List of animals by number of neurons

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Brief comparisons of number of whole brain neurons (top) and cerebral cortex neurons (bottom) among six mammals.

The following are two lists of animals ordered by the size of their nervous system. The first list shows number of neurons in their entire nervous system, indicating their overall neural complexity. The second list shows the number of neurons in the structure that has been found to be representative of animal intelligence.[1] The human brain contains 86 billion neurons, with 16 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex.[2][1]

Overview[edit]

Neurons are the cells that transmit information in an animal's nervous system so that it can sense stimuli from its environment and behave accordingly. Not all animals have neurons; Trichoplax and sponges lack nerve cells altogether.

Neurons may be packed to form structures such as the brain of vertebrates or the neural ganglions of insects.

The number of neurons and their relative abundance in different parts of the brain is a determinant of neural function and, consequently, of behavior.

Whole nervous system[edit]

All numbers for neurons (except Caenorhabditis and Ciona), and all numbers for synapses (except Ciona) are estimations.

Name Neurons in the brain/whole nervous system Synapses Details Image Source
Sponge 0
Sponge.JPG
[3]
Trichoplax 0 Despite no nervous system, it exhibits coordinated feeding and response behaviors.[4]
Trichoplax mic.jpg
[5]
Asplanchna brightwellii (rotifer) about 200 Brain only
Rotifera microscopic view.jpg
[6]
Ciona intestinalis larva (sea squirt) 231 8,617 (central nervous system only)
Cionaintestinalis.jpg
[7]

[8]

Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm) 302 ~7,500 is the only organism to have its whole connectome (neuronal "wiring diagram") completed.[9][10][11]
Adult Caenorhabditis elegans.jpg
[12]
Jellyfish 5,600 Hydra vulgaris (H. attenuate)
Jelly cc11.jpg
[13]
Megaphragma mymaripenne 7,400
Megaphragma mymaripenne-SEM (cropped-B).tif
[14]
Box jellyfish 8,70017,500 adult Tripedalia cystophora (8 mm diameter) – does not include 1000 neurons in each of the four rhopalia
Tripedalia-cystophora.png
[15]
Medicinal leech 10,000
Svømmende blodigle.JPG
[16]
Pond snail 11,000
[17]
Sea slug 18,000
Aplysia californica.jpg
[18]
Amphioxus 20,000 central nervous system only
Branchiostoma lanceolatum.jpg
[19]

[20]

Larval zebrafish 100,000
Zebrafish embryos.png
[21]
Lobster 100,000
Lobster 04.jpg
[22]
Fruit fly 250,000 < 10,000,000 In 2020 a research group announced the most sophisticated connectome[23]
Drosophila melanogaster - side (aka).jpg
[24]

[25]

Ant 250,000 Varies per species
Ant head closeup.jpg
[26]

[27]

