List of alternative country names

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Most sovereign states have alternative names. Some countries have also undergone name changes for political or other reasons. This article attempts to give all known alternative names and initialisms for all nations, countries, and sovereign states, in English and any predominant or official languages of the country in question.

Countries are listed alphabetically by their description, the most common name or term that is politically neutral and unambiguous. This may be followed by a note as to the status of the description used.

A[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Abkhazia
(common, English)
Republic of Abkhazia (official, English), Aphsny Axwynthkharra (official, Abkhaz), Respublika Abkhaziya (official, Russian),
Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia (Internationally recognized, English)
 Afghanistan
(common, English)
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (official, English), Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat (official, Pashto), Jomhūrīyyeh Eslāmīyyeh Afġānestān (official, Dari)
 Albania
(common, English)
Republic of Albania (official, English), Republika e Shqipërisë (official, Albanian), Arnavutluk (Turkish), Arbanon (former, English)
 Algeria
(common, English)
People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (official, English), al-Jazā’ir (common, Arabic), al Jumhuriyya al Jazaa'iriyya ad-Dīmuqrāţiyya ash Sha'biyya (official, Arabic)
 Andorra
(common, English)
Principality of Andorra (official, English), Principat d'Andorra (official, Catalan), Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (alternate, English)
 Argentina
(common, English)
Argentine Republic (official, English), la Argentina (colloquial, Spanish), the Argentine (archaic, English), Argentine Nation (official and legally preferred, English), United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (official, English), Argentine Confederation (official, English)
 Armenia
(common, English)
Hayastan (transliterated Armenian, original: Հայաստան), Republic of Armenia (official, English)
 Artsakh
(common, English)
Republic of Artsakh (official, English), Artsakhi Hanrapetut’yun (official, Armenian), Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (former official, English), Artsakh Republic of Mountainous Karabakh (in official use, English)
 Australia
(common, English)
Commonwealth of Australia (official, English), New Holland (former name, English)
 Austria
(common, English)
Republic of Austria (official, English), Republik Österreich (official, German), Österreich (common, German)
 Azerbaijan
(common, English)
Azərbaycan Respublikası (official, Azerbaijani), Republic of Azerbaijan (official, English)

B[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 The Bahamas
(common, English)
Commonwealth of The Bahamas (official, English)
 Bahrain
(common, English)
Kingdom of Bahrain (official, English), Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn (official, Arabic), State of Bahrain (former official, English)
 Bangladesh
(common, English)
বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh (common name, meaning the country of Bengal),
গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônôprôjatôntri Bangladesh (long official name in Bengali), People's Republic of Bangladesh (long official name in English),

বাংলা Bangla (alternative name meaning the geographical land of Bengal), বঙ্গ Bônggô (Bongo, historical name for geographical area of Bengal),
গঙ্গাঋদ্ধি Gônggarriddhi (ancient name for Bengal region), Bengal Presidency (former political name),
পূর্ববঙ্গ Purbô Bônggô/East Bengal (former political name), পূর্ব পাকিস্তান Purbô Pakistan/East Pakistan (former political name).

 Barbados
(official, English)
Bim (nickname), Bimshire (nickname), Little England (nickname), The Rock (nickname)
 Belarus
(common, English)
Republic of Belarus (official, English), Gudija (Lithuanian), Byelorussia (former name), White Russia (outdated)
 Belgium (common, English) Kingdom of Belgium (official, English), Koninkrijk België (official, Dutch), Royaume de Belgique (official, French), Königreich Belgien (official, German)
 Belize
(common, English)
British Honduras (former, English)
 Benin
(common, English)
Dahomey (former name), Republic of Benin (official, English), République du Bénin (official, French)
 Bhutan
(common, English)
Kingdom of Bhutan (official, English), Druk Gyal Khap (official, Dzongkha)
 Bolivia
(common, English)
Plurinational State of Bolivia (official, English), Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (official, Spanish), Republic of Bolívar (former official, English), Republic of Bolivia (former official, English)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
(official, English)
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (former official, English), Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (former official, English)
 Botswana
(common, English)
Bechuanaland (former, English), Republic of Botswana (official, English)
 Brazil
(common, English)
Terra de Santa Cruz (early Portuguese colonization), Ilha de Vera Cruz (former, Portuguese), Empire of Brazil (former, English), United States of Brazil (former, English), Federative Republic of Brazil (official, English), República Federativa do Brasil (official, Portuguese), Terra di Papaga (former, Italian), Pindorama (in Tupi and Guarani, native languages)
 Brunei
(common, English)
Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (official name, English), State of Brunei (colonial name, English)
 Bulgaria
(common, English)
Republic of Bulgaria (official, English), Republika Bǎlgariya (official, Bulgarian), People's Republic of Bulgaria (former official, English)
 Burkina Faso
(official, English and French)
Upper Volta (former name, English), Haute-Volta (former name, French), Bourkina-Fasso (unofficial French form in the first few days after the 1984 change from Upper Volta until the government clarified the official spelling)
 Burundi
(common, English)
Republic of Burundi (official, English), Republika y'Uburundi (official, Kirundi), République du Burundi (official, French), Kingdom of Burundi (former official, English)

