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List of amendments to the United States Constitution

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Thirty-three amendments to the United States Constitution have been proposed by the United States Congress and sent to the states for ratification since the Constitution was put into operation on March 4, 1789. Twenty-seven of these, having been ratified by the requisite number of states, are part of the Constitution. The first ten amendments were adopted and ratified simultaneously and are known collectively as the Bill of Rights. Six amendments adopted by Congress and sent to the states have not been ratified by the required number of states. Four of these amendments are still technically open and pending, one is closed and has failed by its own terms, and one is closed and has failed by the terms of the resolution proposing it.

Article Five of the United States Constitution detailed the two-step process for amending the nation's frame of government. Amendments must be properly Proposed and Ratified before becoming operative. This process was designed to strike a balance between the excesses of constant change and inflexibility.[1]

An amendment may be proposed and sent to the states for ratification by either:
OR
To become part of the Constitution, an amendment must be ratified by either (as determined by Congress):
  • The legislatures of three-fourths (currently 38) of the states, within the stipulated time period—if any;
OR
Upon being properly ratified, an amendment becomes an operative addition to the Constitution.

Approximately 11,699 proposals to amend the Constitution have been introduced in Congress since 1789 (as of January 2017).[2] Collectively, members of the House and Senate typically propose around 200 amendments during each two–year term of Congress.[3] Most, however, never get out of the Congressional committees in which they were proposed, and only a fraction of those that do receive enough support to win Congressional approval to go through the constitutional ratification process. Beginning in the early 20th century, Congress has usually, but not always, stipulated that an amendment must be ratified by the required number of states within seven years from the date of its submission to the states in order to become part of the Constitution. Congress' authority to set ratification deadline was affirmed by the United States Supreme Court in Coleman v. Miller, 307 U.S. 433 (1939).

The thirty-three amendments to the United States Constitution—both ratified and unratified—are listed and detailed in the tables below.

Ratified amendments

Synopsis of each ratified amendment

No. Subject[4] Ratification[5][6]
Submitted Completed Time span
1st Prohibits Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the right to petition the government September 25, 1789 December 15, 1791 2 years, 81 days
2nd Protects the right to keep and bear arms September 25, 1789 December 15, 1791 2 years, 81 days
3rd Places restrictions on the quartering of soldiers in private homes September 25, 1789 December 15, 1791 2 years, 81 days
4th Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable cause September 25, 1789 December 15, 1791 2 years, 81 days
5th Sets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domain, protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy September 25, 1789 December 15, 1791 2 years, 81 days
6th Protects the right to a fair and speedy public trial by jury, including the rights to be notified of the accusations, to confront the accuser, to obtain witnesses and to retain counsel September 25, 1789 December 15, 1791 2 years, 81 days
7th Provides for the right to trial by jury in certain civil cases, according to common law September 25, 1789 December 15, 1791 2 years, 81 days
8th Prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment September 25, 1789 December 15, 1791 2 years, 81 days
9th Protects rights not enumerated in the Constitution September 25, 1789 December 15, 1791 2 years, 81 days
10th Reinforces the principle of federalism by stating that the federal government possesses only those powers delegated to it by the states or the people through the Constitution September 25, 1789 December 15, 1791 2 years, 81 days
11th Makes states immune from suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state borders; lays the foundation for sovereign immunity March 4, 1794 February 7, 1795 340 days
12th Revises presidential election procedures by having the president and vice president elected together as opposed to the vice president being the runner up in the presidential election December 9, 1803 June 15, 1804 189 days
13th Abolishes slavery, and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime January 31, 1865 December 6, 1865 309 days
14th Defines citizenship, contains the Privileges or Immunities Clause, the Due Process Clause, the Equal Protection Clause, and deals with post–Civil War issues June 13, 1866 July 9, 1868 2 years, 26 days
15th Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on race, color or previous condition of servitude February 26, 1869 February 3, 1870 342 days
16th Permits Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the various states or basing it on the United States Census July 12, 1909 February 3, 1913 3 years, 206 days
17th Establishes the direct election of United States Senators by popular vote May 13, 1912 April 8, 1913 330 days
18th Prohibited the manufacturing or sale of alcohol within the United States
(Repealed December 5, 1933, via the 21st Amendment)
December 18, 1917 January 16, 1919 1 year, 29 days
19th Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on sex June 4, 1919 August 18, 1920 1 year, 75 days
20th Changes the date on which the terms of the president and vice president and of members of Congress end and begin (to January 20 and January 3 respectively) March 2, 1932 January 23, 1933 327 days
21st Repeals the 18th Amendment and makes it a federal offense to transport or import intoxicating liquors into U.S. states and territories where such transport or importation is prohibited by the laws of those states and territories February 20, 1933 December 5, 1933 288 days
22nd Limits the number of times that a person can be elected president: a person cannot be elected president more than twice, and a person who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected cannot be elected more than once March 24, 1947 February 27, 1951 3 years, 340 days
23rd Grants the District of Columbia electors (the number of electors being equal to the least populous state) in the Electoral College June 16, 1960 March 29, 1961 286 days
24th Prohibits the revocation of voting rights due to the non-payment of a poll tax or any other tax September 14, 1962 January 23, 1964 1 year, 131 days
25th Addresses succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, as well as responding to Presidential disabilities July 6, 1965 February 10, 1967 1 year, 219 days
26th Prohibits the denial of the right of US citizens, eighteen years of age or older, to vote on account of age March 23, 1971 July 1, 1971 100 days
27th Delays laws affecting Congressional salary from taking effect until after the next election of representatives September 25, 1789 May 5, 1992 202 years, 223 days

