List of animals by number of neurons

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Brief comparisons of number of whole brain neurons (top) and cerebral cortex neurons (bottom) among six mammals.

The following are two lists of animals ordered by the size of their nervous system. The first list shows number of neurons in their entire nervous system, indicating their overall neural complexity. The second list shows the number of neurons in the structure that has been found to be representative of animal intelligence.[1] The human brain contains 86 billion neurons, with 16 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex.[2][1]

Overview[edit]

Neurons are the cells that transmit information in an animal's nervous system so that it can sense stimuli from its environment and behave accordingly. Not all animals have neurons; Trichoplax and sponges lack nerve cells altogether.

Neurons may be packed to form structures such as the brain of vertebrates or the neural ganglions of insects.

The number of neurons and their relative abundance in different parts of the brain is a determinant of neural function and, consequently, of behavior.

Whole nervous system[edit]

All numbers for neurons (except Caenorhabditis and Ciona), and all numbers for synapses (except Ciona) are estimations.

Name Neurons in the brain & whole nervous system Synapses Details Image Source
Sponge 0
Sponge.JPG
[3]
Trichoplax 0 Despite no nervous system, it exhibits coordinated feeding and response behaviors.[4]
Trichoplax mic.jpg
[5]
Asplanchna brightwellii (rotifer) ~200 Brain only
Rotifera (Genusː Philodina) - 40X view.jpg
[6]
Tardigrade ~200 Brain only
SEM image of Milnesium tardigradum in active state - journal.pone.0045682.g001-2.png
[7]
Ciona intestinalis larva (sea squirt) 231 8,617 (central nervous system only)
Cionaintestinalis.jpg
[8]

[9]

Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm) 302 ~7,500 is the only organism to have its whole connectome (neuronal "wiring diagram") completed.[10][11][12]
Adult Caenorhabditis elegans.jpg
[13]
Starfish ~500 ring of neurons surrounding the mouth
Fromia monilis (Seastar).jpg
*requires references
Jellyfish 5,600 Hydra vulgaris (H. attenuate)
Jelly cc11.jpg
[14]
Megaphragma mymaripenne 7,400
Megaphragma mymaripenne-SEM (cropped-B).tif
[15]
Box jellyfish 8,70017,500 adult Tripedalia cystophora (8 mm diameter) – does not include 1000 neurons in each of the four rhopalia
Tripedalia-cystophora.png
[16]
Medicinal leech 10,000
Svømmende blodigle.JPG
[17]
Pond snail 11,000
[18]
Sea slug 18,000
Aplysia californica.jpg
[19]
Amphioxus 20,000 central nervous system only
Branchiostoma lanceolatum.jpg
[20]

[21]

