List of animal names

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Mother sea otter with sleeping pup, Morro Bay, California

In the English language, animals have different names depending on whether they are male, female, young, domesticated, or in groups.

The best-known source of many English words used for collective groupings of animals is The Book of Saint Albans, an essay on hunting published in 1486 and attributed to Juliana Berners.[1] Most terms used here may be found in common dictionaries and general information web sites.[2][3][4]

Generic terms[edit]

The terms in this table apply to many or all taxons in a particular biological family, class, or clade.

Scientific term Young Female Male Collective noun Collateral adjective Trivial name
Aves chick hen cock flock avian bird
Bovinae calf cow (bred), heifer (not bred) bull (intact), ox or steer (castrated) herd, kine (archaic) bovine cattle; cow
Canidae puppy, pup,[5] cub, whelp bitch dog pack canine dog
Cetacea calf cow bull pod cetacean whale, dolphin, porpoise
Equidae colt (male), filly (female), foal jenny (asses), mare (other equids) jack (asses), stallion (other equids), gelding (castrated horse) herd equine horse
Felidae kitten (non-big cats, such as Felis, Lynx, Puma,[6] etc.), cub (big cats, Panthera, and also Puma) queen tom, king clowder (small cats), pride (big cats) feline cat
Suidae piglet sow boar drift or drove porcine pig
Procyonidae cub, kit sow boar gaze, smack, committee procyonine, nasuine, others Raccoon family of Carnivorans
Viverridae cub, kit sow boar gaze, smack, committee viverrine Civet family of Carnivorans
Mustelidae kit sow (large) or jill (small) boar (large) or hob,[7] jack (small) colony (large) or business (small) musteline Ferret family of Carnivorans (large: badgers & wolverines; small: weasels & ferrets)
Leporidae nestling jill jack nest or band leporine rabbits & hares
Osteichthyes fry, fingerling ? ? school, shoal piscine, ichthyic bony fish

Terms by species or taxon[edit]

Animal Young Female Male Collective noun Collateral adjective Culinary noun for meat
A
Aardvark cub sow boar orycteropodian
Albatross chick flock[8]
gam (when searching for mates)[9]
rookery[10]
diomedeid
Alligator hatchling cow bull congregation[11] eusuchian
Alpaca[12] cria hembra macho herd camelid
American bison calf ? ? ? dactyloidian
Ant larva
pupa
queen (fertile)
soldier
worker
drone army[13]
bike[13]
colony[13][14]
nest[11]
swarm[13]
formic
myrmicine
Anteater pup sow boar vermilinguan
Antelope calf[15] doe buck cluster[13][16]
herd[13][16]
tribe[13][16]
alcelaphine
antilopine
bubaline
Ape baby
child
infant
band
family
group
shrewdness[2][11][16][17]
troop, group[11][13][16]
simian
Armadillo baby
pup
sow boar cingulatan
Ass/donkey foal jenny jack coffle[13][16]
drove[11][13][16]
herd[13]
pace[13][14][16]
asinine
B
Baboon infant babuina[18] ? flange[19][a]
troop, group[2][11][19]
?
Badger cub
kit
sow boar cete[2][11][14][19]
colony[19]
musteline
Barracuda school[20] percesocine
Bat pup camp[21]
cloud[19][22]
colony[14][19]
flock[23]
noctillionine
pteropine
Bear (list) cub[24] she-bear
sow
boar sleuth[11][14][19]
sloth[11][14][19]
ursine
Beaver kit
kitten
pup
colony[11][19]
family[11]
castoridine
Bee larva
pupa
queen
worker[b]
drone cast (a second swarm)[19]
cluster (of workers around the queen)[19]
colony[19]
drift[2][19]
erst[2][19]
grist[11][19]
hive[2][11][19]
nest[11]
rabble[19]
stand[19]
swarm[2][11][19]
apian
apiarian
apic
Beetle larva
grub (wormlike forms)[3][4]
mealworm (darkling beetles)[3][4]
pupa
swarm[3] coleopterous
Binturong cub ? ? ? ?
