List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities

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The following is a list of adjectival forms of cities in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these cities.

Demonyms ending in -ese are the same in the singular and plural forms.

The ending -man has feminine equivalent -woman (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the "-o" and adding "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as", respectively.

Adjectives ending -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' /tʃ/ sound (e.g. the adjective Czech does not qualify as its -ch is pronounced /k/).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name.

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms also refer to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. Additionally, sometimes the use of one or more additional words is optional. Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds.

Note: Many of these adjectivals and demonyms are not used in English as frequently as their counterparts in other languages. A common practice is to use a city's name as if it were an adjective, as in "Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra", "Melbourne suburbs", etc.


City Adjective Demonym (colloquial)
Aalborg Aalborgenser Aalborgenser
Aarhus Aarhusian Aarhusian
Aberdeen Aberdonian Aberdonian
Abidjan Abidjanais Abidjanais
Adana Adanite Adanite
Adelaide Adelaidean Adelaidean
Ahmedabad Amdavadi Amdavadi
Aguascalientes Hidrocálido Hidrocálido
Agde Agathois Agathois
Aix-en-Provence Aixois Aixois
Albany Albanian Albanian
Albuquerque Albuquerquean Albuquerquean, Burqueño
Aleppo Aleppine Aleppine
Alexandria Alexandrian Alexandrine
Almería Almerian, Almeriense, Urcitano Almerian, Almeriense, Urcitano
Alpine[which?] Alpinian Alpinian
Amalfi Amalfitan Amalfitan
Amman Ammani Ammani
Ammon Ammonite Ammonite
Amparo Amparense Amparense
Amsterdam Amsterdammer Amsterdammer
Anchorage Anchorageite Anchorageite
Andong Andong, Andongite Andongite
Ankara Ankarite Ankarite
Angeles Angelino Angelino
Angers Anjou Angevin
Annapolis, Maryland Annapolitan Annapolitan
Antakya Antakyan, Antiochian Antakyan, Antiochian
Antalya Antalyan Antalyan
Aosta Aostan, Aostain Aostan, Aostain
Aqaba Aqabawi Aqabawi
Arequipa Arequipeño (m), Arequipeña (f) Arequipeño (m), Arequipeña (f)
Armagh Armachian Armachian
Armidale Armidilian Armidilian
Ashdod Ashdodi Ashdodi
Asheville Ashevillain Ashevillain
Ashkelon Ashkelonian Ashkelonian
Asmara Asmaran Asmaran
Asunción Asunceno Asunceno
Athens Athenian, Attic[a] Athenian
Atlanta Atlantan Atlantan
Auckland Auckland Aucklander, Jafa
Austin Austonian Austinite
Aydın Aydinian Aydinian
Bacolod Bacolodnon Bacolodnon
Baku Bakuvian Bakuvian
Balıkesir Balikesirian Balikesirian
Baltimore Baltimorean Baltimorean
Bandung Bandungite Bandungite
Bangalore Bangalorean Bangalorean
Bangkok Bangkokian Bangkokian
Barcelona Barcelonian Barcelonian
Barisal Barisali Barisali, Borishali, Barisailla, Borishailla
Basel Basler Basler, Bebbi
Bath Bathonian Bathonian
Baton Rouge Baton Rougean Baton Rougean
Bedford Bedfordian (not Bedfordite) Bedfordian
Beersheba Beersheban Beersheban
Beijing (Peking) Beijingese, Pekinese Beijinger, Pekinese
Beirut Beiruti Beiruti
Belfast Belfast, Belfastian Belfastie, Belfaster, Belfastian, Belfastite
Belford Roxo Belforroxense
Belo Horizonte Belo-Horizontino Belo-Horizontino