Larval zebrafish 100,000
Zebrafish embryos.png
[22]
Lobster 100,000
Lobster.jpg
[23]
Fruit fly 100,000 < 10,000,000[citation needed]
Drosophila melanogaster - side (aka).jpg
[24]
Wandering spider 100,000
Cupiennius salei, Juvenile.jpg
[25]
Calliopsis (bee) 234,000
Calliopsis edwardsii, right, Broward co, Florida 2017-08-03-11.25 (36396361693).jpg
[26]
Ant 250,000 Varies per species
Ant head closeup.jpg
[27]
Perdita (genus) 275,000 [26]
Melissodes 495,000 [26]
Bombus impatiens 557,000
Bombus impatiens male.jpg
[26]
Western honey bee 613,000
Western honey bee grazing.jpg
[26]
Honey bee 960,000 ~1×10^9
Bees Collecting Pollen 2004-08-14.jpg
[28]
Cockroach 1,000,000
Cockroach.jpg
[29]
Coconut crab >1,000,000 c. 1,000,000 interneurons are dedicated to analysing olfactory input alone. [30]
California carpenter bee 1,180,000
Female California carpenter bee 1.jpg
[26]
Steudner's dwarf gecko 1,771,000
Tropiocolotes steudneri 1.jpeg
[31]
Brown anole 2,792,000
Cuban brown anole (Anolis sagrei sagrei) juvenile.JPG
[31]
Mochlus sundevallii 3,049,000
Sundevall's Writhing Skink (Mochlus sundevallii subsp. sundevallii).jpg
[31]
Peloponnese slowworm 3,713,000
Benny Trapp Anguis cephallonicus.jpg
[31]
Common house gecko 3,988,000
Common House Gecko with open mouth, in Laos.jpg
[31]
Takydromus sexlineatus 4,021,000
Takydromus sexlineatus W009a.jpg
[31]
Anolis cristatellus 4,270,000
Anolis cristatellus in Picard, Dominica-2012 02 15 0349.jpg
[32]
Papua snake lizard 4,271,000 [31]
Guppy 4,300,000
Guppy.jpg
[33]
Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon 4,305,000
Natalmidlandsdwarfchameleon.jpg
[31]
Acontias percivali 4,340,000
Acontias percivali.jpeg
[31]
Sand lizard 4,341,000
Lacerta agilis female 2013 G2.jpg
[31]
Ocelot gecko 4,420,000
Paroeudura Picta.jpg
[34]
Darevskia raddei 4,765,000
Darevskia raddei.jpeg
[31]
Anolis evermanni 4,920,000 [32]
Echis carinatus 4,951,000
Saw-scaled Viper Echis carinatus by Dr. Raju Kasambe DSCN8792 (1).jpg
[31]
Cerastes cerastes 4,996,000
Hornviper Cerastes cerastes.jpg
[31]
Tenerife gecko 5,001,000
Tarentola delalandii.jpg
[31]
Draco sumatranus 5,174,000
Draco sumatranus.jpg
[31]
Blue-throated keeled lizard 5,269,000
Blue-throated keeled lizard (Dalmatian algyroides). Algyroides nigropunctatus (44191025654).jpg
[31]
Crested gecko 5,417,000
Baby crested gecko.jpg
[31]
Lacerta strigata 5,529,000
Пара полосатых ящериц.jpg
[31]
San Francisco garter snake 5,663,000
Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia (2005 10 16) - uitsnede.jpg
[31]
Red-eyed crocodile skink 5,697,000
Red-Eyed Crocodile Skink.jpg
[31]
Emoia cyanura 5,733,000
Emoia cyanura.jpg
[31]
East African spiny-tailed lizard 5,756,000
East African spiny-tailed lizard (Cordylus tropidosternum).jpg
[31]
Chalcides ocellatus 5,774,000
Chalcides ocellatus MNHN.jpg
[31]
Cylindrophis ruffus 5,779,000
Cyl ruffus 061212 2021 tdp.jpg
[31]
Cat gecko 5,964,000
Aeluroscalabotes felinus.jpg
[31]
Aspidoscelis deppii 5,968,000
Aspidoscelis deppii.jpeg
[31]
Brown water snake 5,995,000
Brown Water Snake.jpg
[31]
Aspidelaps lubricus 6,020,000