Honey bee 960,000 ~1×10^9
Bee Collecting Pollen 2004-08-14.jpg
[28]
Cockroach 1,000,000
Cockroachcloseup.jpg
[29]
Guppy 4,300,000
Guppy pho 0048.jpg
[30]
Adult zebrafish ~10,000,000 cells (neurons + other)
Zebrafisch.jpg
[31]
Frog 16,000,000
Australia green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) crop.jpg
[32]
Naked mole-rat 26,880,000
Naked Mole rat baby.jpg
[33]
Smoky shrew 36,000,000
SmokyShrew23.jpg
[34]
Short-tailed shrew 52,000,000 Blarina carolinensisPCSL20933B.jpg [34]
Hottentot golden mole 65,000,000
Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen (Plate 39) (8557402518).jpg
[35]
House mouse 71,000,000 ~1×10^12
Mouse white background.jpg
[36]
Nile crocodile 80,500,000
Nile Crocodile (17038929167).jpg
[37]
Golden hamster 90,000,000
Golden hamster front 1.jpg
[36]
Ansell's mole-rat 103,000,000
Graumull IMG 4042.jpg
[38]
Mashona mole-rat 113,000,000 [38]
Hairy-tailed mole 124,000,000
The quadrupeds of North America (Plate LXXIV) (7748318398).jpg
[35]
Eastern rock elephant shrew 129,000,000
Eastern Rock Elephant Shrew.jpg
[35]
Star-nosed mole 131,000,000
Condylura.jpg
[34]
Zebra finch 131,000,000 Brain only Taeniopygia guttata -Karratha, Pilbara, Western Australia, Australia -male-8 (2).jpg [39]
Silvery mole-rat 148,000,000
Silvery mole-rat.png
[38]
Four-toed elephant shrew 157,000,000
Petrodromus tetradactylus tordayi - Royal Museum for Central Africa - DSC06793.JPG
[35]
Eurasian blackcap 157,000,000
Sylvia atricapilla -Lullington Heath, East Sussex, England -male-8.jpg
[39]
Goldcrest 164,000,000
Goldcrest (10649615636).jpg
[39]
Cape mole-rat 170,000,000
Georychus capensis - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02826.JPG
[38]
Mechow's mole-rat 174,000,000
Cryptomys mechowi Plzen zoo 02.2011.jpg
[38]
Damaraland mole-rat 178,000,000
Damaraland mole-rat.jpg
[38]
Brown rat 200,000,000 ~4.48×10^11
Rattus norvegicus 1.jpg
[40]
Guyenne spiny rat 202,000,000 [35]
Eastern mole 204,000,000
ScalopusAquaticus.jpg
[34]
Red junglefowl 221,000,000
Red Junglefowl - Thailand.jpg
[39]
Great tit 226,000,000
Great tit side-on.jpg
[39]
Green-rumped parrotlet 227,000,000
Forpus passerinus -Venezuela-8.jpg
[39]
Guinea pig 240,000,000
Two adult Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).jpg
[36]
Gray mouse lemur 254,710,000
Gray Mouse Lemur 1.JPG
[41]
Common treeshrew 261,000,000
Stavenn Tupaia glis 00.jpg
[42]
Pigeon 310,000,000 Brain only
Treron vernans male - Kent Ridge Park.jpg
[39]
Budgerigar 322,000,000
Yellow budgerigar.jpg
[39]
Cape dune mole-rat 361,000,000
Bathyergus suillus - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02831.JPG
[38]
Common blackbird 379,000,000
Common Blackbird.jpg
[39]
Ferret 404,000,000
Black footed ferret whole.jpg
[43]
Cockatiel 453,000,000
Cockatiel Sleeping.jpg
[39]
Gray squirrel 453,660,000
Grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) 02.jpg
[33]
Banded mongoose 454,000,000
Banded Mongoose.jpg
[43]
Prairie dog 473,940,000
Black-Tailed Prairie Dog.jpg
[33]
Common starling 483,000,000
Common Starling in Wormwood Scrubs Park in spring 2013.JPG
[39]
European rabbit 494,200,000
Oryctolagus cuniculus Tasmania 2.jpg
[33]
Octopus 500,000,000
Octopus2.jpg
[44]
Western tree hyrax 505,000,000
Beecroft'sTreeHyrax.JPG
[35]
Common marmoset 636,000,000
Marmoset copy.jpg
[42]
Eastern rosella 642,000,000
Eastern Rosella at Hobart Domain upright.jpg
[39]
Barn owl 690,000,000
Barn Owl (9652234894).jpg
[39]
Monk parakeet 697,000,000
Monk Parakeet (4303100054).jpg
[39]
Azure-winged magpie 741,000,000
Azure-winged Magpie RWD2.jpg
[39]
Rock hyrax 756,000,000
Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis) (7042223567).jpg
[35]
Cat 760,000,000 ~1×10^13
Cat mouth closed.jpg
[45]
Black-rumped agouti 857,000,000
Dasyprocta punctata (Mexico).jpg
[36]
Magpie 897,000,000
Magpie.arp.750pix.jpg
[39]
Common hill myna 906,000,000
Common Hill Myna - Gracula religiosa - Ninoy Aquino Parks & Wildlife Center 02.jpg
[39]
Northern greater galago 936,000,000 [42]
Western jackdaw 968,000,000
Jackdaw arp 750pix.jpg
[39]
Eurasian jay 1.085×10^9
Eurasian Jay on balcony.jpg
[39]
Alexandrine parakeet 1.096×10^9
Alexandrine Parakeet at Lochmara Lodge.jpg
[39]
Tanimbar corella 1.161×10^9
A Goffin's Cockatoo on a perch.jpg
[39]
Emu 1.335×10^9
Emu chick 1.jpg
[39]
Three-striped night monkey 1.468×10^9 [42]
Rook 1.509×10^9
Rook Corvus frugilegus.jpg
[39]
Grey parrot 1.566×10^9
Congo African Grey Parrot -head detail.jpg
[39]
Capybara 1.6×10^9
Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).JPG
[36]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 2.122×10^9
Cacatua galerita portrait.jpg
[39]
Raccoon 2.148×10^9
Racoon (3813039203).jpg
[43]
Kea 2.149×10^9
Kea on car.jpg
[39]
Raven 2.171×10^9 Brain only
Raven (Corvus corax) (8).jpg
[39]
Domestic pig 2.22×10^9
Sow and five piglets.jpg
[46]
Dog 2.253×10^9
Domestic Dog.jpg
[43]
Springbok 2.72×10^9
Springbok.JPG
[46]
Blesbok 3.06×10^9
Blesbok - Damaliscus pygargus albifrons.jpg
[46]
Blue-and-yellow macaw 3.136×10^9 Brain only
Ara ararauna Luc Viatour.jpg
[39]
Common squirrel monkey 3.246×10^9
Common.squirrel.monkey.arp.jpg
[42]
Crab-eating macaque 3.44×10^9
Crab eating macaque face.jpg
[41]
Tufted capuchin 3.691×10^9
Sapajus apella apella (French Guyana) 4.jpg
[42]
Bonnet macaque 3.78×10^9
Bonnet Macaque Kodaikanal.jpg
[41]
Striped hyena 3.885×10^9
Striped Hyena 5.jpg
[43]
Lion 4.667×10^9
Lion waiting in Namibia.jpg
[43]
Greater kudu 4.91×10^9
Male greater kudu.jpg
[46]
Rhesus macaque 6.376×10^9
Macaca mulatta in Guiyang.jpg
[42]
Brown bear 9.586×10^9
Kamchatka Brown Bear near Dvuhyurtochnoe on 2015-07-23.jpg
[43]
Giraffe 1.075×10^10
Giraffe.jpg
[46]
Yellow baboon 1.095×10^10
Yellow Baboon - Mikumi National Park.jpg
[41]
Chimpanzee 2.8×10^10
Lightmatter chimp.jpg
[47]
Orangutan 3.26×10^10
Orang Utan, Semenggok Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia.JPG
[48]
Gorilla 3.34×10^10
Male gorilla in SF zoo.jpg
[48]
Human 8.6×10^10 ~1.5×10^14 Neurons for average adult
Akha cropped hires.JPG
[49][50][51]
African elephant 2.57×10^11
African Bush Elephant.jpg
[52][53]

Sensory-associative structure[edit]