Belgrade Belgradian Belgradian, Belgrader
Bellinzona Bellinzonese
Benevento Beneventan Beneventan
Bengeo Bengean Bengean
Bergamo Bergamasque Bergamasque
Berlin Berliner, Berlinese Berliner
Bern Bernese Bernese
Béziers Bitterois Bitterois
Bhopal Bhopali Bhopali
Birmingham Brummie Brummie
Birmingham, Alabama Birminghamian Birminghamian, Birminghamster, Ham'r
Blackburn Blackburnian Blackburnian
Blois Blesois
Bnei Brak Bnei Brakian Bnei Brakian
Bodrum Bodrumian Bodrumite
Boise Boisean Boisean
Bologna Bolognese Bolognese
Bogotá Bogotano (m), Bogotana (f) Bogotano (m), Bogotana (f), Rolo (m), Rola (f)
Bolgatanga Guruŋa Guruŋa
Bolton Boltonian Boltonian
Bordeaux Bordelais Bordelais
Bossangoa Bossangoan Bossangoan
Boston Bostonian Bostonian
Bradford Bradfordian Bradfordian
Brasilia Brasiliense Brasiliense
Bratislava Bratislavan Bratislavan
Bremen Bremer Bremer
Brescia Brescian Brescian
Brighton Brightonian Brightonian
Brisbane Brisbanian Brisbanite, Brisbanian, Brisvegan (slang), Briswegian (slang)
Bristol Bristolian Bristolian
Brussels Bruxellois,[b] Brusselaar,[c] Brusseleir[d]
Bucaramanga Bumangués (m), Bumanguésa (f), Santandereano (m), Santandereana (f) Bumangués (m), Bumanguésa (f), Santandereano (m), Santandereana (f)
Bucharest Bucharestian Bucharester
Budapest Budapestian Budapester, Budapestian
Buenos Aires (City) Porteño Porteño
Buffalo Buffalonian Buffalonian
Burlington Burlingtonian Burlingtonian
Bursa Bursanese Bursanese
Busan Busan, Busanian Busanian
Cádiz Gaditano, Gaditano
Calais Calais Calaisiens
Cagayan de Oro Cagayanon Cagayanon
Cairns Cairnsite Cairnsite
Cairo Cairene Cairene
Calgary Calgarian Calgarian
Cali Caleño Caleño
Cambridge Cantabrigian Cantabrigian
Cambridge, Massachusetts Cantabrigian Cantabrigian
Campinas Campineiro Campineiro
Campo Grande Campo-grandense campo-grandense
Canberra Canberran Canberran
Cape Town Capetonian Capetonian
Caracas Caraquenian Caraqueño (m), Caraqueña (f)
Cardiff Cardiffian Cardiffian
Carlisle Carlislian Carlislian
Carson City Carsonite Carsonite
Cartagena Cartagenero (m), Cartagenera (f) Cartagenero (m), Cartagenera (f)
Carystus Carystian Christian
Casper Casperite Casperite
Castlecrag Castlecragian Cragman
Cebu Cebuano Cebuano
Changwon Changwon, Changwonian Changwonian
Charleston (South Carolina) Charlestonian Charlestonian
Charleston (West Virginia) Charlestonian Charlestonian
Charlotte Charlottean Charlottean
Chelmsford Chelmsfordian Chelmsfordian
Cheltenham Cheltonian Cheltonian
Chennai Chennaite Chennaite
Chester Cestrian Cestrian
Chesterfield Cestrefeldian Cestrefeldian
Cheyenne Cheyenneite Cheyenneite
Chiasso Chiassese
Chicago Chicagoan Chicagoan
Chichester Cicestrian Cicestrian
Chittagong Chittagonian Chittagonian, Chottogrami, Chatigaiya, Sitainga, Chittagainga
Christchurch Cantabrian Cantabrian
Cincinnati Cincinnatian Cincinnatian
Cleveland Clevelander Clevelander
Coimbatore Coimbatoreian Coimbatoreian
Colchester Colchester Colcestrian
Columbus Columbusite Columbusite
Copenhagen Copenhagener Copenhagener
Córdoba Cordobés, Cordobense Cordobés
Corinth Corinthian Corinthian
Cork Cork Corkonian, Leesider
Coventry Coventrian Coventrian
Culiacán Culichi Cliché
Cusco Cusco Cusqueño (m), Cusqueña (f), Cuzqueño (m), Cuzqueña (f)
Kraków (Cracow) Krakovian, Cracovian Krakovian, Cracovian
Curitiba Curitibano Curitibano
Daegu Daegu, Daeguite Daeguite
Dalaman Dalamanian Dalamanian
Dallas Dallasite Dallasite