C[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Cambodia
(common, English)
Kingdom of Cambodia (official, English), Royaume du Cambodge (official, French), Kampuchea (former officially sanctioned common name in the English language and transliteration from Khmer language), Khmer Republic (former official), Democratic Kampuchea (former official), People's Republic of Kampuchea (former official), State of Cambodia (former official)
 Cameroon
(common, English)
Republic of Cameroon (official, English), United Republic of Cameroon (former official, English), Kamerun (former colonial, German)
 Canada
(official, English and French)
Dominion of Canada (historical long form, English), Dominion du Canada (historical long form, French), Acadia (French colony), Francisca (as labeled on an old map)
 Cape Verde
(common, English)
Cabo Verde (official, Portuguese and English; the Government of Cabo Verde now uses that form for official purposes in English as well as Portuguese)
 Central African Republic
(official, English)
Oubangui-Chari (former, French), Ubangi-Shari (English), République Centrafricaine (official, French), Empire Centrafricain (former official, French), Central African Empire (English)
 Chad
(official, English)
Republic of Chad (official, English), République du Tchad (official, French), Jumhūrīyat Tashād (official, Arabic)
 Chile
(common, English)
Republic of Chile (official, English), Chilli (Mapuche), Chili (Quechua), Reyno de Chile (colonial Spanish), Capitania general de Chile (colonial Spanish)
 China
(common, English)
People's Republic of China (official) 中华人民共和国, PRC (initialism), China 中国 (common, ambiguous), Communist China (colloquial, mainly used by Western countries), Red China (colloquial, mainly derogatory), 中共 (colloquial and mainly derogatory, mainly used by the ROC with a cognate used in Vietnam), Mainland China/中国大陆/中国內地 (colloquial, refers to the area that the PRC Government administers since the end of the Chinese Civil War), New China/新中国 (colloquial, pro-Communist), Shenzhou/神州, Ch'in Empire, Cathay (obsolete, now mainly used poetically), Zhongguo is the name for China in Chinese language.
 Colombia
(common, English)
Republic of Colombia (official, English), República de Colombia (official, Spanish), Estados Unidos de Colombia (former official, Spanish), Confederación Granadina (former official, Spanish), República de la Nueva Granada (former official, Spanish)
 Comoros
(common, English)
Union of the Comoros (official, English), Union des Comores (official, French), Udzima wa Komori (official, Swahili), al-Ittiḥād al-Qumurī (official, Arabic), United Republic of the Commoros (official, English)
 Democratic Republic of Congo
(official, English)
Zaire (former official name, 1971 to 1997; still occasionally used to distinguish it from Republic of the Congo), DRC (initialism), Congo Kinshasa (used in contrast to "Congo Brazzaville"), Belgian Congo (former name during Belgian colonization, 1908 to 1960, English), Congo belge (former name, French), Congo Free State (former name, 1885 to 1908), Republic of the Congo (former name, 1960 to 1964, during which time both Congos had identical official names)
 Republic of Congo
(official, English)
Congo (common), Congo Brazzaville (used in contrast to "Congo Kinshasa"), French Congo (former name during French colonization, 1880 to 1910, English)
 Costa Rica
(common, English)
Republic of Costa Rica (official, English), República de Costa Rica (official, Spanish)
 Croatia
(common, English)
Republic of Croatia (ofiicial, English), Republika Hrvatska (official, Croatian), Hrvatska (common, Croatian; also in Serbian, Bosnian and Montenegrin), Hrvaška (Slovenian)
 Cuba
(common, English)
Republic of Cuba (official, English), República de Cuba (official, Spanish)
 Czech Republic
(official, English)
Česká republika (official, Czech, Slovak), Česko (common, Czech, Slovak), Czechia (rare, English), ČR (Czech initialism), CR (English initialism), Bohemia (former, English), Czechland (unofficial, English), the Czechlands (unofficial, English), České země (Czech for "Bohemian lands" or "Czech lands").

