List of aircraft engines of Germany during World War II

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This is a list of all German motors including all aircraft engines, rocket motors, jets and any other powerplants, along with a very basic description. It includes experimental engines as well as those that made it to production status.

The Reich Air Ministry used an internal designation system that included a prefix number signifying the engine type, 9 for piston engines and 109 for jets and rockets, followed by a manufacturer's code, followed by an engine series number.[1] Unlike the 9-prefixed piston engine designations, the 109-series of reaction-thrust, turbojet, turboprop and rocket engine designation numbers' three-place numerical suffixes had no "firm adherence" to any one manufacturer.

  • 090–099 – various minor manufacturers
  • 1 – Bayerische Motorenwerke GmbH (BMW); later changed to 800 block
  • 2 – Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke A.G.
  • 3 – BMW-Flugmotorenwerke Brandenburg GmbH (BMW-Bramo)
  • 4 – Argus-Motoren GmbH
  • 5 – Heinkel Hirth Motoren GmbH
  • 6 – Daimler-Benz A.G.
  • 7 – Brueckner or Klöckner-Humboldt-Deutz A.G.
  • 8 – Bayerische Motorenwerke GmbH (BMW)

Using this system the famous BMW engine used in the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 would be known as the 9-801. However this system was not widely used, even within the RLM, and a common name consisting of the manufacturer's name (often abbreviated) followed by the model number was much more common. The list below uses the common BMW 801 instead of the official 9-801.

Engines produced before the RLM's designation system was set up are often listed using the same basic terminology. So while the interwar Argus 10 engine can be referred to as the As 10, it is not correct to call it the 9–10, this designation was never applied.

The Luftwaffe also used engines from France, particularly the Gnôme-Rhône 14 for its Henschel Hs 129 ground attack aircraft and Messerschmitt Me 323 "Gigant" transporter.

Notable engines:

BMW 003 BMW 801 HWK 109–509

Piston engines (motors)[edit]

Argus Motoren[edit]

Bayerische Motorenwerke[edit]

  • BMW VI V-12 water-cooled
  • BMW 112 V-12 water-cooled, (prototype)
  • BMW 114 9-cylinder radial diesel, combined air-water-cooled (prototypes)
  • BMW 116 V-12 water-cooled
  • BMW 117 V-12 water-cooled
  • BMW 132 9-cylinder radial, air-cooled
  • BMW 139 14-cylinder[citation needed] two-row radial, air-cooled (prototype)
  • BMW 801 14-cylinder two-row radial, air-cooled — most-produced radial engine of the Third Reich
  • BMW 802 experimental, 18-cylinder two-row radial
  • BMW 803 experimental, 28-cylinder liquid-cooled four-row radial
  • BMW 804

BMW-Bramo[edit]

Daimler-Benz[edit]

Kloeckner-Humboldt-Deutz[edit]

Hirth Motoren and Heinkel-Hirth[edit]

  • Hirth HM 4 – 4-cylinder air-cooled inline
  • Hirth HM 6 – 6-cylinder air-cooled inline
  • Hirth HM 8 – 8-cylinder air-cooled inline
  • Hirth HM 12 – 12-cylinder air-cooled inline
  • Hirth HM 150 – 8-cylinder air-cooled inline
  • Hirth HM 504 4-cylinder air-cooled inline
  • Hirth HM 506 6-cylinder air-cooled inline
  • Hirth HM 508 8-cylinder air-cooled inline
  • Hirth HM 512 12-cylinder air-cooled inverted inlines

Junkers Motoren[edit]

  • Jumo 204 6-cylinder opposed liquid-cooled diesel;
  • Jumo 205 improved Jumo 204 of smaller size;
  • Jumo 207 improved 205 with a turbocharger;
  • Jumo 208 enlarged development of the 207;
  • Jumo 210 inverted V-12;
  • Jumo 211 inverted V-12, mostly for bomber use, most produced German aviation engine of World War II;
  • Jumo 212 Two Jumo 211 "coupled" (geared together), "twinned-up" in the same manner as the competing DB 610;
  • Jumo 213 improved Jumo 211, inverted V-12;
  • Jumo 222 key engine program for German military aircraft: experimental 24-cylinder supercharged liquid-cooled "star" (6 banks, of 4 cylinders apiece) aircraft engine; nearly 300 examples built
  • Jumo 223 "box" engine made of four 207s;
  • Jumo 224 "box" engine made of four 20's.