Da Lat Dalatese Dalatese
Damascus Damascene Damascene
Darwin Darwinian[e] Darwinian[e]
Davao Davaoeño Davaoeño
Delhi Delhiite Delhiite
Denizli Denizlian Denizlian
Denver Denver, Mile High Denverite
Derry Derry Derrian
Detroit Detroiter Detroiter
Devonport Devonportian Devonportian
Dhaka Dhakai Dhakai, Dhakaiya, Dhakaite
Diyarbakır Diyarbakirian Diyarbakirian
Dresden Dresdener Dresdener
Dublin Dublin Dubliner, Dub
Dubai Dubaite Dubaite
Duluth Duluthian Duluthian
Dundee Dundonian Dundonian
Dunedin Dunedin Dunedinite
Durango Durangoan Duranguense, Durangoan
Durban Durban Durbanite
East Troy East Trojan East Trojan
Edinburgh Edinburgensian[f][1] Embran, Edinburger[g][2]
Edmonton Edmontonian Edmontonian
Eilat Eilatian Eilatian
El Paso El Pasoan El Pasoan
Épalinges Palinsard Palinsard
Epidaurus Epidaurian Epidaurian
Erzurum Erzurumian Erzurumian
Eskişehir Eskishehirian Eskishehirian
Eugene Eugenean, Eugenian Eugenean, Eugenian
Everett Everettite Everettite
Exeter Exonian Exonian
Famagusta Salaminioti Salaminioti
Fargo Fargoan Fargoan
Ferrara Ferrarese Ferrarese
Fethiye Fethiyennese Fethiyennese
Filettino Filettinesi Filettinesi
Finchley Finchleian Finchleian
Florence Florentine Florentine
Fort Lauderdale Fort Lauderdaler, Fort Lauderdalian
Fort Wayne Fort Wayner
Fort Worth Fort Worthian, Fort Worther
Foz do Iguaçu Iguaçuense Iguaçuense
Frankfurt Frankfurter Frankfurter
Fredericton Frederictonian Frederictonian
Fresno Fresnan Fresnan, Fresnoan, Fresnian
Galway Galway Galwegian
Gaza Gazan Gazan
Gaziantep Antepian Antepian
Gibraltar Gibraltarian
Geelong Geelong Geelongite, Pivotonian
Geneva Genevan, Genevese, Genfer Genevan, Genevese, Genfer
Genoa Genoese Genoese
Germiston Germistonian Germistonian
Ghent Ghentian Ghentian
Glasgow Glaswegian Glaswegian, Weegie[3]
Godalming Godhelmian Godhelmian, Godalminger
Gold Coast Gold Coast Gold Coaster
Gosford Gosford Gosfordian
Gothenburg Gothenburger Gothenburger
Granada Granadino, Granadí, Iliberitano Granadino, Iliberitano
Grand Rapids Grand Rapidian Grand Rapidian
Graz Grazer Grazer
Grenoble Grenoblois Grenoblois
Guadalajara Tapatío Tapatío
Guangzhou (Canton) Cantonese Cantonese
Guayaquil Guayaquilean Guayaquilean
Guelph Guelphite Guelphite[4]
Gumi Gumi, Gumite Gumite
Gwangju Gwangju, Gwangjuite Gwangjuite
Gyeongju Gyeongju, Gyeongjuite Gyeongjuite
The Hague Haguer Haguer
Haifa Haifan Haifan
Halifax Haligonian Haligonian
Hamburg Hamburgian Hamburger
Hamilton (Canada) Hamiltonian Hamiltonian
Hamilton (New Zealand) Hamiltonian Hamiltonian
Hanoi Hanoian Hanoian
Hanover Hanoverian Hanoverian
Harbin Harbinite Harbinite
Harrisburg Harrisburger Harrisburger
Hartlepool Hartlepudlian Hartlepudlian, Monkey hanger
Hastings Hastingite Hastingite
Hastings Hastinger Hastinger
Hatay Hatayan (see also, Antakya) Hatayan (see also, Antakya)
Havana Havanan; Habanero (m), Habanera (f) Havanan; Habanero (m), Habanera (f)
Helsinki Helsinkian Helsinkian
Ho Chi Minh City Saigonese Saigoner
Hobart Hobartian Hobartian
Holon Holonian Holonian
Hong Kong Hong Kong, Hongkongish, Hongkongese Hongkonger, Hongkongish, Honger, Hongkongese, Honkey
Honolulu Honolulan Honolulan
Houston Houstonian Houstonian
Huelva Onubense, Huelveño Onubense, Huelveño
Hyderabad Hyderabadi Hyderabadi
Iloilo Ilonggo Ilonggo
Incheon Incheon, Incheoner Incheoner
Indianapolis Hoosier Hoosier, Indianapolitan
Invercargill Invercargill Invercargillite, Invercargillonian
Inverness Invernessian Invernessian