Former Česká socialistická republika (Czech for the "Czech Socialist Republic"), ČSR (Czech initialism), CSR (English initialism), (Protektorát) Čechy a Morava (Czech for the "(Protectorate of) Bohemia and Moravia"), Země Koruny české (Czech for the "Lands of the Bohemian Crown"), Koruna česká (Czech for the "Bohemian Crown"), Česká konfederace (Czech for the "Bohemian Confederation")

D[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Djibouti
(common)
French Territory of the Afars and the Issas, French Somaliland, Obock Territory (former names, English), Territoire français des Afars et des Issas, Côte française des Somalis, Territoire d'Obock (former names, French), Republic of Djibouti (official, English), République de Djibouti (official, French)
 Denmark
(common, English)
Danmark (common, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian) Kingdom of Denmark (official, English), Kongeriget Danmark (official, Danish)

E[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 East Timor Timor-Leste (official shortform name, English, Portuguese), Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (official, English)
 Egypt
(common)
Miṣr (formal shortened, Arabic), Meṣr (common, Arabic), Aegyptus (former, Latin), Kīmi (Coptic), Arab Republic of Egypt (official, English)
 Estonia
(common)
Eesti (common, Estonian), Viru (poetic, Estonian), Viro (common, Finnish), Estland (common, German, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch), Maarjamaa (Terra Mariana poetic, Estonian), Igaunija (common, Latvian)
 Eswatini Swaziland (common, former), eSwatini (Swazi), Kingdom of Eswatini (official, English)
 Ethiopia
(common)
Abyssinia (former), Habeshastan (Turkish), Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (official, English), Ethiopië (common, Dutch), Al-Habasha (Arabic)

F[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Finland
(common, English and Swedish)
Republic of Finland (official, English), Suomi (common, Finnish), Suomen tasavalta (official, Finnish), Republiken Finland (official, Swedish), Suomenmaa (poetic, Finnish), Suopma and Suoma dásseváldi (North Sami, official), Lääˊddjânnam and Lääˊddjânnam tääˊssväˊldd (Skolt Sami, official), Suomâ and Suomâ täsiväldi (official, Inari Sami), Финля́ндия (Finlyandiya) and Великое княжество Финляндское (Velikoye knyazhestvo Finlyandskoye) (Russian, as Grand Duchy of Finland), Soome (common, Estonian)
 France
(common, English and French)
French Republic (official, English), République Française (official, French), L'Hexagone (often journalistic, colloquial French), Gaul (former name, English), Gaule (former name, French), Γαλλία (Gallia) (Contemporary Greek name), La France (unofficial, French), Farança (common Arabic), Tsarfat (common Hebrew)

G[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Gabon
(common, English)
Gabonese Republic (official, English)
 Georgia
(official, English)
Iberia (former, English, East Georgia), Colchis (former, English, West Georgia), Iveria (usually used as Christian name), Republic of Georgia (former, before the 1995 Constitution), گرجستان (Gorjestan) (Persian), Sakartvelo (in their own language)
 Germany
(common, English)
Federal Republic of Germany (official, English*), Bundesrepublik Deutschland (official, German*), Deutschland (common, German*), BRD (German initialism*), FRG (English initialism*) [along with the common English "Germany," the names marked with an asterisk formerly referred only to West Germany, but following German reunification now apply to the united country].
Duitsland (common, Dutch), Allemagne (common, French), Alemania (common, Spanish), Germania (common, Italian), Německo (common, Czech), Niemcy (common, Polish), Németország (common, Hungarian) [the common name for Germany in some Romance languages is a variant of the place name Alemannia and in many Slavic languages is a variant of Nemacia (old Slavic for outsiders, literally "those who cannot speak our language"). Other languages use pars pro toto names such as Bavaria or the former Prussia to refer to Germany, for instance Saksa (common, Finnish), derived from the place name Saxony].
Former East Germany (unofficial, English): Deutsche Demokratische Republik (official, German), German Democratic Republic (official, English), DDR (German initialism), GDR (English initialism).
 Ghana
(common, English)
Gold Coast (colonial, English), United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC)
 Greece
(official English description)
Hellas (official and common name), Ελλάδα ("Hellada" common name in Greek), Ελλάς ("Hellas" official description in Greek), Yunanistan (Turkish), Hellenic Republic (official name of Greek state, English)
 Guinea-Bissau
(common, English)
Portuguese Guinea (former, English), Republic of Guinea-Bissau (official, English), Guiné-Bissao (archaic, Portuguese), Guinea (shorthand, used when context clearly distinguishes Guinea-Bissau from the neighboring Republic of Guinea)

H[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Hungary
(official, English)
Republic of Hungary (official between 1946–1949 and 1989–2012), Hungarian People's Republic (official, 1918–1919 and 1949–1989), Kingdom of Hungary (1000–1918 and 1920–1946), Regnum Hungariæ (official in Latin, the language of administration until 1844), Hungaria (short form, Latin), Magyarország (official Hungarian name; has been the commonly used form of the name during all its history), Magyar Köztársaság (Hungarian for "Republic of Hungary"), Magyar Népköztársaság (Hungarian for "People's Republic of Hungary"), Magyar Tanácsköztársaság (Hungarian name of the first People's Republic), Magyar Királyság (Hungarian for "Kingdom of Hungary")

