List of demonyms for U.S. states and territories

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This is a list of official and notable unofficial terms used to designate the citizens of specific states and territories of the United States.


State, district or territory Official
(recommended by U.S. GPO)[1]
Official, unofficial, or informal alternatives
 Alabama Alabamian Alabaman[2][3]
 Alaska Alaskan
 American Samoa American Samoan
 Arizona Arizonan Sand Cutter[4]
 Arkansas Arkansan Arkansawyer,[5] Arkie[6]
 California Californian Californio (archaic)
 Colorado Coloradan Coloradoan (archaic)[7][8]
 Connecticut Connecticuter Connecticotian,[9] Connecticutensian,[9] Nutmeg,[9] Nutmegger[9]
 Delaware Delawarean Blue Hen's Chicken,[10] Muskrat[10]
 District of Columbia Washingtonian
 Florida Floridian Alligator,[11] Cracker,[12] Fly-Up-the-Creek[11]
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia Georgian Buzzard, Cracker, Goober-grabber[13]
 Guam Guamanian
 Hawaii Hawaiian Islander,[14] Kama'aina. The Associated Press Stylebook restricts use of "Hawaiian" to people of Native Hawaiian descent.[15]
 Idaho Idahoan Fortune Seekers[16]
 Illinois Illinoisan Illinoisian, Illinoian, Flatlander,[17] Sucker, Sand-hiller, Egyptian[18]
 Indiana Hoosier Indianan (former GPO demonym replaced by Hoosier in 2016)[1]
 Iowa Iowan Hawkeye[19]
 Kansas Kansan Sunflower, Jayhawker, Grasshopper[20]
 Kentucky Kentuckian Corncracker[21]
 Louisiana Louisianian
 Maine Mainer Down Easter or Downeaster,[22] Mainiac,[23]
 Maryland Marylander
 Massachusetts Massachusettsan Bay Stater (official term used by state government),[24] Massachusettsian,[25] Massachusite,[26][27] Masshole (derogatory[28] as an exonym; however, it can be affectionate when applied as an endonym[29])
 Michigan Michigander Michigander,[30] Wolverine,[31][32] Michiganite, Yooper/Troll (for residents of the Upper Peninsula and Lower Peninsula, respectively),[33] Michigoose (used specifically for female residents, as a play on "Michigander")[33]
 Minnesota Minnesotan Gopher
 Mississippi Mississippian
 Missouri Missourian
 Montana Montanan
 Nebraska Nebraskan
 Nevada Nevadan
 New Hampshire New Hampshirite New Hampshireman or New Hampshirewoman[34]
 New Jersey New Jerseyan Jerseyite, New Jerseyite
 New Mexico New Mexican Spanish: Neomexicano, Neomejicano[35]
New York (state) New York New Yorker Knickerbocker[36][37]
 North Carolina North Carolinian Tar Heel, Tar Boiler,[38]
  North Dakota North Dakotan
 Northern Mariana Islands Mariana Islander
 Ohio Ohioan Buckeye,[39] Ohian (obsolete)[40]
 Oklahoma Oklahoman Okie,[41] Sooner[42]
 Oregon Oregonian
 Pennsylvania Pennsylvanian Pennamite,[43] Keystoner
 Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Boricua[44]
 Rhode Island Rhode Islander Rhodean, Swamp Yankee[45]
 South Carolina South Carolinian Sandlapper[46]
 South Dakota South Dakotan
 Tennessee Tennessean Volunteer, Big Bender, Butternut[47]
 Texas Texan Texian (Anglo-Texan - historical),[48] Tejano (Hispano-Texan), Texican (archaic)
 Utah Utahn Utahan
 Vermont Vermonter
 Virginia Virginian
United States Virgin Islands Virgin Islands Virgin Islander
Washington (state) Washington Washingtonian
 West Virginia West Virginian
 Wisconsin Wisconsinite Badger,[49] Cheesehead[50][51]
 Wyoming Wyomingite Wyomese[52]