Cape Coral Snake, Aspidelaps lubricus, RsDSC 0417.jpg
[31]
Scincus scincus 6,284,000
Scincus scincus on glass particles.png
[31]
Montivipera xanthina 6,677,000
Benny Trapp Montivipera xanthina.jpg
[31]
Hispaniolan curlytail lizard 7,063,000
Leiocephalus schreibersii Prague Zoo.jpg
[31]
Sceloporus malachiticus 7,149,000
Green Spiny Lizard (Sceloporus malachiticus) - Flickr - gailhampshire.jpg
[31]
Crotalus durissus 7,263,000
Crotalus durissus terrificus (mounted).JPG
[31]
Agama agama 7,455,000
Common Agama (Agama agama) male (7609816076).jpg
[31]
Agama aculeata 7,631,000
Ground Agama (Agama aculeata).jpg
[31]
Gekko kuhli 7,659,000
Kuhl's Flying Gecko (Ptychozoon kuhli) (8744025989).jpg
[31]
Leopard gecko 8,081,000
Eublepharis macularius 2009 G6.jpg
[31]
Latastia longicaudata 8,099,000
Latastia longicaudata (Wroclaw zoo)-1.JPG
[31]
Razor-backed musk turtle 8,389,000
Sternotherus carinatus by LA Dawson.jpg
[31]
Greek tortoise 8,520,000
Testudo graeca at Dibbeen2.JPG
[31]
Phelsuma grandis 8,623,000
Madagascar giant day gecko (Phelsuma grandis) Nosy Komba.jpg
[31]
Acanthocercus atricollis 8,650,000
Southern Tree Agama (Acanthocercus atricollis) (6002525679).jpg
[31]
Tokay gecko 8,892,000
Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) adult male and juvenile.jpg
[31]
Russian tortoise 9,008,000
Testudo horsefieldii.jpg
[31]
Marginated tortoise 9,074,000
Testudo marginata.JPG
[31]
Psammophis elegans 9,170,000 [31]
Xenopeltis unicolor 9,293,000
Sunbeam Snake (Xenopeltis unicolor) (7121228691).jpg
[31]
Zonosaurus Karsteni 9,538,000
Zonosaurus karsteni.jpg
[31]
Oplurus quadrimaculatus 9,565,000
Duméril's Madagascar swift (Oplurus quadrimaculatus) Isalo.jpg
[31]
Malagasy giant chameleon 9,751,000
Oustalet's chameleon (Furcifer oustaleti) female.jpg
[31]
Ahaetulla prasina 9,767,000
Ahaetulla prasina, oriental whipsnake - Kaeng Krachan National Park (15895767306).jpg
[31]
Dasia olivacea 9,785,000
Dasia olivacea.jpg
[31]
Adult zebrafish ~10,000,000 cells (neurons + other)
Zebrafisch.jpg
[35]
Timon tangitanus 10,619,000
Lacertidae - Timon tangitanus.JPG
[31]
Corn snake 10,629,000
CornSnake.jpg
[31]
Acanthosaura capra 10,724,000
Acanthosaura capra, Zoo Prague.jpg
[31]
Gallotia galloti 10,903,000
Gallotia galloti LC0211.jpg
[31]
Eutropis multifasciata 10,944,000
Common sun skink (Eutropis multifasciata).jpg
[31]
Rainbow boa 11,083,000
Rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria) coiled around a branch.jpg
[31]
East African black mud turtle 11,285,000
Pelusios subniger.jpg
[31]
Indochinese spitting cobra 11,306,000
Naja-siamensis-indochinese-spitting-cobra-southwest-thailand.jpg
[31]
Cyrtodactylus irianjayaensis 11,415,000 [31]
Uromastyx ornata 11,438,000
Uromastyx ornata.JPG
[31]
Yellow-throated plated lizard 11,847,000
Yellow-throated Plated Lizard (Gerrhosaurus flavigularis) (14033889705), crop.jpg
[31]
Meller's chameleon 12,035,000
Mellers.chameleon.bristol.zoo.arp.jpg
[31]
Twist-necked turtle 12,171,000
Twist-neck Turtle (Platemys platycephala) (10358928446).jpg
[31]
Western whiptail 12,269,000
Aspidoscelis tigris-1.jpg
[31]