I[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Iceland
(official, English)
Republic of Iceland (official English description), Ísland (official Icelandic name), Lýðveldið Ísland (official Icelandic description), Fold (poetic name), Thule (Latin name, also poetic), Frón, Ísafold (both poetic)
 India
(common, English)
Bhārat (or Bharatham) (official name in Hindi), Bhārat Gaṇarājya (official long form in Hindi), Bhārata (ಭಾರತ in Kannada), Bhāratadēśaṁ (భారతదేశం in Telugu), India (ഇന്ത്യ in Malayalam or இந்தியா in Tamil script) (common name in English), Republic of India (official long form in English), Union of India (semi-official name), Hindustan (unofficial name in Hindi/Urdu), (Al-)Hind (name in Arabic/Persian/Urdu), Aryavarta (name in Sanskrit), Bhārat Prajatantra (official long form in Bengali), Bhāratavarṣa (name in Sanskrit).
 Indonesia
Republic of Indonesia (official, English), Republik Indonesia (official, Indonesian), Nusantara (dating back from Hindu era), Insulinde (from the Colonial era), Indunesia (suggestion for Dutch East Indies' modern name), Indonesië (common, Dutch), Dutch East Indies or Netherlands East-Indies (former, English), Nederlands(ch)-Indië (former, Dutch), Hindia Belanda (former, Indonesian)
 Iran
Persia was coined by ancient Greeks referring to Iran, which has always been the local name. Use of the Greek name continued in the west until 1932, when upon Iran's request, the local name of Iran became the internationally legal name, replacing Persia. Though both still remain in use today, outside of legal sphere. Faris in Arabic. Islamic Republic of Iran is the current official name.
 Iraq
Mesopotamia (former name), Assyria (former/historical name), Babylon (former/historical name)
 Ireland
(common and official, English)
Éire (official Irish name), Irish Free State (1922–1937), Poblacht na hÉireann (official Irish description), Republic of Ireland (unofficial English description), Saorstát Éireann (Irish 1922–1937), Erin, Banba, Fodla (three poetic names), Hibernia (Latin name, also poetic)
 Israel
State of Israel (official English name), מדינת ישראל (Medinat Yisra'el) (official Hebrew name), دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Dawlat Isra'il) (official Arabic name), the Jewish State (unofficial), the Hebrew State (unofficial), the Holy Land (ארץ הקודש) / Eretz Yisrael (ארץ ישראל) (Bible), Tel Aviv regime (used in Iran's news media), the Zionist entity (referred to Arabs and Muslims, also used by Iran's news media)
 Italy
Repubblica Italiana (official Italian name), Italia (common, Italian), the Beautiful Country (nickname), the Boot (journalistic), Ausonia, Esperia, Enotria, Tirrenia (poetic names)
 Ivory Coast
(common, English)
Côte d'Ivoire (common, French and official, English), the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire has asked that the French name be used in all languages

J[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Jamaica
Xamayca (Spanish version of Taino name)
 Japan
Nippon (日本) (official name in Japanese), Nihon (alternate, more common reading of 日本 in Japanese), Yamato (大和) or 倭 (historic, ancient Japan), Ōyashima (大八洲) (meaning the country of eight great islands, historic), Cipangu/Zipangu or Gipangu (appeared in The Travels of Marco Polo in the 13th century), Hinomoto
 Jordan
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (official, English)

K[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Kazakhstan
(common, English)
Republic of Kazakhstan (official English long name), Kazakhstan (English passport short name), Republic of Kazakhstan (English passport long name), Қазақстан (official Kazakh short name), Қазақстан Республикасы (official Kazakh long name), Qazaqstan (Kazakh short name in Latin script), Alash / Алаш / Alaş (former name, also poetic), Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (former Soviet name, English), Қазақ Кеңестік Социалистік Республикасы/Qazaq Keñestik Socïalïstik Respwblïkası (former Soviet name, Kazakh), Казахская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Kazakhskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika (former Soviet name, Russian)
 Kenya
(conventional short form)
Republic of Kenya (official, English), Jamhuri ya Kenya (official, Swahili), British East Africa Protectorate (former name when held in ‘protectorate’ status prior to becoming a colony starting in the 1880s until 1920), Kenya Colony (former name during British colonization, from the 1920 until 1963)
 North Korea
(common, English)
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (official, English), D.P.R.K., DPRK (initialism, English), Choson Minjujuui Inmin Konghwaguk (조선민주주의인민공화국) (official, Korean), Cho-son (조선) (colloquial, Korean), Korea (conventional short form)
 South Korea
(common, English)
Republic of Korea (official, English), R.O.K., ROK (initialism, English), Dae-han-min-guk (대한민국) (official, Korean), Han-guk (한국) (colloquial, Korean), Korea (conventional short form), Korea Republic (FIFA designation)
 Kosovo
(common, English)
Republic of Kosovo (official, English), Republika e Kosovës (official, Albanian)
 Kyrgyzstan
(common, English)
Kyrgyz Republic (official English long name), Кыргызстан (official Kyrgyz short name), Кыргыз Республикасы (official Kyrgyz long name), Kyrgyz Respublikasy (Kyrgyz short name in Latin script), Киргизия (official Russian short name), Кыргызская Республика (official Russian long name), Kyrgyzskaya Respublika (Russian short name in Latin script), Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic (former Soviet name, English), Кыргыз Советтик Социалисттик Республикасы/Kyrgyz Sovettik Sotsialisttik Respublikasy (former Soviet name, Kyrgyz), Киргизская Советская Социалистическая Республика/Kirgizskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika (former Soviet name, Russian), Kirghizia (former common English name prior to 1991), Kirgizstan (Russian transliteration of the English name), Republic of Kyrgyzstan (official English long name, 1990–1993)

