|Part of the Politics series on|
|Part of the Politics series|
|Basic forms of government|
Anarchism is an anti-authoritarian political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary, cooperative institutions and the rejection of hierarchies those societies view as unjust. These institutions are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as distinct institutions based on non-hierarchical or free associations. While anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary and harmful, opposition to the state is not its central or sole definition. For instance, anarchism can entail opposing authority or hierarchy in the conduct of all human relations.
Anarchism is often considered a far-left ideology and much of its economics and legal philosophy reflect anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism, mutualism, or participatory economics. As anarchism does not offer a fixed body of doctrine from a single particular world view, instead fluxing and flowing as a philosophy, many anarchist types and traditions exist, not all of which are mutually exclusive.
Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have often been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism, or similar dual classifications. Other classifications may add mutualism as a third category, with some consider it part of individualist anarchim and others regard it to be part of social anarchism.
- 1 Etymology, terminology and definition
- 2 History
- 3 Anarchist schools of thought
- 4 Internal issues and debates
- 5 Topics of interest
- 6 Criticisms
- 7 List of anarchist societies
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Sources
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Etymology, terminology and definition
The etymological origin of anarchism derives from ancient Greek word anarkhia. Anarkhia meant "without a ruler" as it was composed by the prefix a (i.e. "without") and the word arkhos (i.e. leader or ruler). The suffix -ism is used to denote the ideological current that favours anarchism. The first known use of this word was in 1642. Various factions within the French Revolution labelled opponents as anarchists although few shared many views of later anarchists. There would be many revolutionaries of the early 19th century who contributed to the anarchist doctrines of the next generation, such as William Godwin and Wilhelm Weitling, but they did not use the word anarchist or anarchism in describing themselves or their beliefs.
The first political philosopher to call himself an anarchist was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, marking the formal birth of anarchism in the mid-19th century. Since the 1890s and beginning in France, the term libertarianism has often been used as a synonym for anarchism and its use as a synonym is still common outside the United States. On the other hand, some use libertarianism to refer to individualistic free-market philosophy only, referring to free-market anarchism as libertarian anarchism.
While opposition to the state is central, defining anarchism is not an easy task as there is a lot of talk among scholars and anarchists on the matter and various currents perceive anarchism slightly differently. Hence, it might be true to say that anarchism is a cluster of political philosophies opposing authority and hierarchical organization (including the state, capitalism, nationalism and all associated institutions) in the conduct of all human relations in favour of a society based on voluntary association, freedom and decentralization. However, this definition has its own shortcomings as the definition based on etymology (which is simply a negation of a ruler), or based on anti-statism (anarchism is much more than that) or even the anti-authoritarian (which is an a posteriori concussion). Major elements of the definition of anarchism include: a) the will for a non coercive society; b) the rejection of the state apparatus; c) belief in human nature, although it is even harder to define it than anarchism; and d) a suggestion on how to act to pursue the ideal of anarchy.
Prehistoric and ancient world
During the prehistoric era of mankind, an established authority did not exist. It was after the creation of towns and cities that hierarchy was invented and anarchistic ideas espoused as a reaction. Most notable examples of anarchism in the ancient world were in China and Greece. In China, philosophical anarchism, meaning peaceful delegitimizing of the state, was delineated by Taoist philosophers (i.e. Zhuangzi and Lao Tzu). Likewise in Greece, anarchist attitudes were articulated by tragedians and philosophers. Aeschylus and Sophocles used the myth of Antigone to illustrate the conflict of personal autonomy with the state rules. Socrates questioned Athenian authorities constantly and insisted to the right of individual freedom of consciousness. Cynics dismissed human law (Nomos) and associated authorities while trying to live according to nature (physis). Stoics were supportive of a society based on unofficial and friendly relations among its citizens without the presence of a state.
During the Middle Ages, there was no anarchistic activity except some ascetic religious movements in the Islamic world or in Christian Europe. This kind of tradition later gave birth to religious anarchism. In Persia, a Zoroastrian Prophet known as Mazdak was calling for an egalitarian society and the abolition of monarchy, but he soon found himself executed by the king. In Basra, religious sects preached against the state. In Europe, various sects developed anti-state and libertarian tendencies. Those currents were the precursor of religious anarchism in the centuries to come. It was in the Renaissance and with the spread of reasoning and humanism through Europe that libertarian ideas emerged. Writers were outlining in their novels ideal societies that were based not on coercion but voluntarism. The Enlightenment further pushed towards anarchism with the optimism for social progress.
The turning point towards anarchism was the French Revolution in which the anti-state and federalist sentiments began to take a form, mostly by Enragés and sans-culottes.Some prominent figures of anarchism begun developing the first anarchist currents. That is the era of classical anarchism that lasted until the end of the Spanish Civil War and was the belle epoque of anarchism. William Godwin in England espoused to philosophical anarchism, morally delegitimizing the state, Max Stirner thinking paved the way to individualism and Pietr Joseph Proudhon's theory of mutualism, found fertile soil in France.
Michael Bakunin took mutualism and extended it to collectivist anarchism. Bakunin's current (Jura Federation) entered the class worker union called the International Workingmen's Association (IWA), later known as the First International, formed in 1864 to unite diverse revolutionary currents. Due to its links to active workers' movements, the International became a significant organisation. Karl Marx became a leading figure in the International and a member of its General Council. Proudhon's followers, the mutualists, opposed Marx's state socialism, advocating political abstentionism and small property holdings. Bakunin's followers entered a bitter dispute with Karl Marx which ended with the split of the workers movement that officially took place in the Fifth Congress of the IWA in the Hague, 1872. The major reason lied on fundamentally different approaches on how the workers would emancipate themselves. Marx was advocating for the creation of a political party to take part in electoral struggles whereas Bakunin thought that the whole set of Marx's thinking was very authoritarian. Bakunin is famous for predicting that if such a party would gain power by Marxist's terms, it would end up to be the new tyrant of workers. After being expelled from the IWA, anarchists formed the St. Imier International. Under the influence of Peter Kropotkin, a Russian philosopher and scientist, anarcho-communism overlapped collectivism. Anarcho-communists, who drew inspiration from the 1871 Paris Commune, advocated for free federation and distribution of goods according to one needs. The major argument of anarcho-communism was that Bakunian perspective would lead to antagonism among collectives.
At the turning of the century, anarchism has spread all over the world. In China, small groups of students imported the humanistic pro-science version of anarcho-communism. Tokyo was a hotspot for rebellious youth from countries of the far east, pouring into Japanese capital to study. In Latin America, São Paulo was a stronghold and anarchosyndicalism was the most prominent left-wing ideology. During that time, a minority of anarchists embarked into utilizing of violence in order to achieve their political ends. This kind of strategy is named as propaganda by the deed. The dismemberment of the French socialist movement into many groups and the execution and exile of many Communards to penal colonies following the suppression of the Paris Commune favoured individualist political expression and acts. Even though many anarchists distanced themselves to those terrorist acts, anarchists were persecuted and were given bad fame. Illegalism, stealing the possessions of the rich because capitalists were not their rightful owners, was another strategy some anarchist adopted during the same years.
Anarchists took part enthusiastically in the Russian Revolution. During the revolution, anarchists had concerns, but they opted for the revolution rather than supporting the Whites. However, they met harsh suppression after the Bolshevik government was stabilized. Anarchists in central Russia were either imprisoned, driven underground or joined the victorious Bolsheviks. Anarchists from Petrograd and Moscow instead fled to Ukraine. The Kronstadt rebellion and Nestor Makhno's struggle in the Free Territory were the most notable examples. Wth the anarchists being crashed in Russia, two new antithetical currents emerged, namely platformism and synthesis anarchism. Platformists sought to create a coherent group that would push for the revolution while the latter were against anything that would resemble a political party. The victory of the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution and the resulting Russian Civil War did serious damage to anarchist movements internationally. Many workers and activists saw the Bolshevik success as setting an example and communist parties grew at the expense of anarchism and other socialist movements. In France and the United States, members of the major syndicalist movements of the General Confederation of Labour and Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) left the organisations and joined the Communist International.
In the Spanish Civil War, anarchist's most glorious moment, anarchists and syndicalists (CNT and FAI) once again allied themselves with various currents of leftists. Spain had a long anarchist tradition, and thus anarchist played an important role in the Civil War. In response to the army rebellion, an anarchist-inspired movement of peasants and workers, supported by armed militias, took control of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain where they collectivised the land. The Soviet Union provided some limited assistance at the beginning of the civil war, but as Stalin tried to seize control of the Republicans, the result was a bitter fight among communists and anarchists (i.e. at a series of events named May Days).
Post-World War II anarchism
In the first years after World War II, the anarchist movement was severely damaged. However, the 1960s witnessed a revival of anarchism. The main causes of such a revival may have been the failure of Marxism–Leninism and the tension build by the Cold War. During this era, anarchism was mostly part of other movements critical to both the state and capitalism such as the anti-nuclear, environmental and pacifist movements, the New Left, or the counterculture of the 1960s. Anarchism was also associated with the punk rock movement as exemplified by bands such as Crass and the Sex Pistols. Although feminist tendencies have always[clarification needed] been a part of the anarchist movement in the form of anarcha-feminism, they returned with vigour during the second wave of feminism in the 1960s.