Gehyra vorax 12,388,000
Gehyra vorax.jpg
[31]
White-lipped mud turtle 12,671,000 [31]
Painted wood turtle 12,677,000
Rhinoclemmys Pulcherrima Bebé 1.jpg
[31]
Sheltopusik 12,830,000
Pseudopus apodus01.jpg
[31]
Standing's day gecko 13,223,000
Phelsuma-standingi.jpg
[31]
Common snapping turtle 13,681,000
Common snapping turtle - Chelydra serpentina.jpg
[31]
Painted turtle 14,302,000
Eastern Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta picta) (49866261538) (cropped).jpg
[31]
Ocellated lizard 14,593,000
Timon lepidus.jpg
[31]
Oplurus cuvieri 14,627,000
Oplurus Cuvieri Kirindy Madagascar.jpg
[31]
African spurred tortoise 14,986,000
African Spurred Tortoise in Toronto.jpg
[31]
Boa imperator 15,194,000
Boa constrictor imperator.jpg
[31]
Red-eared slider 15,388,000
Trachemys scripta elegans partially submerged.jpg
[31]
Plumed basilisk 15,536,000
Corytophanidae Basiliscus plumifrons 4.jpg
[31]
Red-bellied short-necked turtle 15,787,000
Emydura subglobosa lateral.jpg
[31]
Frog 16,000,000
Magnificent tree frog (Litoria splendida) crop.jpg
[36]
Corallus hortulana 16,303,000
Corallushortulanus.png
[31]
Blue-tongued skink 16,376,000
Tiliqua scincoides (White, 1790).jpg
[31]
Gran Canaria giant lizard 18,038,000
GallotiaStehlini.jpg
[31]
Chinese water dragon 18,301,000
Chinese Water Dragon (Physignathus cocincinus) - Khao Yai National Park - 1.jpg
[31]
Chlamydosaurus 18,641,000
Chlamydosaurus kingii 01.jpg
[31]
Northern snake-necked turtle 19,040,000
Chelodina oblonga gnangarra.JPG
[31]
Spiny-tailed monitor 19,771,000
Varanus acanthurus25.JPG
[31]
Boa constrictor 19,781,000
Boa constrictor, Vaňkovka, Brno (2).jpg
[31]
Ameiva ameiva 19,835,000
Giant ameiva (Ameiva atrigularis).jpg
[31]
Chinese softshell turtle 20,697,000
Pelodiscus sinensis 02.jpg
[31]
Amboina box turtle 21,440,000
Zolw sundajski - Cuora amboinensis - Zoo Warszawa.JPG
[31]
Alligator snapping turtle 22,230,000
Alligator snapping turtle.jpg
[31]
Yellow anaconda 23,035,000
Yellow Anaconda (Eunectes notaeus) (48292380166).jpg
[31]
Mexican beaded lizard 23,681,000
Heloderma exasperatum exposé au Palais de la Découverte en août 2019.jpg
[31]
Major skink 24,155,000
Major Skink (Egernia frerei) (9951680974).jpg
[31]
Sudan plated lizard 24,434,000
Gerrhosaurus major.jpg
[31]
Mata mata 26,105,000 [31]
Naked mole-rat 26,880,000
Naked Mole rat baby.jpg
[37]
Weber's sailfin lizard 27,245,000
Hydrosaurus weberi - Ménagerie du jardin des plantes - Paris.JPG
[31]
Green iguana 29,098,000
Iguana iguana Portoviejo 04.jpg
[31]
Argentine black and white tegu 29,251,000
Tupinambis merianae 2.jpg
[31]
Cyclura nubila 30,820,000
Cyclura nubila,.jpg
[31]
Gold tegu 31,335,000
Tupinambis teguixin - Flickr - Dick Culbert.jpg
[31]
Varanus macraei 33,091,000
Blauer Baumwaran (Varanus macraei).JPG
[31]
Little free-tailed bat 35,000,000
Chaerephon pumilus.jpeg
[38]
Smoky shrew 36,000,000
SmokyShrew23.jpg
[39]
Sand goanna 50,253,000
Varanus gouldii.jpg
[31]
Short-tailed shrew 52,000,000
Blarina carolinensisPCSL20933B.jpg
[39]
Pig-nosed turtle 53,027,000
Carettochelys insculpta 02.JPG
[31]
Common bent-wing bat 56,000,000 [38]