The cerebral cortex is a structure of particular interest at the intersection between comparative neuroanatomy and comparative cognitive psychology. Historically, it had been assumed that since only mammals have a cerebral cortex, only they benefit from the information processing functions associated with it, notably awareness and thought.[54] It is now known that non-avian reptiles also have a cerebral cortex and that birds have a functional equivalent called the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR), which in fact appears to be a modification subsequent to the reptilian cortex. A modern understanding of comparative neuroanatomy now suggests that for all vertebrates, the pallium roughly corresponds to this general sensory-associative structure.[55] It is also a widely accepted view that arthropods and closely related worms have an equivalent structure, the corpora pedunculata, more commonly known as mushroom bodies. In fact this structure in invertebrates and the pallium in vertebrates may have a common evolutionary origin from a common ancestor.[56]

Given the apparent function of the sensory-associative structure, it has been suggested that the total number of neurons in the pallium or its equivalents may be the best predictor of intelligence when comparing species, being more representative than total brain mass or volume, brain-to-body mass ratio, or encephalization quotient (EQ).[1] It may thus be reasonably assumed that the total number of neurons in an animal's corresponding sensory-associative structure strongly relates to its degree of awareness, breadth and variety of subjective experiences, and intelligence.[1]

Methods

The methods used to arrive at the numbers in this list include neuron count by isotropic fractionator, optical fractionator or estimation based on correlations observed between number of cortical neurons and brain mass within closely related taxa. Isotropic fractionation is often considered more straightforward and reliable than optical fractionation which may yield both overestimates and underestimates.[57] Estimation based on brain mass and taxon is to be considered the least reliable method.