Ipoh Ipohian Ipohian
Iqaluit Iqalummiuq, Iqalummiut
Iriga Irigueño Irigueño
Islamabad Islamabadi Islamabadian
Itabira Itabirano (m), Itabirana (f) Itabirano (m), Itabirana (f)
Itapira Itapirense Itapirense
Istanbul Istanbulite Istanbulite
Ithaca, New York Ithacan Ithacan
Izmir Izmirite, Izmirian Izmirite, Izmirian
Izmit Izmitite Izmitite
Jacksonville Jacksonvillian, Jaxon Jacksonvillian, Jaxon[5]
Jaén Jienense, Jaenés, Aurgitano Jienense, Aurgitano
Jakarta Jakartan Jakartanais, Jakartan
Jeonju Jeonju, Jeonjuite Jeonjuite
Jerusalem Jerusalemite, Yerushalmi Jerusalemite, Yerushalmi
Johannesburg Johannesburg Johannesburger
Joshua, Texas Joshuan Joshuan, Joshuvian
Juba Juban Juban
Juiz de Fora Juiz-forano Juiz-forano
Juneau City/Borough Juneauite
Kahramanmaraş Marashian Marashian
Kandy Kandian Kandian
Kaluga Kaluzhanin Kaluzhane
Kansas City Kansas Citian[h] Kansas Citian; Kansas Cityan; Kansas City, Missourian[i]
Karachi Karachiite Karachiite
Karpasia Karpasias Karpasias
Kastoria Kastorian Kastorian
Kayseri Kayserian Kayserian
Kenosha Kenoshan Kenoshan
Khulna Khulna Khulnaiya, Khulnaite
Kingston Kingstonian Kingstonian
Kingston upon Hull Hullensian Hullensian
Kitchener Kitchenerite Kitchenerite
Kocaeli Kocalian (see also, Izmit) Kocaelian (see also, Izmit)
Konya Konyanite Konyanite
Knoxville Knoxvillian Knoxvillian
Kuala Lumpur KLite KLite
Kuching Kuchingite Kuchingite
Kyiv Kyivan, Kievan Kievan, Kievite, Kyivan, Kyïvan, Kyivite
Lagos Lagosian Lagosian
Lahore Lahori Lahori
Lancaster Lancastrian Lancastrian
La Paz Paceño Paceño
Larnaka Larnakade Larnakade
Las Vegas Las Vegan Las Vegan
Laval Lavalois, Lavaloise Lavalois, Lavaloise
Leeds Leodensian Leodensian, Loiner
Leicester Leicestrian Chizzit
Leipzig Leipziger Leipziger
Legazpi Legazpeño Legazpeño
León Leonese Leonese
Lexington Lexingtonian Lexingtonian
Liberal, KS Liberalite Liberarian, Libertarian, Liberalien
Ligao Ligaoeño Ligaoeño
Lima Limeño Limeño
Limassol Lemesouti Lemesouti
Limerick Limerick Limerickman, Shannonsider
Linz Linzer Linzer
Lisbon Lisboan, Lisboeta Lisboan, Lisboeta, Lisboner, Alfacinha
Liverpool Liverpudlian, Scouse Liverpudlian, Scouser
Livorno Leghornese, Livornese Leghornese, Livornese
Locarno Locarnese
London Londoner Londoner
Londrina Londrinense Londrinense
Los Angeles Los Angeleno, Angeleno, Angeleño Los Angeleno, Angeleno, Ángeleño
Louisville Louisvillian Louisvillian
Luanda Luandan Luandan
Lucca Lucchese Lucchesi
Lugano Luganese
Luton Lutonian Lutonian
Lviv Lvivite, Lvivian, Leopolitan Lvivite, Lvivian, Leopolitan, Lemberger, Ukrainian Lvivianyn (m), Lvivianka (f)
Lyon (Lyons) Lyonese, Lyonnais Lyonese, Lyonnais
Macau Macanese Macanese
Mackay Mackayite Mackayite
Madrid Madrilenian, Madrileño Madrilenian, Madrileño
Malacca Malaccan Malaccan
Málaga Malagenean, Malagueño, Malacitano Malagenean, Malagueño, Malacitano
Malatya Malatyan Malatyan
Manaus Manauara, Manauense Manauara, Manauense
Manchester Mancunian Mancunian, Manc
Manila Manileño, Manilan Manileño
Manisa Manisanian Manisanian
Mantua Mantuan Mantuan
Maputo Maputan Maputan
Marathon Marathonian Marathonian
Mardin Mardinian Mardinian
Marmaris Marmarisian Marmarisian
Marseille Marseillais Marseillais
Marshall Marshall,[6][7] Marshallite[j][8] Marshallite[9][10]
Masbate Masbateño Masbateño
Mersin Mersinite Mersinite
Mecca Meccan Meccan
Medellín Paisa Paisa
Medina Medinan Medinan
Megara Megarian Megarian
