrenian Cyrenians
Dacia Dacian Dacians
Dalmatia Dalmatian Dalmatians
Delos Delian Delians
Dodecanese Dodecanesian Dodecanesians
Edonia Edonian Edonians
Egesta Egestan Egestans
Eleusina or Eleusis Eleusian, Eleusinian Eleusians, Eleusinians
Elis or Eleia Elian Elians
Ephesus Ephesian Ephesians
Epidamnus or Epidamnos Epidamnian Epidamnians
Epidaurus Epidaurian Epidaurians
Epirus Epirote Epirotes
Eretria Eretrian Eretrians
Etruria Etrurian, Etruscan Etruscans
Euboea Euboean Euboeans
Galatia Galatian Galatians
Gallaecia Gallaecus Gallaeci
Gallia or Gaul Gaulish Gauls
Germania Germanic, Germanus Germanic, Germani
Iberia Iberian Iberians
Illyria Illyrian Illyrians
Ionia Ionian Ionians
Kalymnos Kalymnian Kalymnians
Kaulonia Kaulonian Kaulonians
Knossos Knossian Knossians
Lakedaimon/ia or Lakedaemon/ia Lakedaimonian or Lakedaemonian Lakedaimonians or Lakedaemonians
Larissa Larissan Larissans
Latium Latin Latins
Leontini, Leontium Leontinian Leontinians
Lesbos Lesbian Lesbians
Locris Locrian Locrians
Lucania Lucanian Lucanians
Lydia Lydian Lydians
Macedonia Macedonian Macedonians
Maeonia Maeonian Maeonians
Mantineia Mantinean Mantineans
Marathon Marathonian Marathonians
Media Median Medes, Medians
Megara Megarian Megarians
Melite Melitian Melitians
Melos Melian Melians
Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Mesopotamians
Messenia Messenian Messenians
Miletus Milesian Milesians
Mithymna or Methymna Methymnian Methymnians
Moravia Moravian Moravians
Mycenae Mycenaean Mycenaeans
Mytilene Mytilenean Mytileneans
Naupactus or Nafpaktos Naupactian Naupactians
Naxos Naxian Naxians
Nisyros Nisyrian Nisyrians
Oea Oean Oeans
Olympia Olympian Olympians
Oiniades, Oiniadai Oiniadan Oiniadans
Orkney Islands Orcadian Orcadians
Paeonia or Paionia Paeonian Paeonians
Pamphylia Pamphylian Pamphylians
Paros Parian Parians
Patmos Patmian Patmians
Peloponnese Peloponnesian Peloponnesians
Pergamum Pergamian Pergamians
Persia Persian Persians
Philippi Philippian Philippians
Phlius Phliasian Phliasians
Phocis Phocian Phocians
Phoenicia Phoenician Phoenicians
Phrygia Phrygian Phrygians
Pisidia Pisidian Pisidians
Pontus Pontian Pontians
Pylos Pylosian Pylosians
Rhegion Rhegian, Rhegine Rhegians, Rhegines
Rhodes Rhodian Rhodians
Rhithymna, Rhithymnia, Rithymna Rhithymnian Rhithymnians
Rome Roman Romans
Sabinum Sabine Sabines
Salamis Salaminian Salaminians
Samnium Samnite Samnites
Samos Samian Samians
Sardinia Sardinian, Sardi Sardinians, Sardi
Sardis Sardianus, Sardian Sardiani, Sardians
Sarmatia Sarmatian, Sarmata, or Sauromata Sarmatians, Sarmatae, or Sauromatae
Scythia Scytha, Scythian Scythae, Scythians
Serrae, Serrhae Serrean Serreans
Serica Sere Seres
Sicily Sicilian Sicilians
Sicyon Sicyonian Sicyonian
Sidon, or Saïda Sidonian Sidonians
Silesia Silesian Silesians
Skopelos Skopelitan Skopelitans
Sparta Spartan Spartans
Suebia Suebius Suebi
Symi Symian Symians
Syracuse Syracusan Syracusans
Taras, Tarentum Tarentine, Tarentumian Tarentines, Tarentumians
Tegea Tegean Tegeans
Tenedos Tenedian Tenedians
Tenedos Tenedian Tenedians
Thasos Thasian Thasians
Thebes Theban Thebans
Thespis Thespian Thespians
Thessaly Thessalian Thessalians
Thrace Thracian Thracians
Thria Thriasian Thriasians
Thuria Thuriat Thuriats
Thurii Thurian Thurians
Thynia Thynian Thynians
Trichonos Trichonian Trichonians
Troezen Troezenian Troezenians
Troy Trojan Trojans
Umbria Umbrian Umbrians
Xanthi Xanthian Xanthians
Zakynthos Zakynthian Zakynthians