Common name Average number of neurons[a] Instraspecific variation[b] Method[c] Sensory-associative structure Binomial nomenclature Image Source
Common fruit fly 2,500* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster Proboscis.jpg
[59]
House cricket 50,000* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Acheta domesticus
Acheta domesticus, adultes Weibchen.jpg
[59]
Honey bee 170,000* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Genus: Apis
The Lone Pollinator.jpg
[59]
Common cockroach 200,000* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Genus: Periplaneta
American-cockroach.jpg
[59]
Naked mole-rat 6,000,000 ± 1,065,587[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Heterocephalus glaber
Naked Mole rat baby.jpg
[33]
Ansell's mole-rat 10,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys anselli
Graumull IMG 4042.jpg
[38]
Smoky shrew 10,000,000 ± 352,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sorex fumeus
SmokyShrew23.jpg
[35]
Mashona mole-rat 12,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys darlingi [38]
Northern short-tailed shrew 12,000,000 ± 1,569,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Blarina brevicauda
Blarina brevicauda.jpg
[35]
House mouse 14,000,000 ± 2,242,257[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mus musculus
Mouse.jpg
[35]
Hairy-tailed mole 16,000,000 ± 2,611,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Parascalops breweri
The quadrupeds of North America (Plate LXXIV) (7748318398).jpg
[35]
Star-nosed mole 17,000,000 ± 3,105,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Condylura cristata
Condylura.jpg
[35]
Golden hamster 17,000,000 ± 3,619,934[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mesocricetus auratus
Peach the pet hamster.jpg
[35]
Damaraland mole-rat 21,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys damarensis
Damaraland mole-rat.jpg
[38]
Hottentot golden mole 22,000,000 ± 2,154,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Amblysomus hottentotus
Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen (Plate 39) (8557402518).jpg
[35]
Gray mouse lemur 22,310,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Microcebus murinus
Gray Mouse Lemur 1 edit.JPG
[41]
Mechow's mole-rat 23,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys mechowii
Cryptomys mechowi Plzen zoo 02.2011.jpg
[38]
Hedgehog 24,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Subfamily Erinaceinae, various species
Igel01.jpg
[60]
Silvery mole-rat 25,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Heliophobius argenteocinereus
Silvery mole-rat.png
[38]
Cape mole-rat 26,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Georychus capensis
Georychus capensis - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02826.JPG
[38]
Guyenne spiny rat 26,000,000 ± 2,155,723[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Proechimys cayennensis [35]
Eastern rock elephant shrew 26,000,000 ± 4,020,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Elephantulus myurus
Eastern Rock Elephant Shrew.jpg
[35]
Eastern mole 27,000,000 ± 5,113,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Scalopus aquaticus
ScalopusAquaticus.jpg
[35]
Opossum 27,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Didelphis virginiana
Opossum 2.jpg
[60]
Brown Rat 31,000,000 + 3,034,654[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Rattus norvegicus
Rat diabetic.jpg
[35]
Four-toed elephant shrew 34,000,000 ± 5,840,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Petrodromus tetradactylus
Petrodromus tetradactylus tordayi - Royal Museum for Central Africa - DSC06793.JPG
[35]
Ferret 38,950,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mustela putorius furo
Black footed ferret cropped.jpg
[43]
Cape dune mole-rat 43,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Bathyergus suillus
Georychus capensis - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02826.JPG
[38]
Guinea pig 43,510,000 ± 3,169,924[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Cavia porcellus
Cavia porcellus.jpg
[33]
Eurasian blackcap 52,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Sylvia atricapilla
Sylvia atricapilla -Lullington Heath, East Sussex, England -male-8.jpg
[39]
Prairie dog 53,770,000 ± 6,044,322[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Genus:Cynomys
Prairie Dog Washington Zoo.JPG
[33]
Zebra finch 55,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Taeniopygia guttata
Taeniopygia guttata - profile - dundee wildlife park.jpg
[39]
Common treeshrew 60,000,000 ± 26,510,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Tupaia glis
Stavenn Tupaia glis 00.jpg
[35]
Red junglefowl 61,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Gallus gallus
Gallus gallus.jpg
[39]
Goldcrest 64,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Regulus regulus
Goldcrest 1.jpg
[39]
European rabbit 71,450,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Oryctolagus cuniculus
Oryctolagus cuniculus Tasmania 2.jpg
[33]
Rock dove 72,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Columba livia
Rock Pigeon Columba livia.jpg
[39]
Eastern gray squirrel 77,330,000 ± 2,634,444[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sciurius carolinensis
Eastern Grey Squirrel in St James's Park, London - Nov 2006 edit.jpg
[33]
Great tit 83,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Parus major
Great tit side-on.jpg
[39]
Western tree hyrax 99,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Dendrohyrax dorsalis
Beecroft'sTreeHyrax.JPG
[35]
Green-rumped parrotlet 103,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Forpus passerinus
Forpus passerinus-Venezuela-8a.jpg
[39]
Black-rumped agouti 113,000,000 ± 2,576,768[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Dasyprocta prymnolopha
Dasyprocta punctata (Mexico).jpg
[1]
Banded mongoose 115,770,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mungos mungo
Mungos mungo qtl1.jpg
[43]
Common blackbird 136,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Turdus merula
Common Blackbird.jpg
[39]
Budgerigar 149,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Melopsittacus undulatus
Budgie001.jpg
[39]
Rock hyrax 198,000,000 ± 29,082,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Procavia capensis
Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis) (7042223567).jpg
[35]
Northern greater galago 226,000,000 ± 87,570,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Otolemur garnettii
Garnett's Galago (Greater Bushbaby).jpg
[35]
Common starling 226,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Sturnus vulgaris
Sturnus vulgaris -California-8.jpg
[39]
Common marmoset 245,000,000 ± 81,180,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Callithrix jacchus
Marmoset copy.jpg
[35]
House cat 249,830,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus
Cat mouth closed.jpg
[43]
Brown bear 250,970,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Ursus arctos
Brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) running.jpg
[43]
Cockatiel 258,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Nymphicus hollandicus
Nymphicus hollandicus -perching on wires -Australia-6a.jpg
[39]
Capybara 306,500,000 ± 62,726,120[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
Capybaras in riga zoo.jpg
[33]
Tarsius 310,000,000 Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Tarsius, unknown species
Tarsius tarsier Tandurusa zoo.JPG
[61]
Eastern rosella 333,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Platycercus eximius
Platycercus eximius diemenensis.jpg
[39]
Goeldi's marmoset 357,130,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Callimico goeldii
MP-Callimico goeldii.jpg
[41]
Western grey kangaroo 370,170,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macropus fuliginosus
Western Grey Kangaroo SMC 2006.JPG
[62]
Monk parakeet 396,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Myiopsitta monachus
Myiopsitta monachus monachus 3.JPG
[39]
Springbok 396,900,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Antidorcas marsupialis
Springbok.JPG
[46]
Azure-winged magpie 400,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cyanopica cyanus
Cyanopica cyanus Yokohama 6.jpg
[39]
Common hill myna 410,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Gracula religiosa
Gracula religiosa robusta-01.JPG
[39]
Domesticated pig 425,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sus scrofa domesticus
Sow with piglet.jpg
[63]
Barn owl 437,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Tyto alba
Tyto alba 1 Luc Viatour.jpg
[39]
Emu 439,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Dromaius novaehollandiae
Dromaius novaehollandiae - 02.jpg
[39]
Three-striped night monkey 442,000,000 ± 111,310,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Aotus trivirgatus
Stavenn Aotus trivirgatus 00.jpg
[1]
Eurasian magpie 443,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Pica pica
Pica pica - 01.jpg
[39]
Raccoon 453,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Procyon lotor
Raccoon (4152678243).jpg
[64]
Dog (Beagle) 484,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris
Bronco the Beagle.JPG
[43]
Western jackdaw 492,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Coloeus monedula
CROP. Corvus monedula, naakka, Naantalin hautausmaa, Naantali, 8.11.2011..jpg
[39]
Striped hyena 495,280,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hyaena hyaena
Streifenhyaene Hyaena hyaena Zoo Augsburg-09.jpg
[43]
Eurasian jay 529,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Garrulus glandarius
Garrulus glandarius 1 Luc Viatour.jpg
[39]
Lion 545,240,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Panthera leo
Lions Family Portrait Masai Mara.jpg
[43]
Blesbok 570,670,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi
Blesbok at NC zoo.jpg
[46]
Alexandrine parakeet 575,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Psittacula eupatria
Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria), Jurong Bird Park, Singapore - 20090613.jpg
[39]
Tanimbar corella 599,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cacatua goffiniana
Cacatua goffiniana -captive-8a-3c.jpg
[39]
Dog (Golden retriever) 627,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris
Golden Retriever Carlos (10581910556).jpg
[43]
Gracile capuchin monkey 650,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Cebus
Capuchin Costa Rica.jpg
[57]
Greater kudu 762,570,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Tragelaphus strepsiceros
Male greater kudu.jpg
[46]
Crab-eating macaque 800,960,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macaca fascicularis
Macaca-fascicularis flk18447014.jpg
[41]
Rook 820,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Corvus frugilegus
Corvus Frugilegus Berlin-2.jpg
[39]
Grey parrot 850,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Psittacus erithacus
Psittacus erithacus qtl1.jpg
[39]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 1,135,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cacatua galerita
Cacatua galerita portrait.jpg
[39]
Tufted capuchin 1,140,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sapajus apella
Sapajus apella apella (French Guyana) 4.jpg
[35][1]
Harp seal 1,168,000,000^