Summation of ratification data for each ratified amendment

" Y " indicates that state ratified amendment
" N " indicates that state rejected amendment
" Y(‡) " indicates that state ratified amendment after first rejecting it
" Y(×) " indicates that state ratified amendment, later rescinded that ratification, but subsequently re-ratified it
" — " indicates that state did not complete action on amendment
"" indicates that amendment was ratified before state joined the Union
State
(in order of statehood)
1–10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
 Delaware Y Y N Y(‡) Y(‡) Y(‡) Y Y(‡) Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Pennsylvania Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 New Jersey Y Y Y(‡) Y(×) Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Georgia Y Y Y Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y
 Connecticut Y Y N Y Y Y N Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Massachusetts Y Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y
 Maryland Y Y Y Y Y(‡) Y(‡) Y Y Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 South Carolina Y Y Y Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y(‡) Y N Y Y Y Y
 New Hampshire Y Y Y Y Y Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Virginia Y Y Y Y Y(‡) Y N Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 New York Y Y Y Y Y Y(×) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 North Carolina Y Y Y Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Rhode Island Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Vermont Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Kentucky Y Y Y(‡) Y(‡) Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Tennessee Y Y Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Ohio Y Y Y(×) Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Louisiana Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y
 Indiana Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Mississippi Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y(‡) Y Y N Y
 Illinois Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Alabama Y Y Y Y Y Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Maine Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Missouri Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Arkansas Y Y Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y
 Michigan Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Florida Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Texas Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Iowa Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Wisconsin Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 California Y Y Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Minnesota Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Oregon Y Y(×) Y(‡) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Kansas Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 West Virginia Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Nevada Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Nebraska Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Colorado Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
  North Dakota Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 South Dakota Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Montana Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Washington Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Idaho Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Wyoming Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Utah N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Oklahoma Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y
 New Mexico Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Arizona Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Alaska Y Y Y Y Y
 Hawaii Y Y Y Y Y
State
(in order of statehood)
1–10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
     Source: [7]