Melbourne Melburnian Melburnian, Melbournite
Memphis Memphian Memphian
Mendrisio Mendrisiense, Mendrisiotto
Mersin Mersinite Mersinite
Messina Messinese Messinese
Mexico City Capitalino Capitalino, Chilango, Defeño
Miami Miamian Miamian
Middlesbrough Smoggie
Milan, Italy Milanese Milanese
Milan, New York Milanites, Milaner
Milwaukee Milwaukeean Milwaukeean
Minsk Minskite Minskite
Misrata Misratan Misratan
Minneapolis Minneapolitan Minneapolitan
Minot Minotian Minoter
Mississauga Mississaugan
Modena Modenese Modenese
Mogi Guaçu Guaçuano Guaçuano
Mogi Mirim Mogimiriano Mogimiriano
Monaco Monegasque Monegasque, Monacoan
Monrovia Monrovian Monrovian
Monterrey Regiomontano Regiomontano
Montevideo Montevidean Montevideano (m), Montevideana (f)
Montreal Montrealer Montrealer, Montréalais
Moose Jaw Moose Jaw Moose Javians
Morphou Morfitis Morfitis
Moscow, Idaho Moscowite Moscowite
Moscow, Russia Muscovite Muscovite
Muğla Mughlanian Mughlanian
Mumbai Mumbaikar Mumbaikar
Muncie Munsonian Munsonian
Munich Münchner, Münchener Münchner, Münchener
Mymensingh Mymensinghi Mymensinghi, Mymensinghiya, Mymensinghiyo
Mysore Mysorean Mysorean, Mysurinavaru, Mysuriga
Naga Nagueño Nagueño
Nagoya Nagoyan Nagoyan
Nairobi Nairobian Nairobian
Nanaimo Nanaimoite Nanaimoite
Nanjing (Nanking) Nankinese Nankinese
Napier Napieran Napieran, Naperian
Naples Neapolitan Neapolitan
Nashville Nashvillian Nashvillian
Nassau Nassuvian Nassuvian
Navarre Navarrian Navarrian
Nazareth Nazarene Nazarene
Nelson Nelson Nelsonian
Netanya Netanyan, Netanian Netanyan, Netanian
Newport, Wales Newportonian Newportonian, Newporter
New Orleans New Orleanian New Orleanian, New Orleaner, Yat
New York City New Yorker New Yorker, Knickerbocker
New York CityThe Bronx Bronxite Bronxite, Bronxer
New York CityBrooklyn Brooklynite Brooklynite, Trolley Dodger (archaic)
New York CityManhattan Manhattanite Manhattanite
New York CityQueens Queensite Queensite
New York CityStaten Island[k] Staten Islander Staten Islander
Newcastle Novocastrian Novocastrian
Newcastle upon Tyne Novocastrian, Geordie Novocastrian, Geordie
Nice Niçois Niçois
Nicosia Nicosian Nicosian
Norfolk Norfolker, Norfolkian Norfolker, Norfolkian
Northampton Northamptonian Northamptonian
Novara Novarese Novarese
Nuremberg Nuremberger, Nürnberger Nuremberger, Nürnberger
Oakbank Oakbankian Oakbankian
Oakland Oaklander Oaklander
Oamaru Oamaru, Oamaruvian Oamaruvian
Oaxaca Oaxacan Oaxaqueño
Odessa, Odesa Odessan, Odessite, Odesan Odessan, Odessite, Odesan, Ukrainian Odesyt (m), Odesytka (f)
Oklahoma City Oklahoma Cityan, Oklahoma Citian Oklahoma Cityan, Oklahoma Citian
Omaha Omahan Omahan
Omak Omakian Omakian[11]
Ordu Ordunite Ordunite
Orléans Orléanais Orléanais
Osaka Osakan Naniwakko, Osakan
Oshawa Oshawian Oshawian
Oslo Oslovian Oslovian, Osloer
Oswestry Oswestrian Oswestrian
Ottawa Ottawan Ottawan
Oxford Oxonian[l] Oxonian[l]
Paddock Lake Paddock Laker Paddock Laker
Padua Paduan Paduan
Paducah Paducahan Paducahan
Paita Paiteño (m), Paiteña (f) Paiteño (m), Paiteña (f)
Panaji Panjimite Ponnjekar, Panjimite
Paphos Paphian Paphian
Palermo Palermitan Palermitan
Palmerston North Palmerstonian Palmerstonian
Palmyra Palmyrene Palmyrene
Paris Parisian Parisian
Parma Parmesan Parmesan
Penang Penangite Penangite
Pescara Pescarese Pescarese
Perth Perthite, Perthian, Perthling, Perthonality, Pertho, Perthie Perthite, Perthian, Perthling, Perthonality, Perthette
Perugia Perugian Perugian