L[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Latvia
(common, English)
Latvija (common, Latvian), Lettland (German, Swedish), Letland (Dutch, Danish), Letonija (Serbian), Letonnie (French)
 Lebanon
(common, English)
The Lebanese Republic (official, English), Al-Jumhuriyya Al-Lubnaniyya (official, Arabic), Lebnan or Lubnan (Common, Arabic), Liban (Common, French)
 Lesotho
(common, English)
Basutoland (former, English), Kingdom of Lesotho (official, English)
 Lithuania
(common, English)
Lietuva (common, Lithuanian), Литва (Litva) (common, Russian)
 Luxembourg
(common, English)
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (official, English)

Groussherzogdem Lëtzebuerg (official, Luxembourgish), Lëtzebuerg (common, Luxembourgish)

Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (official, French), Luxembourg (common, French)

Großherzogtum Luxemburg (official, German), Luxemburg (common, German)

Luxemburgo (common, Spanish & Portuguese), Lussemburgo (common, Italian)

M[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Malawi
(common)
Nyasaland (former, English), Republic of Malawi (official, English)
 Malaysia
(official)
Persekutuan Malaysia (official long form, Malay), Federation of Malaysia (official long form, English), Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak (former, English names of the various components), Tanah Melayu or Malay Land (former, Malay), 马来西亚/ Mǎláixīyà (common, Mandarin), மலேசியா/ Malesiya (common, Tamil)
 Maldives
(common)
Republic of the Maldives (official), The Maldive Islands (colloquial, colonial), ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ/ Dhivehi Raajje (official, Dhivehi), Mahal Dvipa or मालदीव/ Maléldvipa (ancient, Sanskrit), الدولة المحلديبية/ Dhibat-al-Mahal (ancient, Arabic)
 Mauritania
(common)
Islamic Republic of Mauritania (official, English), République Islamique de Mauritanie (official, French)
 Mexico
(shortened form)
United Mexican States (official, English), Estados Unidos Mexicanos (official, Spanish), México (Spanish short form), República Mexicana (Only heard in Mexico, colloquial, Spanish), Méjico (Spanish variant), MEX (initialism), MX (initialism), Aztlán, Aztlān (Spanish, Nahuatl)
 Republic of Macedonia
(official)
Македонија (official Macedonian), Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, FYROM, Paeonia (Latin name, poetic), Vardar Banovina (former Yugoslav province)
 Moldova Republic of Moldova (official), Republica Moldova (official, Moldovan and Romanian), Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (former Soviet name, English), Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ (former Soviet name, Moldovan), Bessarabia, Bassarabia (historic name, still used by irredentists), Boğdan ('Land of Voyvoda I. Bogdan', former common and official name during Ottoman Empire, Turkish) Moldavia is an alternative name in English. Moldau in German.
 Morocco Kingdom of Morocco (official), Al Mamkaka Al Maghribiya (official, Arabic) means The Far west kingdom, Commonly known as Maghreb (The Sunset Country, English)
 Montenegro
(official, English and other languages)
Crna Gora (official, Montenegrin, Serbian and Croatian), Republic of Montenegro (official until 2007), Republika Crna Gora (official until 2007), Mali i Zi (official, Albanian), Karadag (official, Turkish), Duklja (name in medieval times), Zeta (alternative name in medieval times), Black Mountain (literal translation into English)
 Myanmar Republic of the Union of Myanmar (official), Burma (colloquial)

N[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Netherlands[1]
(official, English)
Kingdom of the Netherlands (official, English), Koninkrijk der Nederlanden (official, Dutch), Nederland (Dutch), Holland (pars pro toto, English, Dutch and other languages), Batavia (former and poetic, English, Dutch and other languages), Pays-Bas (French, used alongside "Netherlands" as names in the two official languages of the Int'l Olympic Committee)
 New Zealand
(official, English)
Aotearoa (official, Maori), Realm of New Zealand (official English name including Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau, and Ross Dependency), Dominion of New Zealand (former official, English)
 Norway
(common, English)
Norge (common, Norwegian Bokmål, Danish, Swedish), Noreg (common, Norwegian Nynorsk), Kingdom of Norway (official, English), Kongeriket Norge (official, Norwegian Bokmål), Kongeriket Noreg (official, Norwegian Nynorsk)
   Nepal
(common, English)
संघिय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल saṃghiya lokatāntrika gaṇatantra nepāla (official, Nepalese), Federal Democratic Republic Of Nepal (official, English)