Other former nations and regions[edit]

Ancient civilizations, former colonies, renamed countries and regions, annexations, secessions, etc. (other than Greco-Roman, which see above).

Fictional regions[edit]

Name Adjective Demonym
Atlantis Atlantean, Atlantine Atlanteans, Atlantans
Aloria Alorn Alorns
Andor Andorian Andorians
Attilan Inhumans
Blefuscu Blefuscudian Blefuscudians
Black Marsh Argonian Argonians, Saxhleel
Borduria Bordurian Bordurians
Brobdingnag Brobdingnagian Brobdingnagians
Laputa Laputian Laputans
Lilliput Lilliputian Lilliputians
Cardassia Prime Cardassian Cardassians
Cyrodiil Cyrodilic Cyrodil, Cyrods, Imperials
Bajor Bajoran Bajorans, Bajora
Dorne Dornish Dornish
Elsweyr Khajiiti Khajiit
Ferenginar Ferengi Ferengi
Gallifrey Gallifreyan Gallifreyans
Genosha Genoshan Genoshans
Hammerfell Redguard Redguards
High Rock Breton Bretons
Islandia Islandian Islandians
Krypton Kryptonian Kryptonians
Latveria Latverian Latverians
Luggnagg Luggnaggians
Morrowind Velothi, Dunmeri The Dunmer, Dark Elves
Narnia Narnian Narnians
Numenor Numenorean Numenoreans, Dunedan (sg), Dunedain (pl)
Daedric Planes of Oblivion Daedric Daedroth (sing), Daedra (pl)
Orsinium Orcish The Orsimer, Orcs
Oz Ozian Ozite[7]
Poictesme Poictoumois
Qo'noS Klingon Klingons
Remus Reman Remans
Rohan Rohirric Rohirrim
Romulus Romulan Romulans
Skaro Skaroene, Skarosian Skarosians
Sodor Sudrian Sudrians[8]
Skyrim Nordic, Norse Nords
Summerset Isles Altmeri The Altmer, High Elves
Sontar Sontaran Sontarans
Syldavia Syldavian Syldavians
Utopia Utopian Utopians
Wakanda Wakandan Wakandans
Westeros Westerosi Westerosi
Valenwood Bosmeri The Bosmer, Wood Elves
Vulcan Vulcan, Vulcanian Vulcans



United Kingdom[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pollie is a colloquial word for politician
  2. ^ "Mitch made an innocuous typo at work. From it, a legend was born". ABC News. 20 August 2021. Archived from the original on 2021-08-26. Retrieved 2021-08-26.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Katherine Barber, ed. (2004). Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-541816-6. OL 18257035M. Wikidata Q104096047.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  5. ^ a b c Kenny, Lee (17 September 2018). "'Awkward' Christchurch without its own nickname". Stuff. Archived from the original on 18 September 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2023. Many New Zealand demonyms have been created by adding ‑er, such as Bay of Plentiers, or by adding ‑ians, such as Gisbornians. In fewer cases ‑ites is used, such as Otagoites.
  6. ^ "Mooloo". Collins Online Dictionary. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  7. ^ Baum, L. Frank (1908). Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz. United States: Reilly & Britton. p. 272.
  8. ^ Awdry, W V; Awdry, G E V (1986). The Island of Sodor: Its People, History and Railways. United Kingdom: Kaye and Ward. p. 16. ISBN 0434927627.

External links[edit]