Peterborough Peterbourian Peterbourian
Philadelphia Philadelphian Philadelphian
Phnom Penh Phnom Penh Phnom Penher
Phoenix Phoenician, Phoenixer Phoenician, Phoenixer
Pissouri Pissouriti Pissouriti
Pisa Pisan Pisan
Pittsburgh Pittsburgher Pittsburgher, Yinzer
Plymouth Plymothian Plymothian, Janner
Pohang Pohang Pohangite
Polmont Polmontarian Polmontarian
Pompeii Pompeian, Pompeiian Pompeian, Pompeiian
Ponferrada Ponferradian Ponferradian
Pont-à-Mousson Mussipontain M ussipontain
Port Harcourt Harcourtian, Port Harcourtian Harcourtian, Port Harcourtian
Port Moresby Port Moresbian Port Moresbian
Porto Portuense Portuense, Tripeiro
Podgorica Podgorician Podgorician
Porto Alegre Porto-alegrense Porto-alegrense
Porto Cheli Porto-Cheliki Porto-Cheliki
Portland Portlander Portlander
Portsmouth Portsmouthian Portsmouthian
Prague Praguer Praguer
Preston Prestonian Prestonian
Pripyat Pripyatin Pripyatin
Pristina Prishtinali, Prishtina, Prištinci, Prištevci
Providence Providentian Providentian
Provo Provoan Provoan
Puebla Poblano Poblano
Punta Arenas Puntarenian Puntarenian
Pylos Pylian Pylian
Quebec City Québécois[m] Québécois[m]
Quito Quitonian Quiteño (m), Quiteña (f)
Rajshahi Rajshahiyo Rajshahiya, Rajshahiyo
Radnor Radnorian Radnorian
Raleigh Raleighite Raleighite
Randall Randallite Randallite
Rangpur City Rangpuri Rongpuri, Rangpuri
Reading Readingite Readingite
Red Deer Red Deerian Red Deerian
Regina Regina, Reginan Reginan
Reno Renoite Renoite, Riennese, Renal
Rethymno Rethymnian Rethymnian
Reims (Rheims) Rémois, Cornichon Rémois
Reykjavík Reykjavikian Reykjavikian
Ribeirão Preto Ribeirão Pretano Ribeirão Pretano
Richmond Richmonder Richmonder
Riga Rigan Rigan
Rio de Janeiro Carioca Carioca
Rhodes Rhodian Rhodian
Roanoke Roanoker Roanoker
Rochester Rochesterian Rochesterian
Rockhampton Rockhampton Rockhamptonite
Rome Roman Roman
Rotorua Rotoruan Rotoruan
Rotterdam Rotter Rotterdammer
Rouen Rouennais Rouennais
Rye Ryer Ryer, Mudhead
Sacramento Sacramentan Sacramentan
Saint Helier Saint-Helian Saint-Helian
Saint-Étienne Stéphanois Stéphanois
Saint-Jude, Quebec Rocquevillois Rocquevillois
Saint Paul Saint Paulite, St. Paulite Saint Paulite, St. Paulite
Saint Petersburg, Florida Saint Petersburgite Saint Petersburgite
Saint Petersburg, Russia Saint Petersburgian Saint Petersburgian, Saint Petersburger, Petersburger
Salem Salemite Salemite
Salerno Salernitan Salernitan
Salford Salfordian Salfordian
Salt Lake City Salt Lake Salt Laker
Salvador Soteropolitano Soteropolitano
Salzburg Salzburger Salzburger
Sambalpur Sambalpuria Sambalpuria
Samsun Samsunite Samsunite
San Antonio San Antonian San Antonian
San Diego San Diegan San Diegan
San Francisco San Franciscan San Franciscan
San Jose San Josean San Josean
San José Josefino/a, San Josefinan Josefino/a
Şanlıurfa Urfanian Urfanian
Santa Barbara Santa Barbarian Santa Barbaran
Santa Clarita Santa Claritan Santa Claritan
Santa Cruz de la Sierra Cruceño Cruceño
Santa Monica Santa Monican Santa Monican
Santiago Santiaguinos (m), Santiaguinas (f) Santiaguinos (m), Santiaguinas (f)
São Carlos Sãocarlense, Carlopolitano Sãocarlense, Carlopolitano
São Luís Ludovicense Ludovicense
São Paulo Paulistano Paulistano
Sapporo Sapporokko
Sarajevo Sarajevan Sarajevan
Saskatoon Saskatoon, Saskatonian Saskatonian, Saskabusher
Sault Ste. Marie Sooite, Saultite Soos
Savannah Savannian Savannian
Seattle Seattleite Seattleite
Sendai Sendaikko