P[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Pakistan
(common, English)
Islamic Republic of Pakistan (official and constitutional, English), Federation of Pakistan (alternate official name, English), Dominion of Pakistan (historic official name, English), West Pakistan (common and later official name for the area now covering Pakistan, used when discussing the polity before the secession of Bangladesh), Sindhustan and Indoscythia (unofficial historical names), Mumlikat-e Khudadaad Pakistan ("The God-given realm of Pakistan", unofficial, used in literature mostly, Urdu)
 Palau
(common, English)
Republic of Palau (official, English), Belau (common, Palauan; was also sometimes used by English speakers who supported Palauan independence before it was gained in 1994)
 Peru
(common, English)
Republic of Peru (official, English), República del Perú (official, Spanish), Perú (common, Spanish), Peruvian Republic (former official name, English), República Peruana (former official name, Spanish)
 Philippines
(common, English)
Repúblika ng Pilipinas (official, Filipino), Republic of the Philippines (official, English), Pilipinas (common, many local languages; corruption of the Spanish, Filipinas), Filipinas (common Spanish and other local languages, contraction of following), Las Islas Filipinas (named after Philip II of Spain, historical, Spanish; originally corruption of the following), Las Islas Felipenas (historical, by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos), Pinás (colloquial), PH (official initialism, changed from RP to avoid confusion with Poland; see below), Philippine Islands (historic; official name under American control; also used colloquially, English), Filipina (common, Malay), Haríng Bayang Katagalugan ("Sovereign Tagalog Nation", historical, by Andrés Bonifacio), Islas de San Lázaro ("Isles of Saint Lazarus", historical, by Ferdinand Magellan)
 Poland
(common, English)
Republic of Poland (official, English), Rzeczpospolita Polska (official, Polish), Polska (common, Polish), RP (often journalistic, Polish), People's Republic of Poland (former Communist name, English), Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa (former Communist name, Polish), Rzeczpospolita (historic common name, Polish), Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (historic official name, English), Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów (historic official name, Polish), United Commonwealth of the Two Nations (historic official name, English)
 Portugal Portuguese Republic (official, English), Lusitania (official, Latin), Galaico-Portuguese nation and Portucale from the Gallaeci tribe (Celtic Gale and Roman-Celtic Portus Cale) and Galician-Portuguese (ethnic term derived from the original language); Ophiussa also spelled Ophiusa (the ancient Greek name of what is now the Portuguese territory. It means Land of Serpents); Portugalensis patrie, Portugalensium patrie and Portugaliae by King Afonso I, Regno Portugalensium and Portugalis (Latin, Medieval); Portugalliae et Algarbiae, Portugalliae, Lusitaniae (Latin); Purtugall (Middle Ages); Burtughāl is the word for Portugal and orange in Arabic (Portuguese influence and expansion); Portingall or Portingal (common classical English and other late medieval Germanic languages); Ocidental Praia Lusitana (Western Lusitanian Beach) and Pátria Lusitana (Lusitanian Fatherland) from the national poem Os Lusíadas and from all epic poetry and chronicles of the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Luxitania and Portugraal (Port of Grail) in Esotericism and metaphysical literature
 Puerto Rico
(common, English and Spanish)
Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico (official, Spanish), Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (official, English), Porto Rico (archaic, English), Associated Free State of Puerto Rico (non-official literal translation to English of the official Spanish name), Borikén, Borinquen, or Borinken (former Taíno name also used colloquially and among nationalists)

R[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Romania România (official, Romanian), Rumania or Roumania (archaic, English), Kingdom of Romania (name under monarchy, English), Regatul României (name under monarchy, Romanian), Romanian People's Republic (former Communist name, English), Republica Populară Romînă (former Communist name, Romanian), Socialist Republic of Romania (former Communist name, English), Republica Socialistă România (former Communist name, Romanian)
 Russia Russian Federation (official English description), Российская Федерация (official Russian), Russia, (official and common name, ambiguous, English), Russland, (German), Россия (Rossiya) (common, Russian), RF (initialism), Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (former name, 1918–1936), Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (former name, 1936–1991), RSFSR (former name initialism), Soviet Union (former name), Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (official former name), USSR (former initialism), Союз Советских Социалистических Республик (former official name, Russian), Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik (former official name, transliterated), СССР (former initialism, Russian), SSSR (former initialism), SU (common, but former initialism), Сове́тский Сою́з (common former name, Russian), Sovetskiy Soyuz (common former name, transliterated), Rus (poetic or obsolete name, ambiguous), Great Russia (obsolete name)
 Rwanda Rwandese Republic (official, English), Republic of Rwanda (official, English, former), République du Rwanda (official, French), Repubulika y'u Rwanda (official, Kinyarwanda), "Pays des mille collines" (poetic, French), Ruanda (former colonial name)