Around the turn of the 21st century, anarchism grew in popularity and influence as part of the anti-war, anti-capitalist and anti-globalisation movements. Anarchists became known for their involvement in protests against the meetings of the World Trade Organization (WTO), Group of Eight (G8) and the World Economic Forum (WEF). Some anarchist factions at these protests engaged in rioting, property destruction and violent confrontations with the police. These actions were precipitated by ad hoc, leaderless, anonymous cadres known as black blocs—other organisational tactics pioneered in this time include security culture, affinity groups and the use of decentralised technologies such as the internet. A significant event of this period was the confrontations at the WTO conference in Seattle in 1999. Anarchist ideas have been influential in the development of the Zapatistas in Chiapas, Mexico and the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, more commonly known as Rojava, a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria.
Anarchist schools of thought
Anarchist schools of thought had been generally grouped in two main historical traditions (individualist anarchism and social anarchism) which have some different origins, values and evolution. The individualist wing of anarchism emphasises negative liberty (opposition to state or social control over the individual) while those in the social wing emphasise positive liberty to achieve one's potential and argue that humans have needs that society ought to fulfil, "recognising equality of entitlement". In a chronological and theoretical sense, there are classical—those created throughout the 19th century—and post-classical anarchist schools—those created since the mid-20th century and after.
Beyond the specific factions of anarchist thought is philosophical anarchism, embodying the theoretical stance that the state lacks moral legitimacy without accepting the imperative of revolution to eliminate it. A component of individualist anarchism, philosophical anarchism may accept the existence of a minimal state as unfortunate and usually temporary, necessary evil, but argue that citizens do not have a moral obligation to obey the state when its laws conflict with individual autonomy. One reaction against sectarianism within the anarchist milieu was anarchism without adjectives, a call for toleration first adopted by Fernando Tarrida del Mármol in 1889 in response to the "bitter debates" of anarchist theory at the time. In abandoning the hyphenated anarchisms (i.e. collectivist-, communist-, mutualist- and individualist-anarchism), it sought to emphasise the anti-authoritarian beliefs common to all anarchist schools of thought. The various anarchist schools of thought or currents are not distinct entities, but intermingle with each other.
Collectivist, communist and anarcho-syndicalism are considered a form of social anarchism. Mutualism and individualism were the other notable anarchist currents through the 19th and early 20th century. Social anarchism rejects private property, seeing it as a source of social inequality (while retaining respect for personal property) and emphasises cooperation and mutual aid.
Mutualism began in 18th-century English and French labour movements before taking an anarchist form associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in France and others in the United States. Proudhon proposed spontaneous order, whereby organisation emerges without central authority, a "positive anarchy" where order arises when everybody does "what he wishes and only what he wishes" and where "business transactions alone produce the social order".
Proudhon distinguished between ideal political possibilities and practical governance. For this reason, much in contrast to some of his theoretical statements concerning ultimate spontaneous self-governance, Proudhon was heavily involved in French parliamentary politics and allied himself with the socialist factions of the workers movement. During his life of public service, he began advocating state-protected charters for worker-owned cooperatives and promoting certain nationalisation schemes.
Mutualist anarchism is concerned with reciprocity, free association, voluntary contract, federation and credit and currency reform. According to the American mutualist William Batchelder Greene, each worker in the mutualist system would receive "just and exact pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being exchangeable for services equivalent in cost, without profit or discount". Mutualism has been retrospectively characterised as ideologically situated between individualist and collectivist forms of anarchism. Proudhon first characterised his goal as a "third form of society, the synthesis of communism and property [which] we call LIBERTY".
At the epicentre of collectivist anarchism lies the belief in the potential of humankind for goodness and solidarity which will flourish when oppressive governments are abolished. Collectivist anarchists oppose all private ownership of the means of production, instead advocating that ownership be collectivised. This was to be achieved through violent revolution, first starting with a small cohesive group through acts of violence, or propaganda by the deed, to inspire the workers as a whole to revolt and forcibly collectivise the means of production. However, collectivisation was not to be extended to the distribution of income as workers would be paid according to time worked, rather than receiving goods being distributed according to need as in anarcho-communism. This position was criticised by anarcho-communists as effectively "uphold[ing] the wages system". Collectivist anarchism arose contemporaneously with Marxism, but it opposed the Marxist dictatorship of the proletariat despite the stated Marxist goal of a collectivist stateless society.
Anarchist, communist and collectivist ideas are not mutually exclusive—although the collectivist anarchists advocated compensation for labour, some held out the possibility of a post-revolutionary transition to a communist system of distribution according to need.
|Part of a series on|
Anarcho-communism, also known as anarchist-communism, communist anarchism and libertarian communism, is a theory of anarchism that advocates abolition of the state, markets, money, private property (while retaining respect for personal property) and capitalism in favour of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy and a horizontal network of voluntary associations and workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need".
Some forms of anarcho-communism such as insurrectionary anarchism are strongly influenced by egoism and radical individualism, believing anarcho-communism is the best social system for the realisation of individual freedom. Most anarcho-communists view anarcho-communism as a way of reconciling the opposition between the individual and society.
Anarcho-communism developed out of radical socialist currents after the French Revolution, but it was first formulated as such in the Italian section of the First International. The theoretical work of Peter Kropotkin took importance later as it expanded and developed pro-organisationalist and insurrectionary anti-organisationalist sections.
To date, the best known examples of an anarchist communist society (i.e. established around the ideas as they exist today and achieving worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon), are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution and the Free Territory during the Russian Revolution. Through the efforts and influence of the Spanish anarchists during the Spanish Revolution within the Spanish Civil War starting in 1936, anarcho-communism existed in most of Aragon, parts of the Levante and Andalusia as well as in the stronghold of Catalonia. Along with the Republicans, it was crushed by the combined forces of the Francisco Franco's Nationalists, Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini as well as repression by the Communist Party of Spain (backed by the Soviet Union) and economic and armaments blockades from the capitalist countries and the Spanish Republic itself.
Anarcho-syndicalists view labour unions as a potential force for revolutionary social change, replacing capitalism and the state with a new society democratically self-managed by workers. The basic principles of anarcho-syndicalism are workers' solidarity, direct action and workers' self-management. Anarcho-syndicalists believe that only direct action—that is, action concentrated on directly attaining a goal as opposed to indirect action such as electing a representative to a government position—will allow workers to liberate themselves.
Moreover, anarcho-syndicalists believe that workers' organisations (the organisations that struggle against the wage system which in anarcho-syndicalist theory will eventually form the basis of a new society) should be self-managing. They should not have bosses or business agents—rather, the workers should be able to make all the decisions that affect them themselves. Rudolf Rocker was one of the most popular voices in the anarcho-syndicalist movement. He outlined a view of the origins of the movement, what it sought and why it was important to the future of labour in his 1938 pamphlet Anarcho-Syndicalism. The International Workers Association is an international anarcho-syndicalist federation of various labour unions from different countries. The Spanish CNT played and still plays a major role in the Spanish labour movement. It was also an important force in the Spanish Civil War.
Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasise the individual and their will over any kinds of external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems. Individualist anarchism is not a single philosophy, but it instead refers to a group of individualistic philosophies that sometimes are in conflict.
In 1793, William Godwin, who has often been cited as the first anarchist, wrote Political Justice, which some consider the first expression of anarchism. Godwin was a philosophical anarchist and from a rationalist and utilitarian basis opposed revolutionary action and saw a minimal state as a present "necessary evil" that would become increasingly irrelevant and powerless by the gradual spread of knowledge. Godwin advocated individualism, proposing that all cooperation in labour be eliminated on the premise that this would be most conducive with the general good.
An influential form of individualist anarchism called egoism, or egoist anarchism, was expounded by one of the earliest and best-known proponents of individualist anarchism, the German Max Stirner. Stirner's The Ego and Its Own, published in 1844, is a founding text of the philosophy. According to Stirner, the only limitation on the rights of individuals is their power to obtain what they desire without regard for God, state, or morality. To Stirner, rights were "spooks" in the mind and he held that society does not exist, but "the individuals are its reality". Stirner advocated self-assertion and foresaw unions of egoists, non-systematic associations continually renewed by all parties' support through an act of will, which Stirner proposed as a form of organisation in place of the state. Egoist anarchists argue that egoism will foster genuine and spontaneous union between individuals. "Egoism" has inspired many interpretations of Stirner's philosophy. It was re-discovered and promoted by German philosophical anarchist and homosexual activist John Henry Mackay.
Josiah Warren was a pioneer American anarcho-individualist, who drew inspiration from Proudhon. Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862) was an important early influence in individualist anarchist thought in the United States and Europe. Thoreau was an American author, poet, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, philosopher and leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his books Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, as well as his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state. Benjamin Tucker later fused Stirner's egoism with the economics of Warren and Proudhon in his eclectic influential publication Liberty.