† - Not officially a U.S. state, rather a U.S. territory or district.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b U.S. Government Publishing Office Style Manual. 2016. §5.23. 
  2. ^ Safire, William (June 26, 1994). "On Language: Foam Fell on Alabama". The New York Times.  Safire reports that after he used the word "Alabaman" in a column, he received a letter from Vic Gold that said in part, "The natives, I have learned to my sorrow, prefer Alabamian."
  3. ^ "The State of Alabama". Netstate. 
  4. ^ "The State of Arizona - An Introduction to the Grand Canyon State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  5. ^ Arkansawyer definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. 
  6. ^ "Ar•kie". Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  7. ^ Writers Style Guide. Colorado State University. p. 62,. Retrieved January 2, 2009. The correct name for a person from Colorado is Coloradan (not Coloradoan). 
  8. ^ Quillen, Ed (March 18, 2007). "Coloradan or Coloradoan?". The Denver Post. 
  9. ^ a b c d "The State of Connecticut - An Introduction to the Constitution State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  10. ^ a b "The State of Delaware - An Introduction to the First State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  11. ^ a b "The State of Florida". Netstate. 
  12. ^ "'Cracker' Means Something Entirely Different In Florida: A Source Of 'Pride'". Mediaite. Retrieved 18 May 2014. 
  13. ^ "The State of Georgia". Netstate. Retrieved 22 July 2017. 
  14. ^ "The State of Hawaii - An Introduction to the Aloha State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  15. ^ Christian, Darrel; Jacobsen, Sally A.; Minthorn, David, eds. (2013). The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. New York, NY: Basic Books. p. 112. ISBN 9780465082995. 
  16. ^ "The State of Idaho". Netstate. 
  17. ^ Jim Fitzgerald (1987-10-06). "A Friend Escapes To Illinois . . . And Now Is A Flatlander!". 
  18. ^ "The State of Illinois - An Introduction to the Prairie State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  19. ^ "The State of Iowa". 
  20. ^ "The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  21. ^ Corncracker - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  22. ^ The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007. New York: World Almanac Books. 2006. ISBN 978-0-88687-995-2. 
  23. ^ "Mainiac". Time. June 20, 1938.  (term used in reference to Maine author Kenneth Roberts)
  24. ^ "Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth". The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2008-02-29. : "Bay Staters shall be the official designation of citizens of the commonwealth."
  25. ^
  26. ^ Collections. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. 1877. p. 435. 
  27. ^ Jones, Thomas (1879). DeLancey, Edward Floyd, ed. History of New York During the Revolutionary War. New York: New York Historical Society. p. 465. 
  28. ^ Nagy, Naomi; Irwin, Patricia (July 2010). "Boston (r): Neighbo(r)s nea(r) and fa(r)". Language Variation and Change. 22 (2): 270. 
  29. ^ "'Masshole' among newest words added to Oxford English Dictionary". Retrieved 27 October 2016. 
  30. ^ "The State of Michigan - An Introduction to the Great Lakes State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  31. ^ Marckwardt, Albert H. (1952). "Wolverine and Michigander". Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review. LVIII: 203–8. 
  32. ^ Sperber, Hans (February 1954). "Words and Phrases in American Politics: Michigander". American Speech. 29 (1): 21–7. doi:10.2307/453592. 
  33. ^ a b "MDE - Michigan Glossary". 2008-01-30. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  34. ^ "The State of New Hampshire - An Introduction to the Granite State from". Netstate.Com. 2009-04-13. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  35. ^ Neomexicano definition by Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española)
  36. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  37. ^ New York Knicks, What's a Knickerbocker?
  38. ^ Powell, William S. (March 1982). "What's in a Name?: Why We're All Called Tar Heels". Tar Heel. Tar Heel Magazine, Inc. OCLC 005457348. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  39. ^ "The State of Ohio - An Introduction to the Buckeye State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  40. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. ^ Stewart, Roy P. (December 20, 1968). "Postal Card Proves Sooners Were 'Okies' Way Back In 1907". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 9, col. 2. Now comes Mrs. Agness Hooks of Thomas with a postal card mailed at Newcastle, Ind. in 1907, address to a Miss Agness Kirkbridge, with the salutation: 'Hello Okie — Will see you next Monday night.' Signed: Myrtle M. Pence. Mrs. Hooks says Agness Kirkbridge was an aunt of hers. The Kirkbridge family came to Oklahoma Territory in 1904 and settled south of Custer City. 
  42. ^ "The State of Oklahoma - An Introduction to the Sooner State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  43. ^ "History of". Luzerne County. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  44. ^ "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico". Retrieved 2015-09-02. 
  45. ^ "The Providence Journal | Rhode Island breaking news, sports, politics, business, entertainment, weather and traffic - - Providence Journal". 2012-07-17. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  46. ^
  47. ^ "The State of Tennessee - An Introduction to the Volunteer State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  48. ^ de la Teja, Jesus F. (1997). "The Colonization and Independence of Texas: A Tejano Perspective". In Rodriguez O., Jaime E.; Vincent, Kathryn. Myths, Misdeeds, and Misunderstandings: The Roots of Conflict in U.S.–Mexican Relations. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc. p. 79. ISBN 0-8420-2662-2. 
  49. ^ "Do You Want to Be a Badger?". Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 
  50. ^ Kapler, Joseph, Jr. (Spring 2002). On Wisconsin Icons: When You Say 'Wisconsin', What Do You Say?. Wisconsin Historical Society. pp. 18–31. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  51. ^ Foamation: About Us. Foamation. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  52. ^ "Chicago Daily Tribune". 1903-06-02. Archived from the original on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2017-03-09. 

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