S[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis (co-official, English), Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis (co-official, English), Saint Christopher and Nevis (alternate short-form, English), Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla (former official, English), Saint Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla (former common, English), Saint Kitts or Saint Christopher (shorthand, English), Liamuiga and Oualie (former indigenous names of the islands of Saint Kitts and Nevis, respectively)
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Hairouna (former indigenous name, Carib)
 Saudi Arabia
(common, English)
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (official, English), KSA (initialism), Saudia (former in English, common in Arabic) Al-Mamlaka al-Arabiyya as-Saudiyya (official name in Arabic), Hijaz, Riyadh regime (used in Iran's news media)
 Serbia
(common, English)
Republic of Serbia (official, English), Servia (archaic, English), Srbija (common, Serbian), Republika Srbija (official, Serbian), Serbia and Montenegro (former common, English), Yugoslavia (former common, English), Raška (alternative name in medieval times), Serboslavia (derogatory, used by the rule of Slobodan Milošević)
 Singapore
(common, English)
Republic of Singapore (official, English), Singapura (common, Malay), Sinhapura (Sanskrit, i.e., Land of Lions), Xīnjiāpō/新加坡 (common, Chinese), Ciŋkappūr/சிங்கப்பூர் (common, Tamil), Pulau Ujong (historical, ancient), Shōnan-tō/昭南島 (former, Japanese occupation), little red dot (colloquial; originally derogatory)
 Slovakia
(common, English)
Slovak Republic (official, English), Slovensko (common, Slovak), Slovenská republika (official, Slovak), SR (English and Slovak initialism), Slovak Socialist Republic (former name, 1969 to 1990), Slovenská socialistická republika (former name, Slovak), SSR (English and Slovak initialism)
 Slovenia
(common, English)
Republic of Slovenia (official, English), Slovenija (common, Slovenian), Republika Slovenija (official, Slovenian), RS (English and Slovenian initialism)
 South Africa
(common, English)
Azania, Mzansi (Xhosa, for South), Suid-Afrika (official, Afrikaans), Zuid-Afrika (former official, Dutch), Union of South Africa (Colonial, pre-1961)
 Spain
(common, English)
España (common, Spanish), Kingdom of Spain (official, English), Reino de España (official, Spanish), Espanya (common, Catalan), Hispania (Latin), Espainia (common, Euskera), Spanish State (former name, also used now with political nuances), La piel de toro (Spanish) / La pell de brau (Catalan) ("the bull hide," metaphoric name after the shape of the Iberian Peninsula), Las Batuecas (derogatory name used in the works of Mariano José de Larra), Iberia (Latin, for the peninsula which includes modern Portugal)
 Sri Lanka
(common, Sanskrit, English)
Ceylon (former, English), Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (official, English)/இலங்கை சனநாயக சோசலிசக் குடியரசு(official, Tamil), Heladiva (Land of Sinhalese) (former, Sinhala), Ratnadeepa (Island of Gems) (former, Sinhala), elangai/இலங்கை (common, Tamil), Taprobane (one of the medieval names of Sri Lanka)
 Sudan Republic of the Sudan (official, English), The Sudan (alternate English), Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (colonial name, English), Mahdist State (former English unofficial), Nubia (ancient name, also poetic)
 Suriname
(common, English)
Dutch Guiana (former, English), Netherlands Guiana (former official, English), Republic of Suriname (official, English), Republiek Suriname (official, Dutch), Surinam (English name until 1978)
 Sweden
(common, English)
Sverige (common, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian), Konungariket Sverige (official, Swedish), Kingdom of Sweden (official, English), Svea Rike (possibly former/poetical, Swedish), Thule (Latin name, also poetic), Svitjod (Old Norse)
  Switzerland
(common, English)
Swiss Confederation (official, English), Schweiz (common, German, Danish, Swedish), Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (official, German), Suisse (common, French), Confédération suisse (official, French), Svizzera (common, Italian), Confederazione Svizzera (official, Italian), Svizra (common, Romansh), Confederaziun Svizra (official, Romansh), Confoederatio Helvetica, Helvetia (Latin, sometimes used officially), CH (initialism)