Bird (list)
Also see Aves
chick hen cock flight[2]
flock[2]
pod[2]
avian
Bison calf cow bull herd bovine
bubaline
Bluebird ? ? ? ? ?
Boar/wild pig
Also see Pig
farrow
piglet
shoat/shote (just weaned)
sow ? herd[19][25]
singular[11][25]
sounder (groups of 12 or more)[11][25]
?
Bobcat bobkitten ? ? ? feline
Buffalo calf ? ? ? bubaline
Bull
See Cattle
Butterfly caterpillar
chrysalis
larva
pupa
? ? flight[19]
flutter[11][26]
kaleidoscope[27]
rabble[19]
swarm[28]
rhopaloceran
C
Camel calf cow bull caravan[11]
flock[11]
herd
train[11]
camelid
cameline
Capybara pup ? ? ? ?
Caracal kitten ? ? ? feline
Caribou calf doe buck herd rangiferine
Cassowary chick
hatchling
? ? ratite
Cat (list) kit
kitten
molly
pussy
queen
gib (castrated male)[29]
king
tom
clowder[2][11]
cluster[11]
clutter[30]
glaring[2][11]
kindle (kittens)[31]
litter (kittens)
pillow (kittens)
pounce[11]
nuisance[32]
feline
Cattle[c] (list) calf[33] cow[34]
heifer
freemartin
bull
bullock
ox
steer
drove[11]
gang[11][14][19]
herd[11][14][19]
obstinancy[11][14][19]
team (oxen)
troop[11]
yoke (oxen)
bovine[d]
taurine (male)
vaccine (female)
vituline (young)
beef
veal
Chamois calf doe bull herd rupicaprine
Cheetah cub she-cheetah cheetah coalition (male)[35] feline
Chicken (list) chick hen
pullet
capon (castrated male)
cock
cockerel
rooster
brood[11]
clutch (eggs)
flock
peep (chicks)[11]
galline poultry
Chimpanzee infant empress emperor
blackback
troop, group
tribe
panine
Chinchilla kit sow
velvet
boar
bull
colony chinchilline
Chough chick ? ? chattering[2][17][36]
clattering[2][17][37]
corvine
Coati kit
pup
sow boar troop nasuine
Cobra ? ? ? quiver[38] elapid
Cockroach nymph ? ? intrusion[38] blattid
Cod codling ? ? school gadine
gadoid
Cormorant chick
shaglet
? ? flight
gulp[11][14][38]
?
Cow
See Cattle
Coyote cub
pup
puppy
whelp
bitch dog pack canine
Crab zoea hen
jenny
cock
jimmy
? cancrine
Crane chick
colt[39]
? ? herd[40][41][42]
sedge[14]
sege[43]
siege[44]
alectorine
Cricket nymph ? ? ? ?
Crocodile hatchling cow bull bask[11]
congregation
float[11]
menace
crocodilian
Crow ? ? ? murder[2][11] corvine
Cuckoo ? ? ? ? ?
Curlew ? ? ? herd[2][17] ?
D
Deer calf[15]
fawn
doe
hind
cow
buck
bull[15]
hart (red deer)
stag
bunch[45]
herd[45]
mob[45]
rangale[45]
cervine
elaphine
humble (organ meat)
venison
Dhole pup ? ? pack ?