African sheath-tailed bat 59,000,000 [38]
Hottentot golden mole 65,000,000
Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen (Plate 39) (8557402518).jpg
[40]
Woermann's bat 66,000,000 [38]
Zenker's fruit bat 66,000,000 [38]
Commerson's roundleaf bat 67,000,000
Commerson's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros commersoni) (10291616316).jpg
[38]
Rufous trident bat 70,000,000 [38]
House mouse 71,000,000 ~1×10^12
Mouse white background.jpg
[41]
Asian water monitor 78,231,000
Varanus salvator - 01.jpg
[31]
King quail 80,478,000
Excalfactoria chinensis (aka).jpg
[31]
Nile crocodile 80,500,000
Nile Crocodile (17038929167).jpg
[42]
Heart-nosed bat 81,000,000
Cardioderma cor - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02562.JPG
[38]
Diamond dove 87,879,000
Geopelia cuneata - Wüstenhaus 3.jpg
[31]
Golden hamster 90,000,000
Golden hamster front 1.jpg
[41]
Short-palated fruit bat 99,000,000 [38]
Ansell's mole-rat 103,000,000
Graumull IMG 4042.jpg
[43]
Mashona mole-rat 113,000,000 [43]
Common quail 117,760,000
Caille des blés - Coturnix coturnix.JPG
[31]
Hairy-tailed mole 124,000,000
The quadrupeds of North America (Plate LXXIV) (7748318398).jpg
[40]
Eastern rock elephant shrew 129,000,000
Eastern Rock Elephant Shrew.jpg
[40]
Star-nosed mole 131,000,000
Condylura.jpg
[39]
Zebra finch 131,000,000 Brain only
Taeniopygia guttata -Karratha, Pilbara, Western Australia, Australia -male-8 (2).jpg
[44]
African collared dove 139,271,000
20190730 Streptopelia roseogrisea 01.jpg
[31]
Silvery mole-rat 148,000,000
Silvery mole-rat.png
[43]
Northern bobwhite 148,399,000
Colinus virginianus - Bird Walk.jpg
[31]
Four-toed elephant shrew 157,000,000
Petrodromus tetradactylus tordayi - Royal Museum for Central Africa - DSC06793.JPG
[40]
Eurasian blackcap 157,000,000
Sylvia atricapilla -Lullington Heath, East Sussex, England -male-8.jpg
[44]
Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat 162,000,000
Epomophorus wahlbergi1.jpg
[38]
Goldcrest 164,000,000
Goldcrest (10649615636).jpg
[44]
Cape mole-rat 170,000,000
Georychus capensis - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02826.JPG
[43]
Grey partridge 170,287,000
Perdix perdix (Marek Szczepanek).jpg
[31]
Egyptian fruit bat 172,000,000
Rousettus aegyptiacus.jpg
[38]
Mechow's mole-rat 174,000,000
Cryptomys mechowi Plzen zoo 02.2011.jpg
[43]
Damaraland mole-rat 178,000,000
Damaraland mole-rat.jpg
[43]
Franquet's epauletted fruit bat 186,000,000 [38]
Brown rat 200,000,000 ~4.48×10^11
Rattus norvegicus.jpg
[45]
Guyenne spiny rat 202,000,000 [40]
Eastern mole 204,000,000
ScalopusAquaticus.jpg
[39]
Elegant crested tinamou 217,768,000
Tinamou, Elegant-crested2.jpg
[31]
Red junglefowl 221,000,000
Red Junglefowl - Thailand.jpg
[44]
Great tit 226,000,000
Great tit side-on.jpg
[44]
Green-rumped parrotlet 227,000,000
Forpus passerinus -Venezuela-8.jpg
[44]
Quebracho crested tinamou 235,671,000
Eudromia formosa (cropped).jpg
[31]
Guinea pig 240,000,000
Guinea pig.jpg
[41]
Chilean tinamou 241,374,000
Chilean Tinamou.jpg
[31]
Gray mouse lemur 254,710,000