T[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Taiwan
(common, English)
Republic of China (official, English), Taiwan (common, English), China 中國 (more common until 1971, ambiguous, English), 中華民國 (official, Chinese), 臺灣/ 台灣 (common, Chinese), ROC (initialism), Chinese Taipei/中華台北 (international designation), Zhonggua Taipei (international designation, pinyin), Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu/台灣、澎湖、金門及馬祖個別關稅領域 (international designation), Taipei, China (designation used by China to imply that Taiwan is part of China), Taiwan, Province of China (UN designation), Nationalist China (obsolete, but still mainly used by Western countries), Free China (obsolete, pro-Nationalist), Formosa (former, English), Cathay (obsolete, now mainly used poetically), Zhongguo is the name for China in Chinese language, Qing dynasty (former name).
 Tanzania
(common, English)
United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar (former, English), United Republic of Tanzania (official, English). Deutsch-Ostafrika, together with Ruanda and Urundi (= German East Africa, colonial name until 1918). The country is named after Tanganyika, its mainland part, and the Zanzibar islands off its east coast.
 Thailand
(common, English)
Siam (former, English), ประเทศสยาม (former, Thai), Kingdom of Thailand (official, English), ราชอาณาจักรไทย (official, Thai), ประเทศไทย (common, Thai)
 Transnistria
Pridnestrovie (official shortform name), Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublica (official, longform)
 Trinidad and Tobago (common, English)
Iere (poetic, "Land of the Hummingbird," believed to be derived from Arawak), Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (official, English), Trinbago (informal, English)
 Tunisia
تونس(official, Arabic)(common, French, English)
Tunisia (official shortform name), Republic of Tunisia (official, longform), الجمهورية التونسية, (official, Arabic)
 Turkey
Republic of Turkey (official, English), Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (official, Turkish), Asia Minor (geographical, English), Anatolia (geographical, English), Ottoman Empire (former, English), Turkish Empire (former unofficial, English), Porte or Sublime Porte (English descriptions of the former Ottoman state)
 Tuvalu
Tuvalu (short- and long-form name, English and Tuvaluan), Ellice Islands (colonial name, English)

U[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Ukraine
(shortened form)
Ukraine (official), Ukraїna (Ukrainian), UA, UKR. (initialism), Kievan Rus (Former name for of East Slavic tribes in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century), Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia or Kingdom of Ruthenia (historic name of Western Ukraine), Zaporizhian Host (is an adopted name in historiography for the Ukrainian Cossack state on the territory of Dnieper Ukraine and Siveria that existed between 1649 and 1764)
 United Arab Emirates
(shortened form)
United Arab Emirates (English), Trucial States (English, prior to 1971), Al Emirat al Arabbiya al Muttahida (official, Arabic) UAE, U.A.E. (English initialism)
 United Kingdom
(shortened form)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (official, English), Britain (colloquial), Great Britain (colloquial), UK, U.K. (initialism), United Kingdom (short form), Albion (poetic, Latin), Britannia (poetic, Latin), Perfidious Albion if said by an old enemy (mainly humorous today), Anglia (poetic, Latin, refers specifically to England), Alba (Scottish, Gaelic-refers specifically to Scotland), Caledonia (poetic, Latin-refers specifically to Scotland), Cymru (official, Welsh-refers specifically to Wales), Cambria (poetic, Latin-refers to Wales), Ulster (colloquial, refers specifically to Northern Ireland)
 United States
(shortened form)
United States of America (official), America (colloquial), the States (colloquial), US, U.S., USA, Usa, U.S.A., U.S.A (initialism), Columbia (Latin, poetic), Freedonia, Appalachia, Alleghany (names proposed after American Revolutionary War), United States (short form), Usonia (used by James Duff Law and popularized by Frank Lloyd Wright), Usono (Esperanto; comes from Usona in English)

V[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Vanuatu
(common)
New Hebrides (former name under British and French condominium rule from 1906 to 1980), Niuhebridis (Bislama), Nouvelles Hebrides (former official name in French), République de Vanuatu (French), Ripablik blong Vanuatu (Bislama), Vanuatri (jocular name used in humour)[citation needed]
 Vietnam
(common)
An Nam (former name in other foreign languages), Champa (historical kingdom), Đại Việt (historical kingdom), Giao Chỉ (former Chinese province or vassal kingdom), French Indochina (former name under French colonization when united with Laos and Cambodia, English), Lĩnh Nam (poetic name), Socialist Republic of Vietnam (official, English), parted in North Vietnam (Democratic Republic of Vietnam) and South Vietnam (Republic of Vietnam) from 1954 to 1975, Cộng hòa Xã hội Chủ nghĩa Việt Nam (official, Vietnamese), Việt Nam (short form, Vietnamese), SRV, S.R.V., VN, V.N. (English initialism)

Z[edit]

Description Other name(s) or older name(s)
 Zambia
(common)
Northern Rhodesia (former, English), Republic of Zambia (official, English)
 Zimbabwe
(common)
Rhodesia or Republic of Rhodesia (former names, English), Republic of Zimbabwe (official, English), Southern Rhodesia (former, English)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ This entry is about the country the Netherlands, one of four countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. "Netherlands" is also a common name for the Kingdom.