From these early influences, individualist anarchism in different countries attracted a small yet diverse following of Bohemian artists and intellectuals, free love and birth control advocates (see anarchism and issues related to love and sex), individualist naturists and nudists (see anarcho-naturism), freethought and anti-clerical activists as well as young anarchist outlaws in what became known as illegalism and individual reclamation (see European individualist anarchism and individualist anarchism in France). These authors and activists included Oscar Wilde, Emile Armand, Han Ryner, Henri Zisly, Renzo Novatore, Miguel Gimenez Igualada, Adolf Brand and Lev Chernyi, among others.
Post-classical and contemporany
Anarchist principles undergird contemporary radical social movements of the left. Interest in the anarchist movement developed alongside momentum in the anti-globalization movement, whose leading activist networks were anarchist in orientation. As the movement shaped 21st century radicalism, wider embrace of anarchist principles signaled a revival of interest. Contemporary news coverage which emphasizes black bloc demonstrations has reinforced anarchism's historical association with chaos and violence, though its publicity has also led more scholars to engage with the anarchist movement. Anarchism continues to generate many philosophies and movements, at times eclectic, drawing upon various sources and syncretic, combining disparate concepts to create new philosophical approaches.
Insurrectionary anarchism is a revolutionary theory, practice and tendency within the anarchist movement which emphasises insurrection within anarchist practice It is critical of formal organisations such as labour unions and federations that are based on a political programme and periodic congresses. Instead, insurrectionary anarchists advocate informal organisation and small affinity group based organisation. Insurrectionary anarchists put value in attack, permanent class conflict and a refusal to negotiate or compromise with class enemies.
Green anarchism, or eco-anarchism, is a school of thought within anarchism that emphasises environmental issues, with an important precedent in anarcho-naturism and whose main contemporary currents are anarcho-primitivism and social ecology. Writing from a green anarchist perspective, John Zerzan attributes the ills of today's social degradation to technology and the birth of agricultural civilization. While Layla AbdelRahim argues that "the shift in human consciousness was also a shift in human subsistence strategies, whereby some human animals reinvented their narrative to center murder and predation and thereby institutionalize violence". According to AbdelRahim, civilization was the result of the human development of technologies and grammar for predatory economics. Language and literacy, she claims, are some of these technologies.
Anarcho-pacifism is a tendency that rejects violence in the struggle for social change (see non-violence). It developed mostly in the Netherlands, Britain and the United States before and during the Second World War. Christian anarchism is a movement in political theology that combines anarchism and Christianity. Its main proponents included Leo Tolstoy, Dorothy Day, Ammon Hennacy and Jacques Ellul.
Religious anarchism refers to a set of related anarchist ideologies that are inspired by the teachings of religions. While many anarchists have traditionally been skeptical of and opposed to organized religion, many different religions have served as inspiration for religious forms of anarchism, most notably Christianity as Christian anarchists believe that biblical teachings give credence to anarchist philosophy. Non-Christian forms of religious anarchism include Buddhist anarchism, Jewish anarchism and most recently Neopaganism.
Synthesis anarchism is a form of anarchism that tries to join anarchists of different tendencies under the principles of anarchism without adjectives. In the 1920s, this form found as its main proponents the anarcho-communists Voline and Sébastien Faure. It is the main principle behind the anarchist federations grouped around the contemporary global International of Anarchist Federations.[better source needed]
Platformism is a tendency within the wider anarchist movement based on the organisational theories in the tradition of Dielo Truda's Organisational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft). The document was based on the experiences of Russian anarchists in the 1917 October Revolution, which led eventually to the victory of the Bolsheviks over the anarchists and other groups. The Platform attempted to address and explain the anarchist movement's failures during the Russian Revolution.
Post-left anarchy is a recent current in anarchist thought that promotes a critique of anarchism's relationship to traditional left-wing politics. Some post-leftists seek to escape the confines of ideology in general also presenting a critique of organisations and morality. Influenced by the work of Max Stirner and by the Marxist Situationist International, post-left anarchy is marked by a focus on social insurrection and a rejection of leftist social organisation.
Post-anarchism is a theoretical move towards a synthesis of classical anarchist theory and poststructuralist thought, drawing from diverse ideas including post-left anarchy, postmodernism, autonomism, postcolonialism and the Situationist International.
Queer anarchism is a form of socialism which suggests anarchism as a solution to the issues faced by the LGBT community, mainly heteronormativity, homophobia, transphobia and biphobia. Anarcho-queer arose during the late 20th century based on the work of Michel Foucault The History of Sexuality.
Left-wing market anarchism strongly affirm the classical liberal ideas of self-ownership and free markets while maintaining that taken to their logical conclusions these ideas support strongly anti-corporatist, anti-hierarchical, pro-labour positions and anti-capitalism in economics and anti-imperialism in foreign policy.
Anarcho-capitalism advocates the elimination of the state in favour of self-ownership in a free market. Anarcho-capitalism developed from radical anti-state libertarianism and individualist anarchism, drawing from Austrian School economics, study of law and economics and public choice theory. There is a strong current within anarchism which believes that anarcho-capitalism cannot be considered a part of the anarchist movement due to the fact that anarchism has historically been an anti-capitalist movement and for definitional reasons which see anarchism as incompatible with capitalist forms.
Anarcho-transhumanism is a recently new branch of anarchism that takes traditional and modern anarchism, typically drawing from anarcho-syndicalism, left-libertarianism or libertarian socialism and combines it with transhumanism and post-humanism. It can be described as a "liberal democratic revolution, at its core the idea that people are happiest when they have rational control over their lives. Reason, science, and technology provide one kind of control, slowly freeing us from ignorance, toil, pain, disease and limited lifespans (aging)". Some anarcho-transhumanists might also follow technogaianism.
Anarcha-feminism, also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism, combines anarchism with feminism. It generally views patriarchy as a manifestation of involuntary coercive hierarchy that should be replaced by decentralised free association. Anarcha-feminists believe that the struggle against patriarchy is an essential part of class struggle and the anarchist struggle against the state. In essence, the philosophy sees anarchist struggle as a necessary component of feminist struggle and vice versa. Anarcha-feminists espoused to a detailed analysis of patriarchy and claim that oppression has its roots to social norms.
Anarcha-feminism began with the late 19th-century writings of early feminist anarchists such as Emma Goldman and Voltairine de Cleyre. Mujeres Libres was an anarchist women's organisation in Spain that aimed to empower working class women, based on the idea of a double struggle for women's liberation and social revolution and argued that the two objectives were equally important and should be pursued in parallel. In order to gain mutual support, they created networks of women anarchists. The second wave of anarcha-feminism arose in the 1960s.
Internal issues and debates
Anarchism is a philosophy that embodies many diverse attitudes, tendencies and schools of thought and as such disagreement over questions of values, ideology and tactics is common. The compatibility of capitalism, nationalism and religion with anarchism is widely disputed. Similarly, anarchism enjoys complex relationships with ideologies such as Marxism, communism, collectivism, syndicalism/trade unionism and capitalism. Anarchists may be motivated by humanism, divine authority, enlightened self-interest, veganism, or any number of alternative ethical doctrines.
On a tactical level, while propaganda of the deed was a tactic used by anarchists in the 19th century (e.g. the nihilist movement), some contemporary anarchists espouse alternative direct action methods such as nonviolence, counter-economics and anti-state cryptography to bring about an anarchist society. About the scope of an anarchist society, some anarchists advocate a global one, while others do so by local ones. The diversity in anarchism has led to widely different use of identical terms among different anarchist traditions, which has led to many definitional concerns in anarchist theory.
Topics of interest
Intersecting and overlapping between various schools of thought, certain topics of interest and internal disputes have proven perennial within anarchist theory.
Anarchism and free love
An important current within anarchism is free love. In Europe, the main propagandist of free love within individualist anarchism was Emile Armand. He proposed the concept of la camaraderie amoureuse to speak of free love as the possibility of voluntary sexual encounter between consenting adults. He was also a consistent proponent of polyamory. In Germany, the Stirnerists Adolf Brand and John Henry Mackay were pioneering campaigners for the acceptance of male bisexuality and homosexuality. More recently, the British anarcho-pacifist Alex Comfort gained notoriety during the sexual revolution for writing the bestseller sex manual The Joy of Sex. The issue of free love has a dedicated treatment in the work of French anarcho-hedonist philosopher Michel Onfray in such works as Théorie du corps amoureux. Pour une érotique solaire (2000) and L'invention du plaisir. Fragments cyréaniques (2002).
Anarchism and education
English anarchist William Godwin considered education an important aspect. He was against state education as he considered those schools as a way of the state to replicate privileges of the ruling class. Godwin thought that education was the way to change the world. In his Political Justice, he criticises state sponsored schooling and advocates for child's protection from coercion. Max Stirner wrote in 1842 a long essay on education called The False Principle of our Education in which Stirner was advocating for child's autonomy.