Dingo pup ? ? pack canine [46]
Dinosaur (list) calf (Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha)
chick (Theropoda)
hatchling
juvenile
cow (Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha)
hen (Theropoda)
bull (Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha)
cock (Theropoda)
herd (herbivores)
pack (carnivores)
dinosaurian
Dog (list) pup[5]
puppy
whelp[47]
bitch dog
sire
stud
comedy (boxers)[48][49]
cowardice (curs)[14][50]
cry (hounds)[51]
kennel[45]
litter (young)[52]
mute[14]
pack (wild)[14][45]
canine
Dogfish
Also see Shark
? ? ? troop[45] selachian
squaloid
capeshark (US)
flake (UK, Australia)
huss (UK)
kahada (Canada)[53]
rigg (UK)
rock salmon (UK)
spiny dogfish
Dolphin calf cow bull herd
pod[54][55]
school[45]
team[45]
delphine
Donkey (list)
See Ass
Dove chick hen cock arc[11]
cote
dole[2][45]
dule[11][45]
flight[2][11][45]
piteousness[2][45]
pitying[11]
columbine
Dragonfly nymph queen drake
king
cluster
flight
anisopteran
Duck (list)
Also see Mallard
duckling duck
hen
cock
drake
badling (on land)[14]
brace (on land)[14]
bunch (on water)[2][45]
flock (on land)
herd (on land)
paddling (on water)[2][45]
raft (on water)[2][45]
safe (on land)[2]
skein (in flight)[45]
sord (on land)[45]
sore (on land)[45]
string (in flight)[45]
team (in flight)[14][45]
waddling (on land)[45]
anatine
fuliguline
poultry
Dugong calf cow bull herd dugongine
Dunlin chick ? ? fling[2] ?
E
Eagle eaglet
fledgling
convocation[11][14] aquiline
Echidna puggle (in common use, but not scientifically endorsed) ? ? tachyglossine
Eel leptocephalus (larva)
elver (juvenile)
bed[11]
swarm[11]
anguilline
Eland calf cow bull herd bovine
Elephant calf[33] cow[34] bull[56] herd
memory[11]
parade[21]
elephantine
proboscidean
proboscine
Elephant seal pup cow bull ? miroungan
Elk/wapiti calf[15] cow[15] bull[15] gang[11]
herd[11]
cervine venison
Emu chick
hatchling
? ? mob[11] ?
F
Falcon eyass/eyas falcon tercel
terzel
tiercel
cast[21] acciptrine
Ferret kit jill hob business[11][14]
busyness[17]
musteline
Finch chick hen cock charm[14] fringilline
Fish (list) fingerling
fry
? ? school[3] piscine
Fisher kit ? ? ? gulonine
musteline
Flamingo chick ? ? flamboyance[57]
stand[21]
phoenicopterine
Fly maggot ? ? business[11]
cloud[11]
swarm[11]
dipterous
Fossa pup ? ? ? ?
Fox cub[24]
kit
pup[5]
vixen dog
reynard
tod
leash[11][14]
skulk[11][14]
vulpine
Frog froglet
polliwog
tadpole
? ? army[14] ranine
G
Gaur calf cow bull herd bovine
gaurine
garabeef
Gazelle calf[15] cow[15] bull[15] herd gazelline
Gecko hatchling dam (herpetoculture) sire (herpetoculture) ? ?
Genet kit ? ? ? vivverine
Gerbil pup doe buck horde gerbilline
Giant panda cub sow boar embarrassment [58]
sleuth[59]
ailuropodine
Giraffe calf cow bull corps[60]
herd
tower[60][61]
giraffine
Gnat larva ? ? cloud[11][14][60]
horde[11][14][60]
rabble[60]
swarm[11][60]
?
Gnu calf cow bull herd
implausibility[62]
?
Goat (list) kid doe
doeling
nanny
billy
buck
buckling
wether (castrated)
herd
flock[60]
tribe[60]
trip[60]
trippe[60]
caprine cabrito
chevon
mutton
Goldfinch ? ? ? charm[60] cardueline
Goosander ? ? ? dopping[60] ?
Goose gosling goose gander chevron (in flight)[citation needed]
flock (on land)
gaggle (on land)[14][60]
plump (on land)[60]
skein (in flight)[2][14][60]
team (in flight)[2][60]
wedge (in flight)[2][60]
anatine
anserine
poultry
Gorilla infant blackback
silverback
band[11][14][60]
troop, group[11]
whoop[60]
simian
Goshawk ? ? ? flight[17][60] ?