Unratified amendments

Synopsis of each unratified amendment

Title Subject Status
Congressional Apportionment Amendment Would strictly regulate the size of congressional districts for representation in the House of Representatives. Pending since September 25, 1789
Titles of Nobility Amendment Would strip citizenship from any United States citizen who accepts a title of nobility from a foreign country. Pending since May 1, 1810
Corwin Amendment Would make the states' "domestic institutions" (slavery) impervious to the constitutional amendment procedures established in Article V and immune to abolition or interference from Congress. Pending since March 2, 1861
Child Labor Amendment Would empower the federal government to limit, regulate, and prohibit child labor. Pending since June 2, 1924
Equal Rights Amendment Would have prohibited deprivation of equality of rights by the federal or state governments on account of sex. Initial ratification period ended March 22, 1979, and extension period ended June 30, 1982; amendment failed
District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment Would have treated the District of Columbia as if it were a state regarding representation in the United States Congress (including repealing the 23rd Amendment), representation in the Electoral College and participation in the process by which the Constitution is amended. Ratification period ended August 22, 1985; amendment failed

Summation of ratification data for each unratified amendment

" Y " indicates that state ratified amendment
" N " indicates that state rejected amendment
" Y(‡) " indicates that state ratified amendment after first rejecting it
" Y(×) " indicates that state ratified amendment, but later recinded that ratification
"" indicates that state did not complete action on amendment during stated ratification period.
" " An empty cell indicates that state has not completed action on pending amendment.
State
(in alphabetical order)
Congressional Apportionment
Titles of Nobility
Corwin
Child Labor
Equal Rights
District of Columbia Voting Rights
 Alabama
 Alaska Y
 Arizona Y
 Arkansas Y
 California Y Y
 Colorado Y Y
 Connecticut N N N Y Y
 Delaware N Y N Y Y
 Florida N
 Georgia N Y N
 Hawaii Y Y
 Idaho Y Y(×)
 Illinois Y Y ⋈Y
 Indiana Y(‡) Y
 Iowa Y Y Y
 Kansas Y(‡) Y
 Kentucky Y Y Y Y(‡) Y(×)
 Louisiana N Y
 Maine Y(‡) Y Y
 Maryland Y Y Y(×) N Y Y
 Massachusetts N Y N Y Y
 Michigan Y Y Y
 Minnesota Y(‡) Y Y
 Mississippi
 Missouri N
 Montana Y Y
 Nebraska Y(×)
 Nevada Y ⋈Y
 New Hampshire Y Y Y(‡) Y
 New Jersey Y Y Y Y Y
 New Mexico Y(‡) Y
 New York Y N Y
 North Carolina Y Y N
  North Dakota Y Y
 Ohio Y Y(×) Y Y Y
 Oklahoma Y
 Oregon Y Y Y
 Pennsylvania Y(‡) Y Y(‡) Y
 Rhode Island Y N Y Y Y
 South Carolina Y N
 South Dakota N Y(×)
 Tennessee Y N Y(×)
 Texas N Y
 Utah Y(‡)
 Vermont Y Y N Y
 Virginia Y N
 Washington Y Y
 West Virginia Y Y Y
 Wisconsin Y Y Y
 Wyoming Y Y
Number of ratifications: 11 12 5(×2) 28 37(×5,⋈2) 16

See also

References

  1. ^ England, Trent; Spalding, Matthew. "Essays on Article V: Amendments". The Heritage Guide to The Constitution. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  2. ^ "Measures Proposed to Amend the Constitution". Washington, D.C.: Office of the Secretary, United States Senate. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  3. ^ "C-SPAN's Capitol Questions". June 9, 2000. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  4. ^ "U.S. Constitution". Ithaca, New York: Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  5. ^ "The Bill of Rights". America's Founding Documents. Washington, D.C.: National Archives. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  6. ^ "The Constitution: Amendments 11-27". America's Founding Documents. Washington, D.C.: National Archives. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  7. ^ Garcia, Michael J.; Lewis, Catlain Devereaux; Nolan, Andrew; Toten, Meghan; Tyson, Ashley, eds. (2017). "Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation" (PDF). 112th Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Document No. 112–9. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 25–45. Retrieved October 29, 2018.

External links