In 1901, Catalan anarchist and free thinker Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia established modern or progressive schools in Barcelona in defiance of an educational system controlled by the Catholic Church. Ferrer's approach was secular, rejecting both the state and church involvement in the educational process and gave pupils plenty of autonomy (i.e. on setting the curriculum). Ferrer was aiming to educate the working class. The school closed after constant harassment by the state and Ferrer was later on arrested. Ferrer's ideas generally formed the inspiration for a series of modern schools in the United States,
Russian Christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy established a school for peasant children on his estate. Tolstoy's educational experiments were short-lived due to harassment by the Tsarist secret police. Tolstoy established a conceptual difference between education and culture. He thought that "[e]ducation is the tendency of one man to make another just like himself. [...] Education is culture under restraint, culture is free. [Education is] when the teaching is forced upon the pupil, and when then instruction is exclusive, that is when only those subjects are taught which the educator regards as necessary". For him, "without compulsion, education was transformed into culture".
A more recent libertarian tradition on education is that of unschooling and the free school in which child-led activity replaces pedagogic approaches. Experiments in Germany led to A. S. Neill founding what became Summerhill School in 1921. Summerhill is often cited as an example of anarchism in practice. However, although Summerhill and other free schools are radically libertarian, they differ in principle from those of Ferrer by not advocating an overtly political class struggle-approach. In addition to organising schools according to libertarian principles, anarchists have also questioned the concept of schooling per se. The term deschooling was popularised by Ivan Illich, who argued that the school as an institution is dysfunctional for self-determined learning and serves the creation of a consumer society instead.
Anarchism and Marxism
Anarchism has had a strained relationship with Marxism since Karl Marx's life. The dispute between Marx and Mikhail Bakunin and Marx highlighted the differences between anarchism and Marxism, with Bakunin criticizing Marx for his authoritarian bent. Bakunin also argued—against certain ideas of a number of Marxists—that not all revolutions need to be violent. For instance, he strongly rejected Marx's concept of the dictatorship of the proletariat, a concept that vanguardist socialism including Marxist–Leninism would use to justify one-party rule from above by a party representing the proletariat. Bakunin insisted that revolutions must be led by the people directly while any "enlightened elite" must only exert influence by remaining "invisible [...] not imposed on anyone [...] [and] deprived of all official rights and significance". He held that the state should be immediately abolished because all forms of government eventually lead to oppression. Bakunin has sometimes been called the first theorist of the concept of a new class, meaning that a class of intellectuals and bureaucrats running the state in the name of the people or the proletariat—but in reality in their own interests alone. Bakunin argued that the "[s]tate has always been the patrimony of some privileged class: a priestly class, an aristocratic class, a bourgeois class. And finally, when all the other classes have exhausted themselves, the State then becomes the patrimony of the bureaucratic class and then falls—or, if you will, rises—to the position of a machine". Bakunin also had a different view as compared to Marx's on the revolutionary potential of the lumpenproletariat and the proletariat. As such, "[b]oth agreed that the proletariat would play a key role, but for Marx the proletariat was the exclusive, leading revolutionary agent while Bakunin entertained the possibility that the peasants and even the lumpenproletariat (the unemployed, common criminals, etc.) could rise to the occasion". Bakunin "considers workers' integration in capital as destructive of more primary revolutionary forces. For Bakunin, the revolutionary archetype is found in a peasant milieu (which is presented as having longstanding insurrectionary traditions, as well as a communist archetype in its current social form—the peasant commune) and amongst educated unemployed youth, assorted marginals from all classes, brigands, robbers, the impoverished masses, and those on the margins of society who have escaped, been excluded from, or not yet subsumed in the discipline of emerging industrial work. [...] [I]n short, all those whom Marx sought to include in the category of the lumpenproletariat".
While both anarchists and Marxists share the same final goal, the creation of a free, egalitarian society without social classes and government, they strongly disagree on how to achieve this goal. Anarchists, especially social anarchists, believe that the classless, stateless society should be established by the direct action of the masses, culminating in social revolution and refusing any intermediate stage such as the dictatorship of the proletariat on the basis that such a dictatorship will become a self-perpetuating fundament. However, libertarian Marxists argue that Marx used the phrase to mean that the worker control at the point of production and not a party would still be a state until society is reorganized according to socialist principles. For Bakunin, the fundamental contradiction is that for the Marxists "anarchism or freedom is the aim, while the state and dictatorship is the means, and so, in order to free the masses, they have first to be enslaved". Ultimately, the main divide between anarchism and Marxism is between decentralisation and centralisation, with anarchists favouring decentralisation and Marxists arguing that due to the Industrial Revolution a certain degree of centralisation has become necessary.
Anarchists and many non-Marxist libertarian socialists reject the need for a transitory state phase known, claiming that socialism can only be established through decentralized, non-coercive organization. The phrases barracks socialism or barracks communism became a shorthand for this critique, evoking the image of citizens' lives being as regimented as the lives of conscripts in a barracks. Ironically, the term barracks communism (German: Kasernenkommunismus) was coined by Marx himself to refer to a crude, authoritarian, forced collectivism and communism where all aspects of life are bureaucratically regimented and communal. Originally, Marx used the expression to criticise the vision of Sergey Nechayev outlined in "The Fundamentals of the Future Social System" which had a major influence on other Russian revolutionaries like Pyotr Tkachev and Vladimir Lenin. The term barracks here does not refer to military barracks, but to the workers' barracks-type primitive dormitories in which industrial workers lived in many places in the Russian Empire of the time. Later, political theorists of the Soviet Union applied this term to China under Mao Zedong. Still later during the Soviet perestroika period, the term was used to apply to the history of the Soviet Union itself.
Noam Chomsky is critical of Marxism's dogmatic strains and the idea of Marxism itself, but he still appreciates Marx's contributions to political thought. Unlike some anarchists, Chomsky does not consider Bolshevism "Marxism in practice", but he does recognize that Marx was a complicated figure who had conflicting ideas. While acknowledging the latent authoritarianism in Marx, Chomsky also points to the libertarian strains that developed into the council communism of Rosa Luxemburg and Anton Pannekoek. However, his commitment to libertarian socialism has led him to characterize himself as an anarchist with radical Marxist leanings. As a response to those critiques, libertarian Marxism refers to a broad scope of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian aspects of Marxism. Early currents of libertarian Marxism, known as left communism, emerged in opposition to Marxism–Leninism and its derivatives such as Stalinism and Maoism. Libertarian Marxism is also often critical of reformist positions, such as those held by social democrats. Libertarian Marxist currents often draw from Marx and Friedrich Engels' later works, specifically the Grundrisse and The Civil War in France, emphasizing the Marxist belief in the ability of the working class to forge its own destiny without the need for a revolutionary party or state to mediate or aid its liberation. Along with anarchism, libertarian Marxism is one of the main currents of libertarian socialism.
Anarchism and the state
Objection to the state and its institutions is sine qua non of anarchism. Anarchists consider the government as a tool of domination and it is illegitimate regardless of political tendencies. Instead of people being able to control the aspects of their life, major decisions are taken by a small elite. Authority ultimately rests solely on power regardless if it is "open" or "transparent" as it still has the ability to coerce people. Another anarchist argument against states is that some people constituting a government, even the most altruistic among officials, will unavoidably seek to gain more power, leading to corruption. Anarchists consider the argument that the state is the collective will of people as a fairy tale since the ruling class is distinct from the rest of the society.
Anarchism and violence
Anarchist perspectives towards violence have always been perplexed and controversial. On one hand, anarcho-pacifists point out the unity of means and ends. On the other hand, other groups of anarchist are for direct action that can include sabotage or even terrorism. Emma Goldman and Errico Malatesta, who were proponents of limited use of violence, were arguing that violence is merely a reaction to state violence as a necessary evil. Peace activist and anarchist April Carter argues that violence is incompatible with anarchism because it is mostly associated with the state and authority as violence is immanent to the state. As the state's capability to exercise violence is colossal nowadays, a rebellion or civil war would probably end in another authoritarian institute.
Moral and pragmatic criticism of anarchism includes allegations of utopianism, tacit authoritarianism and vandalism towards feats of civilization.
Allegation of utopianism
Anarchism is evaluated as unfeasible or utopian by its critics, often in general and formal debate. European history professor Carl Landauer argued that social anarchism is unrealistic and that government is a "lesser evil" than a society without "repressive force". He also argued that "ill intentions will cease if repressive force disappears" is an "absurdity". However, An Anarchist FAQ states the following: "Anarchy is not a utopia, [and] anarchists make no such claims about human perfection. [...] Remaining disputes would be solved by reasonable methods, for example, the use of juries, mutual third parties, or community and workplace assemblies [as well as] some sort of "court" system would still be necessary to deal with the remaining crimes and to adjudicate disputes between citizens".
The anarchist tendency known as platformism has been criticized by Situationists, insurrectionaries, synthesis anarchists and others of preserving tacitly statist, authoritarian or bureaucratic tendencies.
Anarchism and civilization
Here too the co-operation of an infinite number of individuals is absolutely necessary, and this co-operation must be practised during precisely fixed hours so that no accidents may happen. Here, too, the first condition of the job is a dominant will that settles all subordinate questions, whether this will is represented by a single delegate or a committee charged with the execution of the resolutions of the majority of persona interested. In either case there is a very pronounced authority. Moreover, what would happen to the first train dispatched if the authority of the railway employees over the Hon. passengers were abolished?