6,100,000,000*

Estimated

Optical fractionator

Pallium (cortex) Pagophilus groenlandicus
Harp seal.jpg
[65][66]
Horse 1,200,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Equus ferus caballus
Nokota Horses cropped.jpg
[67]
Raven 1,204,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Corvus corax
Corvus corax jouveniles.jpeg
[39]
Kea 1,281,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Nestor notabilis
Kea.jpg
[39]
Common squirrel monkey 1,340,000,000 ± 20,000,000[35] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Saimiri sciureus
Saimiri sciureus-1 Luc Viatour.jpg
[35]
Bonnet macaque 1,660,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macaca radiata
Bonnet Macaque Macaca radiata Threat display by Dr. Raju Kasambe DSCN5340 (5).jpg
[41]
Rhesus macaque 1,710,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macaca mulatta
Macaca mulatta in Guiyang.jpg
[35]
Giraffe 1,731,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Giraffa camelopardalis
Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis.jpg
[46]
Blue and yellow macaw 1,900,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Ara ararauna
Schläfrige Gelbbrustaras (sleepy Blue-and-yellow Macaws) Weltvogelpark Walsrode 2010.jpg
[39]
Pygmy sperm whale 2,020,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Kogia breviceps
Pygmy sperm whale.jpg
[68]
Leopard seal 2,386,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Hydrurga leptonyx
Leopard seal 2.jpg
[65]
Guenon 2,500,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Cercopithecus, unknown species
[61]
Pigtail Macaque 2,531,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Macaca nemestrina
(Macaca.nemestrina-1-PragueZOO.jpg
[65]
Gelada baboon 2,568,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Theropithecus gelada
Gelada (Theropithecus gelada gelada) juvenile male.jpg
[65]
Red-and-green macaw 2,646,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (DVR) Ara chloropterus
Red-and-green Macaw 02.jpg
[65]
Harbor porpoise 2,750,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Phocoena phocoena
Ecomare - bruinvis Michael in 2015 (bruinvis-michael2015-9313-sw).jpg
[65][66]
Yellow baboon 2,880,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Papio cynocephalus
Papio cynocephalus.jpg
[41]
Hyacinth macaw 2,944,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (DVR) Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus
Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) feeding on palm nuts ... - Flickr - berniedup.jpg
[65]
Hamadryas baboon 2,990,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Papio hamadryas
Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) female.jpg
[65]
Mandrill 3,102,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Mandrillus sphinx
Mandrill portrait (2), Berlin Zoo.jpg
[65]
Walrus 3,929,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Odobenus rosmarus
Noaa-walrus30.jpg
[65]
Southern elephant seal 3,994,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Mirounga leonina
Southern Elephant Seal poses seductively on the beach (5797919211).jpg
[65]
African elephant 5,600,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Loxodonta africana
[52]
Short-beaked common dolphin 6,700,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Delphinus delphis
Short-beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) (14825276609).jpg
[65][68]
Asian elephant 6,775,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Elephas maximus
Asian Elephant in Thailand.jpg
[65]
Pygmy chimpanzee or bonobo 7,250,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Pan paniscus
BonoboFishing02 cropped.jpeg
[65]
Chimpanzee 7,400,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Pan troglodytes
Eastern Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (7068198095) (cropped).jpg
[69]
Orangutan 7,704,000,000^ - 8,900,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Pongo
Orang Utan, Semenggok Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia.JPG
[65][48]
Western gorilla 9,100,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Gorilla gorilla
[65][48]
Cuvier's beaked whale 9,100,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Ziphius cavirostris
Beached Cuvier's Beaked Whale (28740971527).jpg
[68]
Beluga whale 10,000,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Delphinapterus leucas
Baby Beluga Whale.jpg
[65]
Bottlenose dolphin 12,700,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Tursiops truncatus
Tursiops truncatus 01.jpg
[65][68]
Common minke whale 12,800,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Balaenoptera acutorostrata
Minke Whale (NOAA).jpg
[70]
Fin whale 15,000,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Balaenoptera physalus
[65][71]
Blue whale 15,000,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Balaenoptera musculus
Anim1754 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg
[65]
Human 16,340,000,000