Seoul Seoulite Seoulite
Serra Negra Serrano Serrano
Serres Serrean Serrean
Seville Sevillian, Sevillano, Hispalense Sevillian, Sevillano, Hispalense
Shanghai Shanghainese Shanghainese, Shanghailander
Sheffield Sheffielder
Shillong nong Shillong
Shkoder Shkodran Shkodran
Shrewsbury Salopian Salopian
Side Sidetan Sidetan
Siena (Sienna) Sienese, Siennese Sienese, Siennese
Silver Lake Silver Laker Silver Laker
Singapore Singaporean Singaporean
Skopje Skopjan Skopjan
Slough Sluff Sluff
Sofia Sofian Sofian
Solihull Silhillian Silhillian
Somers Somersite Somersite
Sorrento Sorrentine Sorrentine
Sorsogon Sorsoganon Sorsoganon
Southampton Sotonian Sotonian
Soweto Sowetan Sowetan
Sparta Spartan Spartan
Spokane Spokanite
Spoleto Spoletian Spoletian
St. Louis St. Louisan St. Louisan
Stockholm Stockholmer Stockholmer
Strasbourg Strasbourgeois Strasbourgeois
Stuttgart Stuttgarter Stuttgarter
Sunderland Mackem
Sunshine Coast Sunshine Coast Sunshine Coaster
Swansea Jack Jack
Swindon Swindonian Swindonian
Sydney Sydneysider
Sylhet Sylheti Sylheti, Siloti, Sileti
Syracuse, Italy Syracusan Syracusan
Syracuse, New York Syracusian Syracusian
Tabaco Tabaqueño Tabaqueño
Tacna Tacneño (m), Tacneña (f) Tacneño (m), Tacneña (f)
Tacoma Tacoman Tacoman
Tallahassee Tallahasseean Tallahasseean
Tallinn Tallinner Tallinner
Tampa Tampan, Tampanian, Tampeño Tampan, Tampanian, Tampeño (m), Tampeña (f)[12]
Tartu Tartuan Tartuan
Taranto Tarantine, Tarentine Tarantine, Tarentine
Tasmania Tasman, Tasmanian Tasmanian, Taswegian (jocular)
Taunton Tauntonian Tauntonian
Tauranga Taurangan Taurangian, Taurangan
Tbilisi Tbilisian Tbilisian, Tbiliselebi
Tehran Tehrani, Tehranis[13][circular reference] Tehrani
Tekirdağ Tekirdanian Tekirdaninan
Tel Aviv Tel Avivian Tel Avivi, Tel Avivian
Thebes Theban Theban
Thessaloniki Thessalonian Thessalonian
Thunder Bay Thunderbite
Timaru Timaru, Timaruvian Timaruvians
Tirana Tiranas Tirons
Tokyo Edokko, Tokyoite
Toowoomba Toowoomban Toowoomban
Toronto Torontonian Torontonian[14]
Toulouse Toulousian Toulousian
Tournai Tournaisian Tournaisian
Townsville Townsvillian Townsvillian
Trabzon Trabzonian, Trebizonian, Trapezian, Trapezuntine Trabzonian, Trebizonian, Trapezian, Trapezuntine
Traverse City Traverse Citian Traverse Citian
Trevor Trevorite Trevorite
Trent Tridentine Tridentine
Trieste Triestine Triestine
Tripoli Tripolitan Tripolitan
Tripoli, Greece Tripolitano Tripolitano
Trois-Rivières, Guadeloupe Trois-rivieran Trois-rivieran
Trois-Rivières, Quebec Trifluvien, Trifluvienne, Trifluvian Trifluvien, Trifluvienne, Trifluvian
Tucson Tucsonian Tucsonian, Tucsonan
Tulsa Tulsan Tulsan
Turin Turinese Turinese
Twin Lakes Twin Laker Twin Laker
Tyre Tyrian Tyrian
Uberlândia Uberlandense Uberlandense
Ulsan Ulsan, Ulsanian Ulsanian
Valencia Valencian Valencian
Valladolid Vallisoletano, Pucelano, Pinciano Vallisoletano, Pucelano, Pinciano
Valparaíso Porteño (m), Porteña (f) Porteño (m), Porteña (f)
Van Vanian Vanian
Vancouver, British Columbia Vancouverite Vancouverite
Vancouver, Washington Vancouverite Vancouverite
Venice Venetian Venetian
Veracruz Veracruzano Veracruzano, Jarocho
Verona Veronese Veronese
Vicenza Vicentine Vicentine
Vichy Vichyssois Vichyssois
Victoria Victorian Victorian
Vienna Viennese, Wiener Viennese, Wiener
Villanova Villanovan Villanovan
Ville Platte Ville Platian Ville Platian
Vilnius Vilnian Vilnian
Vizag Vizagite Vizagite
Waco Wacoite Wacoite
Warangal Warangalite Warangalite