In the end, it is argued that authority in any form is a natural occurrence which should not be abolished.
List of anarchist societies
- Federation of Neighborhood Councils-El Alto (Fejuve; 1979–present)
- Popular Indigenous Council of Oaxaca "Ricardo Flores Magón" (CIPO-RFM; 1980s–present)
- Landless Workers' Movement (MST; 1982–present)
- Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities (MANEZ; 1994–present)
- Barbacha (2001–present)
- Villa de Zaachila (2006–present)
- Cheran (2011–present)
- Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (Rojava; 2013–present)
- Anarchism by country
- Anarchism portal
- Governance without government
- Libertarian socialism
- List of anarchist political ideologies
- Foundational texts of anarchism
- McLaughlin 2007, p. 59; Flint 2009, p. 27.
- Craig 2005, p. 14; Sheehan 2003, p. 85.
- Suissa 2006, p. 7.
- Craig 2005, p. 14; McLean & McMillan 2003, Anarchism.
- McLaughlin 2007, p. 28:Anarchists do reject the state, as we will see. But to claim that this central aspect of anarchism is definitive is to sell anarchism short
- Proudhon 1849:Anarchy is the condition of existence of adult society, as hierarchy is the condition of primitive society. There is a continual progress in human society from hierarchy to anarchy".
- Bakunin 1882:In a word, we reject all legislation, all authority, and all privileged, licensed, official, and legal influence, even though arising from universal suffrage, convinced that it can turn only to the advantage of a dominant minority of exploiters against the interests of the immense majority in subjection to them. This is the sense in which we are really Anarchists.
- Armand 1926:In practice, any individual who, because of his or her temperament or because of conscious and serious reflection, repudiates all external authority or coercion, whether of a governmental, ethical, intellectual, or economic order, can be considered an anarchist. Everyone who consciously rejects the domination of people by other people or by the social ambiance, and its economic corollaries, can be said to be an anarchist as well
- Anonymous. "The Anarchist Encyclopedia": The anarchists are against all hierarchy, be it moral or material. They oppose to it the respect for liberty and the absolute autonomy of the individual.
- Brooks 1994, p. xi; Kahn 2000; Moynihan 2007.
- Marshall 1993, pp. 14–17.
- Sylvan 2007, p. 262.
- McLean & McMillan 2003, Anarchism.
- Ostergaard 2009, p. 14, Anarchism; Kropotkin 2002, p. 5; Fowler 1972.
- George Edward Rines, ed. (1918). Encyclopedia Americana. New York: Encyclopedia Americana Corp. p. 624. OCLC 7308909.
- Hamilton, Peter (1995). Émile Durkheim. New York: Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 0415110475.
- Faguet, Émile (1970). Politicians & Moralists of the Nineteenth Century. Freeport: Books for Libraries Press. p. 147. ISBN 0836918282.
- Bowen, James; Purkis, Jon (2004). Changing Anarchism: Anarchist Theory and Practice in a Global Age. Manchester University Press. p. 24.
- Knowles, Rob (Winter 2000). "Political Economy From Below: Communitarian Anarchism as a Neglected Discourse in Histories of Economic Thought". History of Economics Review (31).
- Bates 2017, p. 128; Long 2013, p. 217.
- Definition of Anarchism by Merriam-Webster 2019.
- Joll 1964, pp. 27–37.
- Nettlau 1996, p. 162.
- Guerin 1970, The Basic Ideas of Anarchism.
- Ward 2004, p. 62; Goodway 2006, p. 4; Skirda 2002, p. 183; Fernández 2009, p. 9.
- Morris 2002, p. 61.
- Long 2013, p. 217.
- "Principles of The International of Anarchist Federations". Archived 5 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine "The IAF - IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual".
- Goldman, Emma (1911). "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in Anarchism and Other Essays. "Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations".
- Tucker, Benjamin (1926). Individual Liberty. "They found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, — follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other. Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism. [...] Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. Good representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of the socialism off Karl Marg".
- Ward, Colin (1966). "Anarchism as a Theory of Organization". Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- In Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (1974), anarchist historian George Woodcock report of Mikhail Bakunin's anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it" (p. 9). He further states that "Bakunin did not convert the League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State".
- Brown, L. Susan (2002). "Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism". The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism. Black Rose Books Ltd. Publishing. p. 106.
- Long 2013, p. 217; McLaughlin 2007, pp. 25–29.
- McLaughlin 2007, pp. 25–26.
- Marshall 1993, p. 70.
- Graham 2005, pp. xi–xiv.
- Coutinho 2016; Marshall 1993, p. 54.
- Marshall 1993, pp. 4, 66–73.
- Marshall 1993, p. 86.
- Marshall 1993, p. 4.
- Marshall 1993, pp. 4–5.
- Dodson 2002, p. 312; Thomas 1985, p. 187; Chaliand & Blin 2007, p. 116.
- Graham 2019, pp. 334–336; Marshall 1993, p. 24.
- Marshall 1993, pp. 24–25.
- Marshall 1993, p. 5.
- Graham 2005, p. xii.
- Moya 2015, p. 327.
- Marshall 1993, pp. 519–521.
- Dirlik 1991, p. 133; Ramnath 2019, pp. 681–682.
- Levy 2011, p. 23; Laursen 2019, p. 157; Marshall 1993, pp. 504–508.
- Marshall 1993, pp. 633–636.
- Anderson 2004.
- Bantman 2019, p. 374.
- Avrich 2006, p. 204.
- Nomad 1966, p. 88.
- Bolloten 1984, p. 1107.
- Marshall 1993, pp. xi & 466.
- Marshall 1993, p. xi.
- Marshall 1993, p. 539.
- Marshall 1993, pp. xi & 539.
- Marshall 1993, pp. 493–494.
- Marshall 1993, pp. 556–557.
- Rupert 2006, p. 66.
- Ramnath 2019, p. 691.
- McLean & McMillan 2003, Anarchism; Ostergaard 2003, p. 14, Anarchism.
- Harrison & Boyd 2003, p. 251.
- Ostergaard 2006, p. 12; Gabardi 1986, pp. 300–302.
- Klosko 2005, p. 4.
- Avrich 1996, p. 6.
- Esenwein 1989, p. 135.
- Marshall 1993, pp. 1–6.
- Ostergaard 1991, p. 21.
- Wilburn 2019, pp. 213–218.
- Graham 2015, Chapter One: Anarchism before the International.
- Copleston 2003, p. 69; Supek 1975, p. 94: The exact quote of Proudhon is the following: "The notion of anarchy in politics is just as rational and positive as any other. It means that once industrial functions have taken over from political functions, then business transactions alone produce the social order" (1864).
- Greene 1875.
- Avrich 1996, p. 6; Miller 1991, p. 11.
- Pierson 2013, p. 187: The quote is from Proudhon's What is Property? (1840).
- Morris 1993, p. 76; Rae 1901, p. 261.
- Avrich 2006, p. 5.
- Heywood 2017, pp. 146–147.
- Avrich 1996, pp. 3–4.
- Kropotkin 2007, chapter 13.
- Heywood 2017, pp. 146–147; Bakunin 1990:"They [the Marxists] maintain that only a dictatorship—their dictatorship, of course—can create the will of the people, while our answer to this is: No dictatorship can have any other aim but that of self-perpetuation, and it can beget only slavery in the people tolerating it; freedom can be created only by freedom, that is, by a universal rebellion on the part of the people and free organization of the toiling masses from the bottom up".
- Guillaume 1972.
- Bolloten, Burnett (1991). The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution. UNC Press Books. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-8078-1906-7. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- McElroy, Wendy (2000). "The Schism Between Individualist and Communist Anarchism".
- According to anarchist historian Max Nettlau, the first use of the term libertarian communism was in November 1880, when a French anarchist congress employed it to more clearly identify its doctrines. Nettlau, Max (1996). A Short History of Anarchism. Freedom Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-900384-89-9.
Roux, Jacques (25 October 2006). "Anarchist communism - an introduction". Libcom.org. "Anarchist communism is also known as anarcho-communism, communist anarchism, or, sometimes, libertarian communism."; Gruppo Comunista Anarchico di Firenze (October 1979). "Anarchist Communism & Libertarian Communism". L'informatore di parte (4). "The terms libertarian communism and anarchist communism thus became synonymous within the international anarchist movement as a result of the close connection they had in Spain (with libertarian communism becoming the prevalent term)."; Fontenis, Georges (1953). "Manifesto of Libertarian Communism". "The 'Manifesto of Libertarian Communism' was written in 1953 by Georges Fontenis for the Federation Communiste Libertaire of France. It is one of the key texts of the anarchist-communist current."; Truda, Dielo (1926). "The Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists". "In 1926 a group of exiled Russian anarchists in France, the Delo Truda (Workers' Cause) group, published this pamphlet. It arose not from some academic study but from their experiences in the 1917 Russian revolution". Other terms include free communism, pure communism and stateless communism.
- Berkman 1929: Berkman explains: "The revolution abolishes private ownership of the means of production and distribution, and with it goes capitalistic business. Personal possession remains only in the things you use. Thus, your watch is your own, but the watch factory belongs to the people".