Siemens–Schuckert Werke

  • Sh 14 – 7-cylinder air-cooled radial
  • Sh 20 – 9-cylinder air-cooled radial
  • Sh 22 [SAM 322] – 9-cylinder air-cooled radial

Jet and rocket engines[edit]

(Rocket engines, turboprops, turbojets, and other non-piston engines included)
For the Last three digits: 001-499 Air Breathing, 500–999 Non-Air Breathing (Rockets)

Air-breathing[edit]

(turbojets, turboprops, pulsejets, .... )

Rockets[edit]

(non-air breathing engines: liquid-fuel rocket, solid-fuel rocket)

  • 109-448 BMW-built liquid-fuel rocket, intended for the Ruhrstahl X-4 wire-guided air-to-air missile
  • 109-500 Walter, self-contained Starthilfe monopropellant RATO unit, jettisonable following take-off with parachute recovery
  • 109-501 Walter, an experimental uprated Starthilfe RATO unit similar to the -500 model, but with 1,500 kgf (3,300 lb) thrust that also used a kerosene/hydrazine-base fuel with the T-Stoff[2]
  • 109-502 Rheinmetall
  • 109-505 Schmidding, rocket (solid fuel)
  • 109-506 WASAG
  • 109-507 Walter
  • 109-508
  • 109–509 Walter HWK 109–509 liquid-fuel rocket, produced in both single (-A) and twin-chamber (-B and -C) versions
  • 109-510 BMW, 109–511 rocket (liquid fuel)
  • 109-511 BMW
  • 109-512 WASAG, rocket (solid fuel)
  • 109-513 Schmidding
  • 109-515 Rheinmetall, rocket (solid fuel)
  • 109-522 WASAG, rocket (solid fuel)
  • 109-528 BMW
  • 109-532 WASAG, rocket (solid fuel)
  • 109-533 Schmidding, rocket (solid fuel)
  • 109-543 Schmidding, rocket (solid fuel)
  • 109-515 Rheinmetall
  • 109-548 BMW
  • 109-553 Schmidding
  • 109-558 BMW, rocket (liquid fuel)
  • 109-559 Walter
  • 109-563 Schmidding, rocket (solid fuel)
  • 109-573 Schmidding, rocket (solid fuel)
  • 109-593 Schmidding, rocket (solid fuel)
  • 109-603 Schmidding, rocket (solid fuel)
  • 109-613 Konrad
  • 109-708 BMW
  • 109-718 BMW (liquid-fuel rocket, used with the BMW 003 jet to make up the "BMW 003R" mixed propulsion system)
  • 109-719 Walter
  • 109-729 Walter, rocket (liquid fuel)
  • 109-739 Walter

Other

See also[edit]

RLM aircraft designation system
List of RLM aircraft designations

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Christopher, John. The Race for Hitler's X-Planes (The Mill, Gloucestershire: History Press, 2013), p.77 and 100.
  2. ^ Polish Aviation Museum page on their 109-501 RATO booster

References:

Jason R. Wisniewski, Powering the Luftwaffe: German Aero Engines of World War II, FriesenPress, Victoria, BC, Canada, 2013.

Bill Gunston, World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines: From the Pioneers to the Present Day, Sutton Publishing Ltd, Phoenix Mill UK, 2006.

Herschel Smith, Aircraft Piston Engines: From the Manly Balzer to the Continental Tiara, Sunflower University Press, Manhattan, Kansas, 1986.

Antony L. Kay, German Jet Engine and Gas Turbine Development, 1930–45, Crowood Press, 2002.

External links[edit]