Grasshopper nymph ? ? cloud[60]
swarm[60]
caeliferian
Grouse ? ? ? covey[60]
pack[60]
tetraonine
Guanaco chulengo[63] ? ? herd camelid
Guinea fowl keet hen cock flock[64]
rasp[65]
numidine poultry
Guinea pig pup sow boar herd ? cuy
Gull chick hen cock colony
flock
larine
H
Hamster pup doe buck horde cricetid
Hare leveret doe
jill
buck
jack
band
down[66]
drove[66]
flick[66]
husk[66]
leporine
leverine[citation needed]
Hawk eyas hen tiercel aerie[67][e]
boil (soaring in large groups)[14][67]
cast[67][f]
cauldron (soaring in large groups)[67]
flight[67][g]
flock[67]
kettle (soaring in large groups)[11][67]
leash[67][h]
staff[67][i]
accipitrine
Hedgehog hoglet
piglet
pup
sow boar array[66] erinaceine
Hermit crab zoea ? ? ? paguroid
Heron chick hen cock flight[66]
sedge[11][14][66]
sege[43][66]
siege[11][14][44][66]
ardeidine
Herring ? ? ? army[14][66]
glean[66]
shoal[66]
clupeidean
Hippopotamus calf cow bull bloat[11][14][66]
herd[66]
sea[11][14][66]
thunder[38]
hippopotamine
Hoatzin chick ? ? ? ?
Hoopoe chick ? ? ? ?
Hornet larva
pupa
queen drone bike[66]
nest[14]
swarm
vespine
Horse (list) colt (male)
filly (female)
foal
weanling
yearling
dam
mare
gelding (castrated male)
ridgling
stallion (not castrated)
stud
band (wild horses)[11]
field (racehorses)
harras[14]
herd (wild horses)[11]
rag (colts)[14]
stable[11]
string (ponies)[14]
stud[14]
team (work horses)[11][14]
caballine
equine
horseflesh
horsemeat
Human baby
boy (male)
child
girl (female)
infant
lady (colloquial)
woman
gentleman (colloquial)
man
band
clan
crowd
family
group
horde
tribe
human
simian
Hummingbird chick hen cock ? trochilidine
trochiline
Hyena cub ? ? cackle[11][14]
clan
hyenine
I
Ibex kid nanny billy herd[68] caprine
Ibis chick ? ? ? threskiornithine
Iguana hatchling cow bull ? ?
Impala calf ewe ram herd ?
J
Jackal pup ? ? pack ?
Jaguar cub ? ? leap[69]
parade[21]
prowl[69]
?
Jay chick hen cock band[11]
party[14]
scold[14]
corvine
Jellyfish ephyra[70]
planula
polyp
? ? bloom
brood[11]
fluther[2]
smack[2][14]
smuth[10]
scyphozoan
Junglefowl
(see chicken)
K
Kangaroo joey doe
flyer
jill
roo
boomer
buck
jack
court
herd
mob[71]
troop[14]
macropodine
Kingbird chick ? ? ? tyrannid
Kingfisher chick ? ? ? alcedine
Kinkajou kit
pup
sow boar convergence
troop
potosine
Kite chick ? ? ? accipitrine
Koala joey doe buck ? phascolarctine
Kodkod kitten ? ? ? feline
Komodo dragon calf
chick
hatchling
cow
hen
bull
cock
? varanine
Kookaburra chick ? ? ? ?
Kouprey calf cow bull herd bovine
sauveline
Kowari pup kowaridae fossa kinkajou tragelaphine
L
Langur infant ? ? troop, group colobine
Lapwing chick ? ? deceit[14][17]
desert[2]
vanelline
Lark chick hen cock exaltation[2][17] alaudine
Lechwe calf ? ? herd ?
Lemur infant ? ? conspiracy[72] lemurine
Leopard cub leopardess leopard leap[2][11][14]
lepe[2]
pardine
Lion cub[24] lioness lion pride[73][74][41]
sawt[41][75]
leonine
Lizard hatchling ? ? ? ?