- Mayne 1999, p. 131.
- Marshall 1993, p. 327; Turcato 2019, pp. 237–323.
- Baginki, Max (May 1907). "Stirner: The Ego and His Own". Mother Earth (2: 3). "Modern Communists are more individualistic than Stirner. To them, not merely religion, morality, family and State are spooks, but property also is no more than a spook, in whose name the individual is enslaved - and how enslaved! [...] Communism thus creates a basis for the liberty and Eigenheit of the individual. I am a Communist because I am an Individualist. Fully as heartily the Communists concur with Stirner when he puts the word take in place of demand - that leads to the dissolution of property, to expropriation. Individualism and Communism go hand in hand."; Novatore, Renzo (1924). "Towards the Creative Nothing"; Gray, Christopher (1974). Leaving the Twentieth Century. p. 88; Black, Bob (2010). "Nightmares of Reason". "[C]ommunism is the final fulfillment of individualism. [...] The apparent contradiction between individualism and communism rests on a misunderstanding of both. [...] Subjectivity is also objective: the individual really is subjective. It is nonsense to speak of "emphatically prioritizing the social over the individual,"[.] [...] You may as well speak of prioritizing the chicken over the egg. Anarchy is a "method of individualization." It aims to combine the greatest individual development with the greatest communal unity".
- Kropotkin, Peter (1901). "Communism and Anarchy". "Communism is the one which guarantees the greatest amount of individual liberty — provided that the idea that begets the community be Liberty, Anarchy [...]. Communism guarantees economic freedom better than any other form of association, because it can guarantee wellbeing, even luxury, in return for a few hours of work instead of a day's work."; Truda, Dielo (1926). "Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists". "This other society will be libertarian communism, in which social solidarity and free individuality find their full expression, and in which these two ideas develop in perfect harmony."; "My Perspectives". Willful Disobedience (2: 12). "I see the dichotomies made between individualism and communism, individual revolt and class struggle, the struggle against human exploitation and the exploitation of nature as false dichotomies and feel that those who accept them are impoverishing their own critique and struggle."; Brown, L. Susan (2002). The Politics of Individualism. Black Rose Books; Brown, L. Susan (2 February 2011). "Does Work Really Work?".
- Graham 2005.
- Pernicone 2009, pp. 111–113.
- Bookchin 2009, Chapter 1. An Overview of the Spanish Libertarian Movement.
- Bookchin 2009: Bookchin's quote: "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally coupled after July 1936) exercised the major influence in an area, the collectives proved to be generally more durable, communist and resistant to Stalinist counterrevolution than other republican-held areas of Spain".
- Isaacs & Sparks 2004, p. 248.
- Rocker 2004, p. 73.
- Heywood 2017, pp. 148–149.
- Ryner 2007.
- Everhart 1982, p. 115; Philp 2006; Adams 2001, p. 116.
- Philp 2006; Godwin 1798.
- McLaughlin 2007, p. 117.
- Goodway 2006, p. 99.
- Leopold 2006.
- Miller 1991, p. 11.
- Ossar 1980, p. 27.
- Ryley 2019, p. 228.
- Thomas 1985, p. 142.
- Carlson 1972, chapter: Philosophical Egoism: German Antecedents.
- Marshall 1993, pp. 384–385.
- Marshall 1993, p. 440.
- McElroy 1996; Díez 2006.
- Díez 2006; Ytak 2000.
- McElroy 1981, pp. 291–304; Díez 2007, p. 143.
- Imrie 1994; Parry 1987, p. 15.
- Evren 2011, p. 1.
- Evren 2011, p. 2.
- Perlin 1979.
- Pepper 1996, p. 44; Adams 2001, p. 130.
- Díez 2006; Ortega 2003.
- Zerzan 2002.
- AbdelRahim 2015, p. 8.
- AbdelRahim 2013; AbdelRahim 2015.
- Woodcock 1962.
- Christoyannopoulos 2010, pp. 2–4.
- The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective 2017, J.3 What kinds of organisation do anarchists build?.
- Dielo Trouda 2006.
- Macphee 2007, Introduction.
- Hamowy 2008, pp. 10–12, 195; Stringham 2017, p. 51.
- Outhwaite 2008, p. 14.
- Stringham 2005.
- Meltzer 2000, p. 50: "The philosophy of "anarcho-capitalism" dreamed up by the "libertarian" New Right, has nothing to do with Anarchism as known by the Anarchist movement proper."; Marshall 1993, p. 565: "In fact, few anarchists would accept the 'anarcho-capitalists' into the anarchist camp since they do not share a concern for economic equality and social justice, Their self-interested, calculating market men would be incapable of practising voluntary co-operation and mutual aid. Anarcho-capitalists, even if they do reject the State, might therefore best be called right-wing libertarians rather than anarchists."; Newman 2010, p. 53: "It is important to distinguish between anarchism and certain strands of right-wing libertarianism which at times go by the same name (for example, Murray Rothbard's anarcho-capitalism)."; Goodway 2006, p. 4: "'Libertarian' and 'libertarianism' are frequently employed by anarchists as synonyms for 'anarchist' and 'anarchism', largely as an attempt to distance themselves from the negative connotations of 'anarchy' and its derivatives. The situation has been vastly complicated in recent decades with the rise of anarcho-capitalism, 'minimal statism' and an extreme right-wing laissez-faire philosophy advocated by such theorists as Murray Rothbard and Robert Nozick and their adoption of the words 'libertarian' and 'libertarianism'. It has therefore now become necessary to distinguish between their right libertarianism and the left libertarianism of the anarchist tradition".
- Kowal 2019, p. 275.
- Marshall 1993, p. 556.
- Kowal 2019, p. 271.
- Marshall 1993, pp. 672–673.
- Honderich 1995, p. 31.
- Trevijano 2001, p. 57.
- McElroy 1996.
- Ronsin 2000.
- Suissa 2019, p. 514.
- Marshall 1993, p. 197.
- Suissa 2019, p. 521; Marshall 1993, p. 222.
- Fidler 1985, pp. 103–132.
- Bookchin 1998, p. 115; Suissa 2019, pp. 511–514.
- Hern 2010.
- Wilson 2001, p. xxi.
- Purkis 2004.
- Vincent 2010, p. 129.
- Suissa 2007.
- Illich 1971.
- Bakunin, Mikhail (5 October 1872), Letter to La Liberté, quoted in Bakunin on Anarchy, translated and edited by Sam Dolgoff, 1971
- Woodcock, George (1962, 1975). Anarchism, p. 158. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-020622-1.
- "Was Bakunin a secret authoritarian?", Struggle.ws, retrieved 8 September 2009
- Robertson, Ann. "Marxism and Anarchism: The Philosophical Roots of the Marx-Bakunin Conflict – Part Two" (PDF). Workerscompass.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- Thoburn, Nicholas. "The lumpenproletariat and the proletarian unnameable". Deleuze, Marx and Politics.
- Bakunin, Mikhail, Works of Mikhail Bakunin 1873, Marxists Internet Archive, retrieved 8 September 2009
- Sperber, Jonathan (2013), Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life, W.W. Norton & Co, ISBN 9780871403544.
- "Казарменный коммунизм". Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian).
- Duncan, Graeme Campbell (1973). Marx and Mill: Two Views of Social Conflict and Social Harmony. p. 194.
- Marxism versus Anarchism (2001). p. 88.
- Glavnyye osnovy budushchego obshchestvennogo stroya (Главные основы будущего общественного строя). According to Marx, it was printed in the second issue of Narodnaya rasprava available in Geneva in December 1869, but it was labelled "St.Petersburg, winter 1870".
- Clellan, Woodford Mc. "Nechaevshchina: An Unknown Chapter". Slavic Review. 32 (3): 546–553. doi:10.2307/2495409. ISSN 0037-6779.
- Mayer, Robert (1993). "Lenin and the Concept of the Professional Revolutionary". History of Political Thought. 14 (2): 249–263. ISSN 0143-781X.
- "The Influences of Chernyshevsky, Tkachev, and Nechaev on the political thought of V.I. Lenin". ResearchGate. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- "Сергей Нечаев: «темный чуланчик» русской революции". МирТесен - рекомендательная социальная сеть (in Russian). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- Kimball, Alan. "The First International and the Russian Obshchina". Slavic Review. 32 (3): 491–514. doi:10.2307/2495406. ISSN 0037-6779.
- Read, Cristopher (2004). "Lenin: A Revolutionary Life" (PDF). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- Busgalin, Alexander; Mayer, Günter (2008). "Kasernenkommunismus". Historisch-kritisches Wörterbuch des Marxismus. 7: I. Spalten. pp. 407–411 (PDF text)
- Gorter, Herman; Pannekok, Anton; Pankhurst, Sylvia; Ruhl, Otto (2007). Non-Leninist Marxism: Writings on the Workers Councils. Red and Black.
- Screpanti, Ernesto (2007). Libertarian Communism: Marx Engels and the Political Economy of Freedom. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Draper, Hal (1971). "The Principle of Self-Emancipation in Marx and Engels". Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Socialist Register (4).