Warsaw Varsovian Varsovian
Washington, D.C. Washingtonian[n] Washingtonian[n]
Waterbury, Connecticut Waterburian Waterburian
Waterford Waterfordian Waterfordian, Déise, Suirsider
Waterloo Waterluvian Waterluvian
Wellington Wellington, Wellingtonian Wellingtonian
Wheatland Wheatlander Wheatlander
Whitehorse Whitehorser, Whitehorsian Whitehorser, Whitehorsian
Wichita Wichitan Wichitan
Wilmot Wilmotter Wilmotter
Winchester Wintonian
Winnipeg Winnipegger, Winnipeger
Wolverhampton Wulfrunian
Wythenshawe Wythenshavian Wythenshavian
Xalapa Xalapeño Xalapeño
Xanthi Xanthian Xanthian
Yellowknife Yellowknifer Yellowknifer
Yeosu Yeosu, Yeosuite Yeosuite
Yerevan Yerevantsi Yerevantsi
Yogyakarta Yogyakartan, Jogjan Yogyakartan, Jogjan
Yokohama Yokohaman Hamakko[15]
Zacatecas Zacatecan Zacatecano
Zagreb Zagrebian Zagreber, Zagrebian
Zamboanga Zamboangueño Zamboangueño
Zaragoza Zaragozan, Saragossan Zaragoazan, Saragossan
Zonguldak Zonguldaki Zonguldakian
Zintan Zintani Zintani
Zurich Zuricher, Zürcher Zuricher, Zürcher
Zwolle Zwollenaar Zwollenaar
  1. ^ "Attic" is usually used only in reference to Ancient Athens
  2. ^ Used to identify francophones.
  3. ^ Used to identify Dutch speakers.
  4. ^ Used to identify those bi- or multilingual citizens merely belonging to Brussels.
  5. ^ a b Not to be confused with the movements and concepts of English naturalist Charles Darwin.
  6. ^ Rare.
  7. ^ Rare.
  8. ^ Residents of both Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas City, Kansas are referred to as Kansas Citians.
  9. ^ Residents of Kansas City, Missouri are both Kansas Citians and Missourians.
  10. ^ Marshallite as an adjectival form is rare and archaic
  11. ^ Formerly Richmond.
  12. ^ a b Also used to identify graduates of the University of Oxford.
  13. ^ a b Often confused with residents of the Province of Québec. If it is necessary to distinguish between residents of the city and the province, French-speakers will use québécois/e de Québec for the city and québécois/e du Québec for the province.
  14. ^ a b Not to be confused with the inhabitants of Washington state.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Google Books
  2. ^ Google Books
  3. ^ Erskine, Rosalind (18 September 2019). "Baffie to Weegie: 18 Scottish words that are now in the dictionary - and their meaning". The Scotsman.
  4. ^ "City of Guelph".
  5. ^ "Call Box". The Florida Times-Union. April 26, 2000. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  6. ^ "Marshall Independent School District".
  7. ^ "Marshall Regional Arts Council".
  8. ^ "Gustavia Tippins obituary".
  9. ^ ""Marshallite's Brother Dies," Marshall News Messenger, March 7, 1960".
  10. ^ ""Col. Shaunte Y. Cooper achieves high honor as first African American Colonel for 147th Attack Wing" Texas Military Department".
  11. ^ Clark, Doug (March 26, 1996). "Town Tradition Goads Residents Into Donations". The Spokesman-Review. Cowles Publishing Company. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
  12. ^ "Are you a Tampan, Tampanian or Tampeño?".
  13. ^ List of people from Tehran
  14. ^ Street, Hudson (September 13, 1911). "Old Torontonian: If He Likes Toronto So Much, Why Live Here?". The New York Times. p. 8. Retrieved February 23, 2008.
  15. ^ Yokohama City Central Library (28 December 2013). "「はまっこ」の定義が知りたいです。横浜のどこで生まれると「はまっこ」なのでしょうか?". National Diet Library. Retrieved 2018-07-29.