Llama cria dam
hembra
macho
stud
flock
herd
camelid
Lobster ? hen[3] cock[3] risk homarine
Locust (list) nymph cloud
host
swarm
caelifera
Loris infant ? ? colony[76] lorisine[77]
Louse nymph colony pediculine
Lynx kitten ? ? ? feline
Lyrebird chick hen cock musket[78] menurine
M
Macaque infant ? ? ? simian
Macaw hatchling ? ? ? ?
Magpie chick hen cock flock garruline
Mallard
Also see Duck
duckling hen greenhead[79] sord[2]
suit[2]
anatine poultry
Mammoth
(see elephant)
calf cow bull herd
pack
mammutine
Manatee calf cow bull herd manatine
sirenian
Mandrill infant horde simian
Manta ray fry ? ? ? feline
Marmoset infant ? ? ? simian
Marmot ? ? ? ? ?
Meerkat meerkitten ? herpestine
Mink cub
kit
sow boar ? musteline
Mole pup sow boar labor[21] talpine
Mongoose pup ? ? committee
delegation
troop
herpestine
Monkey infant group, troop[2] simian
Moose calf[15] cow[15] bull[15][56] herd cervine venison
Mosquito nymph
tumbler
wriggled
cloud
scourge
swarm
aedine
anopheline
Mouse crawler (as pet feed)[80]
fuzzy (as pet feed)[80]
hopper (as pet feed)[80]
pinky (as pet feed)[80]
pup
doe buck colony
nest
murine
Myna ? ? ? ? ?
N
Narwhal calf[81] cow[81] bull[81] pod[81]
herd[81]
school[81]
gam[81]
grind[81]
cetacean[82]
cetaceous[82]
Newt eft[83] ? ? ? pleurodeline
Nightingale chick hen cock watch[40][41][42] philomelian
Nilgai calf ? bull ? bovine
O
Ocelot kitten queen torn clowder feline
Octopus fry[citation needed] hen[84] ? consortium[85] octopodine
Okapi calf cow bull herd okapine
Olingo kitten ? ? ? feline
Opossum joey jill jack passel[86] didelphine
Orangutan baby
child
infant
? ? band
family
group, troop
simian
Oryx/gemsbok calf ? ? herd ?
Ostrich chick
hatchling
hen cock flock
troop
ratite
struthious
Otter pup
whelp
sow boar family[21]
romp
lutrine
musteline
Ox
See Cattle
Owl fledgling
owlet
? ? parliament[11] strigine
Oyster spat ? ? bed[11] ostracine
P
Panther cub pantheress panther ? pantherine
Parrot chick hen cock flock psittacine
Panda
See Giant panda
Partridge chick chantelle
hen
cock covey
roost
perdicine ?
Peafowl chick
peachick
peahen peacock ostentation pavonine poultry
Pelican chick
nestling
? ? pod[11]
scoop
pelecanine
Penguin chick
nestling
? ? colony[87]
huddle[87]
raft (in water)[87]
rookery[87]
tuxedo[10]
waddle (on land)[87][88]
spheniscine
Pheasant chick hen cock bouquet[11][14]
flock
nest[14]
nide[14]
nye[11][14]
phasianine
Pig (list)
Also see Boar
farrow
piglet
shoat/shote (just weaned)
gilt (not bred)[89]
sow (bred)
barrow (castrated)[90][91]
boar
hog
drift[11][14][92]
drove[11][14]
litter (piglets)
sounder (older pigs)[21]
team (older pigs)[21]
porcine
suilline
bacon
ham
pork
Pigeon (list) squab
squeaker
hen cock flight[93]
flock
kit[93]
pullastrine squab
Pika ? ? ? ? ?
Polar bear cub sow boar aurora[94]
celebration[94]
pack[94]
ursine
Pony
See Horse
Porcupine pup sow boar prickle[93] hystricine
Porpoise calf cow bull pod
school
shoal
phocoenine
Prairie dog pup sow boar town cynomurine
Pug pup bitch dog
sire
stud
grumble[95] ?