21,000,000,000*

± 2,170,000,000[35] Isotropic fractionator

Optical fractionator

Pallium (cortex) Homo sapiens
Akha cropped hires.JPG
[35][49][1][72][73]
Risso's dolphin 18,750,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Grampus griseus
Risso's dolphin.jpg
[65]
Short-finned pilot whale 35,000,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Globicephala macrorhynchus
Short-finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) (8604841637).jpg
[65]
Long-finned pilot whale 37,200,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Globicephala melas
Pilot whale spyhop.jpg
[74]
Killer whale 43,100,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Orcinus orca
[65][68]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ ^ = Estimated
    • = Optical fractionator
  2. ^ ± standard deviation
  3. ^ For the estimated values, the number of cortical neurons estimated from brain mass for different mammalian and bird orders are based on correlation observed between number of cortical neuron and brain mass per order[58]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (9 November 2009). "The human brain in numbers: a linearly scaled-up primate brain". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 3: 31. doi:10.3389/neuro.09.031.2009. PMC 2776484. PMID 19915731.
  2. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/science/blog/2012/feb/28/how-many-neurons-human-brain
  3. ^ Sherwood L, Klandorf H and Yancey P (2012) Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms Cengage Learning, p. 150. ISBN 9781133709510.
  4. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z4eqSl7Vups
  5. ^ Schierwater B (December 2005). "My favorite animal, Trichoplax adhaerens". BioEssays. 27 (12): 1294–1302. doi:10.1002/bies.20320. PMID 16299758.
  6. ^ Ware, Randle W.; LoPresti, Vincent (1975). "Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections". Int. Rev. Cytol. International Review of Cytology. 40: 325–440. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(08)60956-0. ISBN 9780123643407. PMID 1097356.
  7. ^ Ryan, Kerrianne; Lu, Zhiyuan; Meinertzhagen, Ian A. (2016). "The CNS connectome of a tadpole larva of Ciona intestinalis (L.) highlights sidedness in the brain of a chordate sibling". eLife. 2016;5:e16962: e16962. doi:10.7554/eLife.16962. PMC 5140270. PMID 27921996.
  8. ^ Ryan, Kerrianne; Lu, Zhiyuan; Meinertzhagen, Ian A. (2018). "The peripheral nervous system of the ascidian tadpole larva: Types of neurons and their synaptic networks". Journal of Comparative Neurology. 526 (4): 583–608. doi:10.1002/cne.24353. PMID 29124768.
  9. ^ White JG, Southgate E, Thomson JN, Brenner S (November 1986). "The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 314 (1165): 1–340. Bibcode:1986RSPTB.314....1W. doi:10.1098/rstb.1986.0056. PMID 22462104.
  10. ^ White JG (June 2013). "Getting into the mind of a worm--a personal view". WormBook: 1–10. doi:10.1895/wormbook.1.158.1. PMC 4781474. PMID 23801597.
  11. ^ Jabr F (2012-10-02). "The Connectome Debate: Is Mapping the Mind of a Worm Worth It?". Scientific American. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
  12. ^ White, J. G; E. Southgate; J. N Thomson; S. Brenner (1986-11-12). "The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 314 (1165): 1–340. Bibcode:1986RSPTB.314....1W. doi:10.1098/rstb.1986.0056. ISSN 0962-8436. PMID 22462104.
  13. ^ Bode, H.; Berking, S.; David, C. N.; Gierer, A.; Schaller, H.; Trenkner, E. (1973). "Quantitative analysis of cell types during growth and morphogenesis in Hydra". Wilhelm Roux Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (Submitted manuscript). 171 (4): 269–285. doi:10.1007/BF00577725. ISSN 0949-944X. PMID 28304608.
  14. ^ Polilov, Alexey A. (2011). "The smallest insects evolve anucleate neurons". Arthropod Structure & Development. 41 (1): 29–34. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2011.09.001. PMID 22078364.
  15. ^ Garm, A.; Poussart, Y.; Parkefelt, L.; Ekström, P.; Nilsson, D-E. (2007). "The ring nerve of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora". Cell and Tissue Research. 329 (1): 147–157. doi:10.1007/s00441-007-0393-7. ISSN 0302-766X. PMID 17340150.
  16. ^ Kuffler SW, Potter DD (1964). "Glia in the leech central nervous system: physiological properties and neuron-glia relationship". J. Neurophysiol. 27 (2): 290–320. doi:10.1152/jn.1964.27.2.290. PMID 14129773.
  17. ^ Roth G, Dicke U (May 2005). "Evolution of the brain and intelligence". Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.). 9 (5): 250–7. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2005.03.005. PMID 15866152. as PDF Archived 2009-07-31 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Cash D, Carew TJ (1989). "A quantitative analysis of the development of the central nervous system in juvenile Aplysia californica". J Neurobiol. 20 (1): 25–47. doi:10.1002/neu.480200104. PMID 2921607.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  19. ^ Roth, Gerhard (3 June 2013). The Long Evolution of Brains and Minds. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 121. ISBN 978-94-007-6259-6. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  20. ^ Aniszewski, Tadeusz (25 April 2015). Alkaloids: Chemistry, Biology, Ecology, and Applications. Elsevier Science. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-444-59462-4. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  21. ^ Scientists Capture All The Neurons Firing Across A Fish's Brain On Video Popular Science, 19 March 2013.
  22. ^ "Anatomy & Biology". The Lobster Institute. University of Maine. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2016.
  23. ^ https://www.wired.com/story/most-complete-brain-map-ever-is-here-a-flys-connectome/
  24. ^ Lagercrantz, Hugo; Hanson, M. A.; Ment, Laura R.; Peebles, Donald M., eds. (7 January 2010). The Newborn Brain: Neuroscience and Clinical Applications. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-139-48558-6. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  25. ^ Nass, Richard; Przedborski, Serge (28 April 2011). Parkinson's Disease: molecular and therapeutic insights from model systems. Academic Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-0-08-055958-2. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  26. ^ John and Sarah Tefl. "Interesting Facts About Ants". Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  27. ^ "Ant Fun Facts". Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  28. ^ Menzel R, Giurfa M (February 2001). "Cognitive architecture of a mini-brain: the honeybee". Trends Cogn. Sci. 5 (2): 62–71. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01601-6. PMID 11166636.