- Chomsky, Noam. "Government In The Future". Archived 21 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine Lecture at the Poetry Center of the New York YM-YWHA.
- Carter 1971, p. 14.
- Jun 2019, pp. 32–38.
- Carter 1978, p. 320.
- Fiala 2017.
- Carter 1978, pp. 320–325.
- Landauer 1959.
- The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective 2017, A.2.16 Does anarchism require "perfect" people to work?; The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective 2017, I.5.8 What about crime?.
- Debord 1993, Paragraph 91.
- Engels 1978.
- Goodwin 2014.
- Gelderloss 2010.
- Denham 2008.
- Zibechi 2012, p. 132.
- Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich (1990) . Statism and Anarchy. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought. Translated by Shatz, Marshall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139168083. ISBN 978-0-521-36182-8. LCCN 89077393. OCLC 20826465.
- Berkman, Alexander (1929). . New York: Vanguard Press. LCCN 29022523. OCLC 529173 – via Wikisource.
- Engels, Fredrick (1978) . "On Authority". In Tucker, Robert C. The Marx-Engels reader (2nd ed.). New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-05684-6. LCCN 77016635. OCLC 318414641. Retrieved 2019-03-18 – via Marxists Internet Archive.
- Godwin, William (1798) . Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Modern Morals and Manners (3rd, corrected ed.). London: G.G. and J. Robinson. OCLC 6978206 – via Hathi Trust.
- Guillaume, James (1972) . "Ideas on Social Organization". In Dolgoff, Sam. Bakunin on Anarchy. New York: A.A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-41601-4. LCCN 79136351. OCLC 267856. Retrieved 2019-03-18 – via Marxists Internet Archive.
- Dielo Trouda (2006) . Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft). Translated by McNab, Nestor. The Nestor Makhno Archive. Retrieved 2019-03-18.
- Greene, William Batchelder (1875). "Communism versus Mutualism". Socialistic, Communistic, Mutualistic and Financial Fragments. Boston: Lee and Shepard. LCCN 08033079. OCLC 2567184.
- Kropotkin, Pëtr (2007) . The Conquest of Bread. Edinburgh: AK Press. ISBN 978-1-904859-10-9.
- Kropotkin, Pëtr (2002). Anarchism: A Collection of Revolutionary Writings. Courier Dover Publications. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-486-41955-8.
- Rae, John (1901). Contemporary Socialism. C. Scribner's sons.
- Rocker, Rudolf (2004) . Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice. AK Press.
- The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective (2017). An Anarchist FAQ.
- AbdelRahim, Layla (2013). Wild Children – Domesticated Dreams: Civilization and the Birth of Education. Halifax: Fernwood. ISBN 978-1-55266-548-0.
- AbdelRahim, Layla (2015). Children's Literature, Domestication, and Social Foundation: Narratives of Civilization and Wilderness. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-66110-2.
- Adams, Ian (2001). Political Ideology Today. Manchester University Press.
- Anderson, Benedict (2004). "In the World-Shadow of Bismarck and Nobel". New Left Review. 2 (28): 85–129. Archived from the original on 2015-12-19. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
- Avrich, Paul (1996). Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-04494-1.
- Avrich, Paul (2006). The Russian Anarchists. Stirling: AK Press. ISBN 978-1-904859-48-2.
- Baginski, Max (2001) . "Stirner: The Ego and His Own". Anarchy Archives.
- Bantman, Constance (2019). "The Era of Propaganda by the Deed". In Levy, Carl; Adams, Matthew S. The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-75620-2.
- Bates, David (2017). "Anarchism". In Paul Wetherly. Political Ideologies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-872785-9.
- Black, Bob (2010). Nightmares of Reason. The Anarchist Library.
- Bolloten, Burnett (1984). The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-1906-7.
- Bookchin, Murray (1998). The Spanish Anarchists: The Heroic Years, 1868-1936. AK Press. ISBN 978-1-873176-04-7.
- Bookchin, Murray (2009) . To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936. The Anarchist Library.
- Brooks, Frank H. (1994). The Individualist Anarchists: An Anthology of Liberty (1881–1908). Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56000-132-4.
- Carter, April (1971). The Political Theory of Anarchism. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-55593-7.
- Carlson, Andrew (1972). "Philosophical Egoism: German Antecedents". Anarchism in Germany. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-0484-5. Archived from the original on 2013-10-24.
- Carter, April (1978). "Anarchism and violence". Nomos. American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy. 19: 320–340. JSTOR 24219053.
- Chaliand, Gerard; Blin, Arnaud, eds. (2007). The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al-Quaeda. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24709-3. OCLC 634891265.
- Christoyannopoulos, Alexandre (2010). Christian Anarchism: A Political Commentary on the Gospel. Exeter: Imprint Academic.
- Copleston, Frederick Charles (1 January 2003). 19th and 20th Century French Philosophy. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-8264-6903-8.
- Debord, Guy (1993). Society of the Spectacle. Translated by Ken Knabb. London: Rebel Press. ISBN 978-0-946061-12-9.
- Denham, Diana (2008). Teaching Rebellion: Stories from the Grassroots Mobilization in Oaxaca. PM Press.
- Díez, Xavier (April 2006). "La insumisión voluntaria: El anarquismo individualista español durante la Dictadura y la Segunda República (1923–1938)" (PDF). Archived from the original (pdf) on 22 June 2011.
- Díez, Xavier (2007). El anarquismo individualista en España 1923–1938. Barcelona: Virus Editorial. ISBN 978-84-96044-87-6.
- Dirlik, Arif (1991). Anarchism in the Chinese Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07297-8.
- Dodson, Edward (2002). The Discovery of First Principles. 2. Authorhouse. ISBN 978-0-595-24912-1.
- Esenwein, George Richard (1 January 1989). Anarchist Ideology and the Working-class Movement in Spain, 1868-1898. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06398-3.
- Everhart, Robert B (1982). The Public School Monopoly: A Critical Analysis of Education and the State in American Society. Pacific Institute for Public Policy Research. p. 115.
- Evren, Süreyyya (2011). "How New Anarchism Changed the World (of Opposition) after Seattle and Gave Birth to Post-Anarchism". In Rousselle, Duane; Evren, Süreyyya. Post-Anarchism: A Reader. Pluto Press. pp. 1–19. ISBN 978-0-7453-3086-0.
- Fernández, Frank (2009) . Cuban Anarchism: The History of A Movement. Sharp Press.
- Fidler, Geoffrey C. (1985). "The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia"". History of Education Quarterly. 25 (1/2): 103–132. doi:10.2307/368893. JSTOR 368893.
- Flint, Colin (2009). "Anarchism". In Derek Gregory; Ron Johnston; Geraldine Pratt; Michael Watts; Sarah Whatmore. The Dictionary of Human Geography (PDF) (5th ed.). Wiley-Blackwell (published 23 April 2009). ISBN 978-1-4051-3287-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2015.
- Fowler, R.B. (1972). "The Anarchist Tradition of Political Thought". Western Political Quarterly. 25 (4): 738–752. doi:10.2307/446800. JSTOR 446800.
- Jun, Nathan (2019). "The State". In Levy, Carl; Adams, Matthew S. The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-75620-2.
- Gabardi, Wayne (1986). "The American Political Science Review". The American Political Science Review. 80 (1): 300–302. doi:10.2307/1957102. JSTOR 446800.
- Gelderloss, Peter (2010). Anarchy Works. Ardent Press. ISBN 978-1-62049-020-4.
- Goodway, David (2006). Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow. Liverpool Press. ISBN 978-1-84631-025-6.
- Goodwin, Barbara (2014). Using Political Ideas, Sixth edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
- Graham, Robert (2005). Anarchism: a Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas: from Anarchy to Anarchism. Montréal: Black Rose Books. ISBN 978-1-55164-250-5. Archived from the original on 30 November 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Graham, Robert (2015). We Do Not Fear Anarchy?We Invoke It: The First International and the Origins of the Anarchist Movement. AK Press. ISBN 978-1-84935-212-3.
- Graham, Robert (2019). "Anarchism and the First International". In Levy, Carl; Adams, Matthew S. The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-75620-2.
- Guerin, Daniel (1970). Anarchism: from theory to practice. Monthly Review Press.
- Harrison, Kevin; Boyd, Tony (5 December 2003). Understanding Political Ideas and Movements. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-6151-6.
- Hern, Matt (2010) . The Emergence of Compulsory Schooling and Anarchist Resistance. The Anarchist Library. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- Heywood, Andrew (16 February 2017). Political Ideologies: An Introduction (6th ed.). Macmillan International Higher Education. ISBN 978-1-137-60604-4.
- Honderich, Ted (1995). The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-866132-0.
- Imrie, Doug (1994). "The Illegalists". Anarchy: a Journal Of Desire Armed. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
- Illich, Ivan (1971). Deschooling Society. New York: Harper and Row. ISBN 978-0-06-012139-6.
- Isaacs, Stuart; Sparks, Chris (2004-05-20). Political Theorists in Context. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-20126-1.
- Joll, James (1964). The Anarchists. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03642-0.