Q
Quail chick hen cock bevy[73][74][40][41][42] galliformine
Quelea chick hen cock flock queline
Quetzal nestling ? ? flock trogonine
R
Rabbit (list) bunny
kit
kitten
nestling
doe
jill
buck
jack
yoyo
litter (young)
nest[74]
warren
wrack (young)
leporine
Raccoon cub
kit
sow boar brace
committee
gaze[73]
nursery
smack
troop
procyonine
Ram
Also see Sheep
lamb ewe ram flock arietine
ovine
lamb
mutton
Rat (list) kitten[citation needed]
pup
doe buck colony
horde
mischief[96][97]
murine
Raven chick hen cock conspiracy
unkindness[40][41][98]
corvine
Red deer calf hind hart
stag
herd ? venison
Red panda cub sow boar pack ailurid
Reindeer/caribou calf cow bull herd rangiferine
Rhea chick ? ? ? ?
Rhinoceros calf cow bull crash[99]
herd
ceratorhine
Rook ? ? ? building[2]
parliament[2][100]
?
S
Saki ? ? ? ? pitheciine
Salamander larva ? ? maelstrom caudatan
salamandrine
Salmon parr[101] hen
jen
cock
jack
? salmonine
Sand dollar juvenile (young urchin)
larva pluteus (free-swimming stage)
? ? ? clypeasteroid
Sandpiper ? ? ? fling[102] scolopacine
Sardine ? ? ? family [102] ?
Sassaby calf ? bull herd alcelaphine
Sea lion pup cow bull ? otarine
Seahorse seafoal seamare seastallion shoal hippocampal
Seal pup[5] cow bull herd[102]
pod[102]
rookery[102]
phoca
Sea otter pup ? ? raft lutrine
Serval kitten ? ? ? feline
Shark cub[24]
pup[103]
? bull shiver [58] selachian
squaloid
flake (AUS)
Sheep (list)
Also see Ram
cosset
lamb
lambkin
dam
ewe
buck
ram
wether (castrated)
flock[73][74]
fold[104]
herd
ovine hogget
lamb
mutton
Shrew shrewlet sow boar colony
drove
soricine
Shrike chick ? ? ? corvid
corvine
Siamang ? ? ? ? ?
Skink skinklet ? ? ? scincine
Skipper caterpillar ? ? ? hesperiine
Skunk kit sow boar[3] surfeit mephitine
Sloth baby
kitten
pup
sow boar xenarthran (broader group)
Snail ? escargatoire[102][105]
rout[102][106]
walk[102]
gastropodian escargot
Snake (list) hatchling (newly hatched)
neonate (newborn)
snakelet
ball
nest[74]
slither
anguine
elapine
ophidian
serpentine
viperine
Spider (list) spiderling ? ? cluster[102]
clutter[102]
arachnine
arachnoid
Spoonbill chick ? ? ? ?
Squid paralarva ? ? shoal Teuthidane
Squirrel kit
kitten
pup
doe buck scurry[38] sciurine
Starfish ? ? ? ? asteroid
Starling ? ? ? chattering[11][36]
murmuration[2][11][14][17]
sturnine
Stilt chick ? ? ? recurvirostrid
Swan cygnet
flapper
pen cob bevy[21]
flock
game[21]
lamentation
wedge (in flight)[21]
cygnine
T
Tamarin ? ? ? ? simian
Tapir calf cow bull herd tapirine
Tarsier ? ? ? ? tarsiine
Termite larva ? ? colony
nest
swarm
isopteran
Thrush chick ? ? ? turdine
Tiger cub[24]
whelp
tigress tiger ambush[11]
streak[38]
tigrine
Toad tadpole
toadlet
knot[11][14] batrachian
ranine
Topi calf cow bull herd alcelaphine
Toucan chick ? ? ? ?
Turaco ? ? ? ? ?
Turkey (list) poult hen gobbler
jake (immature)
stag
tom
rafter[107][108] ? poultry
Turtle hatchling bale[109] chelonian
V
Vicuña calf cow bull herd
posse
camelid
Vinegaroon ? ? ? ? ?
Viper hatchling ? ? ? viperine
Vulture chick ? ? ? ?