  29. ^ "A Strange Approach to Social Interaction, and Butterflies". Anthropology.net. January 10, 2007. Archived from the original on January 13, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
  30. ^ Marhounová, Lucie; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kverková, Kristina; Kolm, Niclas; Němec, Pavel (2019). "Artificial selection on brain size leads to matching changes in overall number of neurons". Evolution. 0 (9): 2003–2012. doi:10.1111/evo.13805. ISSN 1558-5646. PMC 6772110. PMID 31339177.
  31. ^ Hinsch, K. & Zupanc, G. K. H. (2007). "Generation and long-term persistence of new neurons in the adult zebrafish brain: A quantitative analysis". Neuroscience. 146 (2): 679–696. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.01.071. PMID 17395385.
  32. ^ "Frog Brain Neuron Number". Archived from the original on 16 July 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Ribeiro, Pedro; Campos, Leandro; Silva, Alexandre Valotta da; Torres, Laila B.; Catania, Kenneth C.; Kaas, Jon H. (2011). "Updated Neuronal Scaling Rules for the Brains of Glires (Rodents/Lagomorphs)". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 78 (4): 302–314. doi:10.1159/000330825. ISSN 0006-8977. PMC 3237106. PMID 21985803.
  34. ^ a b c d Hofman, Michel A.; Falk, Dean (2 March 2012). Evolution of the Primate Brain: From Neuron to Behavior. Elsevier. p. 425. ISBN 978-0-444-53860-4.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba name="H-Houzel2015"Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Catania, Kenneth; Manger, Paul R.; Kaas, Jon H. (2015). "Mammalian Brains Are Made of These: A Dataset of the Numbers and Densities of Neuronal and Nonneuronal Cells in the Brain of Glires, Primates, Scandentia, Eulipotyphlans, Afrotherians and Artiodactyls, and Their Relationship with Body Mass" (PDF). Brain, Behavior and Evolution. S. Karger AG. 86 (3–4): 145–163. doi:10.1159/000437413. ISSN 0006-8977. PMID 26418466.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)[permanent dead link]
  36. ^ a b c d e Herculano-Houzel S, Mota B, Lent R (2006). "Cellular scaling rules for rodent brains". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 103 (32): 12138–12143. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10312138H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604911103. PMC 1567708. PMID 16880386.
  37. ^ Ngwenya, Ayanda; Patzke, Nina; Manger, Paul R.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (2016). "Continued Growth of the Central Nervous System without Mandatory Addition of Neurons in the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus)". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 87 (1): 19–38. doi:10.1159/000443201. PMID 26914769.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Kverková, Kristina; Bělíková, Tereza; Olkowicz, Seweryn; Pavelková, Zuzana; O’Riain, M. Justin; Šumbera, Radim; Burda, Hynek; Bennett, Nigel C.; Němec, Pavel (2018-06-15). "Sociality does not drive the evolution of large brains in eusocial African mole-rats". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 9203. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8.9203K. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-26062-8. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6003933. PMID 29907782.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd Olkowicz, Seweryn; Kocourek, Martin; Lučan, Radek K.; Porteš, Michal; Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Němec, Pavel (2016). "Birds have primate-like numbers of neurons in the forebrain". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (26): 7255–60. doi:10.1073/pnas.1517131113. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 4932926. PMID 27298365.
  40. ^ Herculano-Houzel, S. & Lent, R. (2005). "Isotropic fractionator: a simple, rapid method for the quantification of total cell and neuron numbers in the brain". J Neurosci. 25 (10): 2518–2521. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.4526-04.2005. PMC 6725175. PMID 15758160.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gabi, Mariana; Collins, Christine E.; Wong, Peiyan; Torres, Laila B.; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (2010). "Cellular Scaling Rules for the Brains of an Extended Number of Primate Species". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 76 (1): 32–44. doi:10.1159/000319872. ISSN 0006-8977. PMC 2980814. PMID 20926854.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g Herculano-Houzel S, Collins C, Wong P, Kaas J (2007). "Cellular scaling rules for primate brains". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 104 (9): 3562–3567. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.3562H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611396104. PMC 1805542. PMID 17360682.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Jardim-Messeder, Débora; Lambert, Kelly; Noctor, Stephen; Pestana, Fernanda M.; Leal, de Castro; E, Maria; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N.; Mohammad, Osama B. (2017). "Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species". Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. 11: 118. doi:10.3389/fnana.2017.00118. ISSN 1662-5129. PMC 5733047. PMID 29311850.
  44. ^ "Brain Facts and Figures". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  45. ^ Ananthanarayanan, Rajagopal; Esser, Steven K.; Simon, Horst D.; Modha, Dharmendra S. (2009). "The cat is out of the bag: cortical simulations with 109 neurons, 1013 synapses". Proceedings of the Conference on High Performance Computing Networking, Storage and Analysis - SC '09. pp. 1–12. doi:10.1145/1654059.1654124. ISBN 978-1-60558-744-8.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kazu, Rodrigo S.; Maldonado, José; Mota, Bruno; Manger, Paul R.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (2015). "Corrigendum: Cellular scaling rules for the brain of Artiodactyla include a highly folded cortex with few neurons". Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. 9: 39. doi:10.3389/fnana.2015.00039. ISSN 1662-5129. PMC 4374476. PMID 25859187.
  47. ^ Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (June 2012). "The remarkable, yet not extraordinary, human brain as a scaled-up primate brain and its associated cost". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 Suppl 1: 10661–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.1201895109. PMC 3386878. PMID 22723358.
  48. ^ a b c d Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Kaas, Jon (2011). "Gorilla and Orangutan Brains Conform to the Primate Cellular Scaling Rules: Implications for Human Evolution". Brain Behav Evol. 77 (1): 33–44. doi:10.1159/000322729. PMC 3064932. PMID 21228547.