- Kahn, Joseph (2000). "Anarchism, the Creed That Won't Stay Dead; The Spread of World Capitalism Resurrects a Long-Dormant Movement". The New York Times (5 August).
- Klosko, George (2005). Political Obligations. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-955104-0.
- Kowal, Donna M. (2019). "Anarcha-Feminism". In Levy, Carl; Adams, Matthew S. The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-75620-2.
- Landauer, Carl (1959). European Socialism: A History of Ideas and Movements.
- Laursen, Ole Birk (2019). "Anti-Imperialism". In Levy, Carl; Adams, Matthew S. The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-75620-2.
- Levy, Carl (2011-05-08). "Social Histories of Anarchism". Journal for the Study of Radicalism. 4 (2): 1–44. doi:10.1353/jsr.2010.0003. ISSN 1930-1197.
- Long, Roderick (2013). Gerald F. Gaus; Fred D'Agostino, eds. The Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-87456-4.
- Marshall, Peter (1993). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. Oakland, CA: PM Press. ISBN 978-1-60486-064-1.
- Macphee, Josh (2007). "Introduction". Realizing the Impossible. Stirling: AK Press. ISBN 978-1-904859-32-1.
- Mayne, Alan James (1999). From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-96151-0. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
- McElroy, Wendy (1981). "Culture of Individualist Anarchism in Late 19th Century America" (PDF). Journal of Libertarian Studies. 5 (3): 291–304. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- McElroy, Wendy (1996). "The Free Love Movement and Radical Individualism". ncc-1776.org. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- McLaughlin, Paul (2007). Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism (PDF). Aldershot: Ashgate (published 2007-11-28). ISBN 978-0-7546-6196-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 August 2018.
- Meltzer, Albert (1 January 2000). Anarchism: Arguments for and Against. AK Press. ISBN 978-1-873176-57-3.
- Morris, Brian (January 1993). Bakunin: The Philosophy of Freedom. Black Rose Books. ISBN 978-1-895431-66-7.
- Morris, Christopher W. (2002). An Essay on the Modern State. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52407-0.
- Moynihan, Colin (2007). "Book Fair Unites Anarchists. In Spirit, Anyway". New York Times (16 April).
- Moya, Jose C (2015). "Transference, culture, and critique The Circulation of Anarchist Ideas and Practices". In Geoffroy de Laforcade. In Defiance of Boundaries: Anarchism in Latin American History. Kirwin R. Shaffer. University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-5138-3.
- Nettlau, Max (1996). A Short History of Anarchism. Freedom Press. ISBN 978-0-900384-89-9.
- Newman, Saul (2010). The Politics of Postanarchism. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-3495-8.
- Nomad, Max (1966). "The Anarchist Tradition". In Drachkovitch, Milorad M. Revolutionary Internationals 1864–1943. Stanford University Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-8047-0293-5.
- Ortega, Carlos (Winter 2003). "Anarchism – Nudism, Naturism". Asociacion para el Desarrollo Naturista de la Comunidad de Madrid.
- Ossar, Michael (1980). Anarchism in the Dramas of Ernst Toller. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-87395-393-1.
- Ostergaard, Geoffrey (1991). "Anarchism". In Thomas Bottomore. A Dictionary of Marxist Thought (PDF) (revised ed.). Blackwell Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-631-18082-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2018.
- Ostergaard, Geoffrey (2006). William Outhwaite, ed. The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-470-99901-1.
- Ostergaard, Geoffrey (2009) . "Resisting the Nation State. The pacifist and anarchist tradition". The Anarchist Library.
- Parry, Richard (1987). The Bonnot Gang. Rebel Press. ISBN 978-0-946061-04-4.
- Pengam, Alain. "Anarchist-Communism". The Anarchist Library. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- Perlin, Terry M. (1979). Contemporary Anarchism. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-2033-2.
- Pepper, David (1996). Modern Environmentalism: An Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-05745-5.
- Pernicone, Nunzio (2009). Italian Anarchism, 1864-1892. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-63268-1.*Pierson, Christopher (2013). Just Property: Enlightenment, Revolution, and History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-967329-2.
- Purkis, Jon (2004). Changing Anarchism. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-6694-8.
- Ramnath, Maia (2019). "Non-Western Anarchisms and Postcolonialism". In Levy, Carl; Adams, Matthew S. The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-75620-2.
- Ronsin, Francis (2000). "E. Armand and "la camaraderie amoureuse" – Revolutionary sexualism and the struggle against jealousy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
- Rupert, Mark (2006). Globalization and International Political Economy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7425-2943-4.
- Ryley, Peter (2019). "Individualism". In Levy, Carl; Adams, Matthew S. The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-75620-2.
- Ryner, Han (2007) . "Mini-Manual of Individualism". Han Ryner Archive.
- Sheehan, Sean (2003). Anarchism. London: Reaktion Books (published 1 June 2003). ISBN 978-1-86189-169-3.
- Skirda, Alexandre (2002). Facing the enemy: a history of anarchist organization from Proudhon to May 1968. A.K. Press. ISBN 978-1-902593-19-7.
- Sylvan, Richard (2007). "Anarchism". In Robert E. Goodin; Philip Pettit; Thomas Pogge. A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy (PDF). Blackwell Companions to Philosophy. 5 (2nd ed.). Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-3653-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2017.
- Stringham, Edward P. (2005). "Anarchy, State, and Public Choice". Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
- Stringham, Edward P. (5 July 2017). Anarchy and the Law: The Political Economy of Choice. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-351-53182-5.
- Suissa, Judith (2007) . "Anarchy in the classroom". New Humanist. 120 (5). Archived from the original on 17 August 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
- Suissa, Judith (2006). Anarchism and Education: A philosophical perspective (PDF). New York: Routledge (published 2006-02-02). ISBN 978-0-415-37194-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015.
- Suissa, Judith (2019). "Anarchist Education". In Levy, Carl; Adams, Matthew S. The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-75620-2.
- Supek, Rudi (1975). Self-governing Socialism: Sociology and politics. Economics. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-87332-050-4.
- Thomas, Paul (1985). Karl Marx and the Anarchists. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0-7102-0685-5.
- Turcato, Davide (2019). "Anarchist Communism". In Levy, Carl; Adams, Matthew S. The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-75620-2.
- Vincent, Andrew (2010). Modern Political Ideologies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-1105-1.
- Ward, Colin (21 October 2004). Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-280477-8.
- Wilburn, Shawn (2019). "Mutualism". In Levy, Carl; Adams, Matthew S. The Palgrave Handbook of Anarchism. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-75620-2.
- Wilson, A.N. (2001). Tolstoy. W.W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-32122-7.
- Woodcock, George (1962). Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Meridian Books. New York: World Pub. Co. OCLC 318155442.
- Ytak, Cathy (2000). "Anarchisme et naturisme, aujourd'hui". Archived from the original on 9 June 2007.
- Zibechi, Raul (2012). Territories in Resistance: A Cartography of Latin American Social Movements. Oakland: AK Press.
- Zerzan, John (2002). Running On Emptiness. Feral House.
- Encyclopedias and dictionaries
- Coutinho, Steve (3 March 2016). "Zhuangzi – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". iep.utm.edu. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- Craig, Edward, ed. (2005). "Anarchism". The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (published 2005-03-31). ISBN 978-0-415-32495-3.
- Fiala, Andrew (2017). "Anarchism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
- Hamowy, Ronald (15 August 2008). The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. SAGE. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4.
- Leopold, David (4 August 2006). "Max Stirner". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- McLean, Iain; McMillan, Alistair (2003). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280276-7.
- Miller, David (26 August 1991). The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-631-17944-3.
- Ostergaard, Geoffrey (2003). The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. Blackwell Publishing.
- Outhwaite, William (2008). "Anarcho-Syndicalism". The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. John Wiley & Sons. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-470-99901-1.
- "Definition of ANARCHISM". Merriam-Webster. 2019. Retrieved 2019-02-28.
- Philp, Mark (20 May 2006). "William Godwin". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Trevijano, Carmen García (2001). Ted Honderich, ed. Enciclopedia Oxford de filosofía. Tecnos. ISBN 978-84-309-3699-1.
- Barclay, Harold B. (1990). People Without Government: An Anthropology of Anarchy. Kahn & Averill. ISBN 978-0-939306-09-1.
- Harper, Clifford (1987). Anarchy: A Graphic Guide. Camden Press. ISBN 978-0-948491-22-1.
- Le Guin, Ursula K. (2009). The Dispossessed. HarperCollins. An utopian science fiction novel
- Kinna, Ruth (2005). Anarchism: A Beginners Guide. Oneworld. ISBN 978-1-85168-370-3.
- Sartwell, Crispin (2008). Against the state: an introduction to anarchist political theory. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7447-1.
- Scott, James C., (2012) Two Cheers for Anarchism: Six Easy Pieces on Autonomy, Dignity, and Meaningful Work and Play, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press ISBN 978-0-691-15529-6.
- Wolff, Robert Paul (1998). In Defense of Anarchism. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-21573-3.
- Anarchy Archives. Anarchy Archives is an online research center on the history and theory of anarchism