List of ambassadors of the United States to Armenia

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Ambassador of the United States to Armenia
Միացյալ Նահանգների դեսպանը Հայաստանում
U.S. Department of State official seal.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Lynne M. Tracy official photo.jpg
Incumbent
Lynne M. Tracy

since March 1, 2019
NominatorThe President of the United States
AppointerThe President
with Senate advice and consent
Inaugural holderHarry J. Gilmore
as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
FormationMay 12, 1993
WebsiteU.S. Embassy - Yerevan

Armenia declared its independence from the Soviet Union on August 23, 1990,[1] having previously been the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, one of the constituent republics of the USSR since 1936, and part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic since 1920. In the wake of the August Coup (1991), a referendum was held on the question of secession. Following an overwhelming vote in favor, full independence was declared on September 21, 1991. However, widespread recognition did not occur until the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union on December 25, 1991. The United States recognized Armenia on December 25, 1991.[2]

The embassy at Yerevan was opened February 3, 1992, with Steven Mann as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.

The U.S. ambassadorial post to Armenia became vacant on May 24, 2006, when the then-current ambassador John Marshall Evans was recalled by the Bush administration, purportedly over remarks by Evans concerning the Armenian genocide.[3] On May 23, 2006, and again on January 9, 2007, President Bush nominated Richard E. Hoagland to be the new ambassador to Armenia, but the nomination was delayed in The Senate in a dispute between the Bush administration and Congress over the Armenian genocide issue.[4][5] Rudolf V. Perina, the chargé d'affaires ad interim,[6] served as the chief of the mission until August 1, 2008, when Marie L. Yovanovitch began her term as the ambassador.

Ambassadors[edit]

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate to remain in office.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime".
  • Harry J. Gilmore[7] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: May 12, 1993
    • Presented credentials: May 31, 1993
    • Terminated mission: Left post, July 11, 1995
  • Peter Tomsen – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 27, 1995
    • Presented credentials: September 6, 1995
    • Terminated mission: Left post September 6, 1998
  • Michael Craig Lemmon – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 29, 1998
    • Presented credentials: September 21, 1998
    • Terminated mission: Left post October 1, 2001
  • John Malcolm Ordway – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: November 5, 2001
    • Presented credentials: November 23, 2001
    • Terminated mission: Left post July 31, 2004
  • John Marshall Evans – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: June 30, 2004
    • Presented credentials: September 4, 2004
    • Terminated mission: Left post, September 10, 2006
  • Post vacant September 10, 2006 – August 1, 2008
    • Rudolf V. Perina, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
  • Marie L. Yovanovitch[8] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: August 4, 2008
    • Presented credentials: September 22, 2008
    • Terminated mission: June 9, 2011
  • Bruce Donahue – Career FSO
    • Chargé d'Affaires June 9, 2011 - October 6, 2011
  • John A. Heffern[9] – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: September 29, 2011
    • Presented credentials: October 17, 2011[10]
    • Terminated mission: December 22, 2014
  • Richard M. Mills, Jr. – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: January 2, 2015
    • Presented credentials: February 15, 2015
    • Terminated mission: October 17, 2018[11]
  • Rafik Mansour[12] – Career FSO
    • Chargé d'Affaires October 17, 2018 - March 1, 2019
  • Lynne M. Tracy – Career FSO
    • Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
    • Appointed: February 19, 2019[13]
    • Presented credentials: March 1, 2019[14]
    • Terminated mission: Incumbent

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Armenia Independence". The Government of the Republic of Armenia. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  2. ^ "U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian". U. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  3. ^ Emil Danielyan (May 24, 2006). "U.S. Envoy to Armenia Recalled". ArmeniaLiberty.org. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
  4. ^ Yvonne Abraham, Globe Staff (August 30, 2006). "Armenians try to stall appointment of US envoy". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
  5. ^ "Genocide Issue Blocks Naming Of U.S. Ambassador To Armenia". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. September 13, 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
  6. ^ United States Embassy in Yerevan. "Embassy Leadership". United States Department of State: U.S. Embassy in Yerevan. Archived from the original on 2007-07-02. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
  7. ^ Gilmore was nominated for the second time by President Clinton on April 2, 1993. An earlier nomination of August 10, 1992 was not acted upon by the Senate.
  8. ^ United States Embassy in Yerevan: The Ambassador
  9. ^ United States Embassy in Yerevan: The Ambassador
  10. ^ Ambassador Heffern Presents Copies of Credentials to Foreign Minister Nalbandian
  11. ^ Mills, Richard M. (October 9, 2018). "Farewell Speech As Prepared Ambassador Richard M. Mills". am.usembassy.gov. Archived from the original on December 11, 2018. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  12. ^ "Chargé d'Affaires Rafik Mansour". am.usembassy.gov. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  13. ^ "U.S. Ambassador to Armenia Lynne Tracy". am.usembassy.gov. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  14. ^ "Foreign Minister of Armenia Zohrab Mnatsakanyan met with Lynne M. Tracy, newly appointed Ambassador of the United States". www.mfa.am. Retrieved April 6, 2019.

References[edit]

External links[edit]