  49. ^ a b Azevedo, Frederico A.C.; Carvalho, Ludmila R.B.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Farfel, José Marcelo; Ferretti, Renata E.L.; Leite, Renata E.P.; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Lent, Roberto; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (2009). "Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 513 (5): 532–541. doi:10.1002/cne.21974. PMID 19226510.
  50. ^ Herculano-Houzel, S. (20 June 2012). "The remarkable, yet not extraordinary, human brain as a scaled-up primate brain and its associated cost". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (Supplement_1): 10661–10668. doi:10.1073/pnas.1201895109. PMC 3386878. PMID 22723358.
  51. ^ TOWER DB. (1954). "Structural and functional organization of mammalian cerebral cortex; the correlation of neurone density with brain size; cortical neurone density in the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus L.) with a note on the cortical neurone density in the Indian elephant". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 101 (1): 19–51. doi:10.1002/cne.901010103. PMID 13211853.
  52. ^ a b Herculano-Houzel, S; Avelino-de-Souza, K; Neves, K; Porfírio, J; Messeder, D; Mattos Feijó, L; Maldonado, J; Manger, PR (2014). "The Elephant Brain in Numbers". Front Neuroanat. 8: 46. doi:10.3389/fnana.2014.00046. PMC 4053853. PMID 24971054.
  53. ^ "Searching For The Elephant's Genius Inside the Largest Brain on Land". Scientificamerica. 26 February 2014.
  54. ^ MacLean, P.D. (Jan 31, 1990). The Triune Brain in Evolution: Role in Paleocerebral Functions. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 10. ISBN 9780306431685. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  55. ^ Finger, Thomas E.; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Karten, Harvey J.; Hof, Patrick R. (2013). "Evolution of the forebrain — revisiting the pallium". Journal of Comparative Neurology. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 521 (16): 3601–3603. doi:10.1002/cne.23444. PMID 23893869.
  56. ^ Tomer, Raju; Denes, Alexandru S.; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Arendt, Detlev (September 3, 2010). "Profiling by Image Registration Reveals Common Origin of Annelid Mushroom Bodies and Vertebrate Pallium". Cell. 142 (5): 800–809. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.07.043. PMID 20813265.
  57. ^ a b Hofman, Michel A.; Falk, Dean (2 March 2012). Evolution of the Primate Brain: From Neuron to Behavior. Elsevier. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-444-53867-3.
  58. ^ Cite error: The named reference H-Houzel2015 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  59. ^ a b c d Heisenberg, Martin (May 1998). "What Do the Mushroom Bodies Do for the Insect Brain? An Introduction". Learning & Memory. 5 (1): 1–10. PMC 311238. PMID 10454369.
  60. ^ a b Fasolo, Aldo (30 November 2011). The Theory of Evolution and Its Impact. Springer. p. 182. ISBN 978-88-470-1973-7.
  61. ^ a b Quarton, Gardner C.; Melnechuk, Theodore; Schmitt, Francis O. (1967). The neurosciences. Rockefeller University Press. p. 732. GGKEY:DF21HXQKLNX.
  62. ^ Dos Santos, S.E.; Porfirio, J.; da Cunha, F.B.; Manger, P.R.; Tavares, W.; Pessoa, L.; Raghanti, M.A.; Sherwood, C.C.; Herculano-Houzel, S. (2017). "Cellular scaling rules for the brains of marsupials: Not as "primitive" as expected". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 89 (1): 48–63. doi:10.1159/000452856. PMID 28125804. Table S1: Cellular composition of the Marsupial brains.
  63. ^ "LEARNING FROM PIG BRAINS". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  64. ^ Lambert KG, Bardi M, Landis T, Hyer MM, Rzucidlo A, Gehrt S, Anchor C, Jardim Messeder D, Herculano-Houzel S (2014). "Behind the Mask: Neurobiological indicants of emotional resilience and cognitive function in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor)". Society for Neuroscienc.
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Herculano‐Houzel, Suzana (2019). "Longevity and sexual maturity vary across species with number of cortical neurons, and humans are no exception". Journal of Comparative Neurology. 527 (10): 1689–1705 Supporting Information Table S1. doi:10.1002/cne.24564. ISSN 0021-9967. PMID 30350858.
  66. ^ a b Walløe, Solveig; Eriksen, Nina; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente (2010-12-01). "A neurological comparative study of the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) brain". Anatomical Record. 293 (12): 2129–2135. doi:10.1002/ar.21295. ISSN 1932-8494. PMID 21077171.
  67. ^ Haug, Herbert (October 1987). "Brain sizes, surfaces, and neuronal sizes of the cortex cerebri: A stereological investigation of man and his variability and a comparison with some mammals (primates, whales, marsupials, insectivores, and one elephant)". American Journal of Anatomy. 180 (2): 126–142. doi:10.1002/aja.1001800203. ISSN 0002-9106. PMID 3673918.
  68. ^ a b c d e Ridgway, Sam H.; Brownson, Robert H.; Alstyne, Kaitlin R. Van; Hauser, Robert A. (2019-12-16). "Higher neuron densities in the cerebral cortex and larger cerebellums may limit dive times of delphinids compared to deep-diving toothed whales". PLOS ONE. 14 (12): e0226206. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0226206. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6914331. PMID 31841529.
  69. ^ Kaas, Jon (4 January 2015). "Cortical cell and neuron density estimates in one chimpanzee hemisphere". PNAS. 113 (3): 740–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.1524208113. PMC 4725503. PMID 26729880.
  70. ^ Eriksen, Nina; Pakkenberg, Bente (2007-01-01). "Total neocortical cell number in the mysticete brain". Anatomical Record. 290 (1): 83–95. doi:10.1002/ar.20404. ISSN 1932-8486. PMID 17441201.
  71. ^ Mammals, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Working Party on Marine (1978-01-01). Mammals in the Seas: Report. Food & Agriculture Org. ISBN 9789251005132.
  72. ^ Steven M. Platek; Julian Paul Keenan & Todd K. Shackelford (2009). "Evolutionary Cognitive Neuroscience" (PDF): 139. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  73. ^ Pakkenberg, Bente; Gunderson, Hans Jorgen G. (1997). "Neocortical neuron number in humans: Effect of sex and age". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Wiley‐Liss, Inc. 384 (2): 312–320. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19970728)384:2<312::AID-CNE10>3.0.CO;2-K. PMID 9215725.
  74. ^ Mortensen HS, et al. (2014). "Quantitative relationships in delphinid neocortex". Front Neuroanat. 8: 132. doi:10.3389/fnana.2014.00132. PMC 4244864. PMID 25505387.