W
Wallaby joey jill jack mob ?
Walrus calf cow bull herd[74]
pod[74]
odobenine
Wasp larva queen
worker
drone colony
hive
nest
swarm
vespine
Water buffalo calf cow bull ? ? carabeef
Waxwing ? ? ? ? ?
Weasel kit
pup
bitch
doe
jill
buck
dog
hub
jack
gang[16]
sneak[16]
musteline
Whale calf[33] cow[34] bull gam[21]
pod[73][74]
school
cetacean
cetaceous
blubber
Wildebeest calf[33] cow[34] bull confusion ?
Wobbegong ? ? ? ? ?
Wolf cub
pup[5]
puppy
whelp
bitch
she-wolf
dog pack[73][74] canine
lupine
Wolverine kit
whelp
angeline wolverine pack musteline
Wombat joey jill jack wisdom[110] ?
Woodpecker chick ? ? ? ?
Worm ? ? ? ? oligochaetan
Wren chick cow bull ? troglodytine
Y
Yak calf cow bull herd ?
Z
Zebra colt (male)
filly (female)
foal
mare stallion cohort[111]
dazzle[112]
herd[11][111]
zeal[11][111]
hippotigrine
zebrine

Usage of collective nouns[edit]

Merriam-Webster writes that most terms of venery fell out of use in the 16th century, including a "murder" for crows. It goes on to say that some of the terms in The Book of Saint Albans were "rather fanciful", explaining that the book extended collective nouns to people of specific professions, such as a "poverty" of pipers. It concludes that for lexicographers, many of these don't satisfy criteria for entry by being "used consistently in running prose" without meriting explanation. Some terms that were listed as commonly used were "herd", "flock", "school", and "swarm".[113]

Writing for Audubon, Nicholas Lund says that many such terms are not used in actuality. When he interviewed scientists who specialize in studying specific animals, they had not heard of these terms, such as a "bask" of crocodiles or "wisdom" of wombats, being applied in their fields. Lund noted that the common plural nouns for animals were "flock" for birds and "herd" for cows, conceding that for certain animals in small groups, there was currency in usage such as a "pod" of whales or "gaggle" of geese.[114]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The term flange was originally used to denote a group of baboons in a Not the Nine O'Clock News comedy sketch entitled "Gerald the Intelligent Gorilla" where it was used for comic effect. It has since been used in the scientific literature for a collection of baboons.
  2. ^ A worker bee is a sexually undeveloped female.
  3. ^ Castrated male cattle are steers in the United States or bullocks in the United Kingdom. Oxen are draft animals that are (if male) usually castrated but not necessarily. A young cow that has not given birth is a heifer. See Cattle for more names. Cows is often used informally to refer to cattle in general.
  4. ^ Bovine refers to all species of genus Bos.
  5. ^ The term aerie is a classic 15th-century term of venery that refers to only two "hawks of the tower" but, in modern usage, does not necessarily have the same numerical constraint.[67] Aerie also refers to hawks and other birds of prey nesting high on a mountain top.[67] Confusingly, hawks of the tower are technically falcons and not hawks.
  6. ^ The term cast is a classic 15th-century term of venery that refers to only two "hawks of the tower" but, in modern usage, does not necessarily have the same numerical constraint.[67] Confusingly, hawks of the tower are technically falcons and not hawks.
  7. ^ The term flight is a classic 15th-century term of venery that refers to only "hawks of the wrist" to include goshawks and sparrowhawks.[67] Hawks of the wrist are true hawks in the genus Accipiter.
  8. ^ The term leash is a classic 15th-century term of venery that refers to only three "hawks of the tower" but, in modern usage, does not necessarily have the same numerical constraint.[67] Confusingly, hawks of the tower are technically falcons and not hawks.
  9. ^ The term staff is a classic 15th-century term of venery that refers to only three "hawks of the tower" but, in modern usage, does not necessarily have the same numerical constraint.[67] Confusingly, hawks of the tower are technically falcons and not hawks.

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Further reading[edit]