Gray Mouse Lemur 1.JPG
[46]
Common wood pigeon 258,681,000
Columba palumbus Glasgow 02.jpg
[31]
Common treeshrew 261,000,000
Stavenn Tupaia glis 00.jpg
[47]
Hammer-headed bat 275,000,000
Hypsignathus monstrosus.png
[38]
Wood duck 305,816,000
Brautente Wood Duck Aix sponsa.jpg
[31]
Pigeon 310,000,000 Brain only
Pigeon.jpg
[44]
Budgerigar 322,000,000
Yellow budgerigar.jpg
[44]
Pygmy falcon 350,367,000
Polihierax semitorquatus -Buffalo Springs National Park, Kenya-8.jpg
[31]
Cape dune mole-rat 361,000,000
Bathyergus suillus - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02831.JPG
[43]
Mallard 367,000,000
Anas platyrhynchos male female.jpg
[31]
Eurasian teal 375,409,000
Eurasian teal (Anas crecca).jpg
[31]
Common blackbird 379,000,000
Common Blackbird.jpg
[44]
Marbled duck 386,920,000
Marmaronetta angustirostris qtl1.jpg
[31]
Reeves's pheasant 387,173,000
Syrmaticus reevesii.jpg
[31]
Eurasian sparrowhawk 401,751,000
Accipiter nisus, яструб малий.jpg
[31]
Ferret 404,000,000
Black footed ferret whole.jpg
[48]
Cockatiel 453,000,000
Cockatiel Sleeping.jpg
[44]
Gray squirrel 453,660,000
Grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) 02.jpg
[37]
Banded mongoose 454,000,000
Banded Mongoose.jpg
[48]
Prairie dog 473,940,000
Black-Tailed Prairie Dog.jpg
[37]
Red-breasted goose 482,705,000
Red-Breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis) (3).JPG
[31]
Common starling 483,000,000
Common Starling in Wormwood Scrubs Park in spring 2013.JPG
[44]
Wild turkey 492,873,000
Male wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) strutting.jpg
[31]
European rabbit 494,200,000
Oryctolagus cuniculus Tasmania 2.jpg
[37]
Octopus 500,000,000
Octopus.jpg
[49]
Western tree hyrax 505,000,000
Beecroft'sTreeHyrax.JPG
[40]
Eurasian pygmy owl 533,263,000
Eurasian pygmy owl (Glaucidium passerinum).jpg
[31]
Indian peafowl 570,934,000
Indian peafowl,Pavo cristatus.jpg
[31]
Victoria crowned pigeon 578,697,000
Goura victoria LC0384.jpg
[31]
Little owl 585,923,000
Athene noctua - Little owl 02.jpg
[31]
Common kestrel 624,582,000
Common kestrel falco tinnunculus.jpg
[31]
Common marmoset 636,000,000
Marmoset copy.jpg
[47]
Eastern rosella 642,000,000
Eastern Rosella at Hobart Domain upright.jpg
[44]
Yellow-knobbed curassow 652,989,000
Yellow-knobbed Curassow RWD3.jpg
[31]
Barn owl 690,000,000
Barn Owl (9652234894).jpg
[44]
Monk parakeet 697,000,000
Monk Parakeet (4303100054).jpg
[44]
Greylag goose 738,232,000
Greylag Goose - St James's Park, London - Nov 2006.jpg
[31]
Azure-winged magpie 741,000,000
Azure-winged Magpie RWD2.jpg
[44]
Rock hyrax 756,000,000
Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis) (7042223567).jpg
[40]
Cat 760,000,000 ~1×10^13
Cat mouth closed.jpg
[50]
Black-rumped agouti 857,000,000
Dasyprocta punctata (Mexico).jpg
[41]
Magpie 897,000,000
Magpie.arp.750pix.jpg
[44]
Common hill myna 906,000,000
Common Hill Myna - Gracula religiosa - Ninoy Aquino Parks & Wildlife Center 02.jpg
[44]
Northern greater galago 936,000,000 [47]
Western jackdaw 968,000,000
Jackdaw arp 750pix.jpg
[44]
Long-eared owl 991,310,000
Asio Otus Otus - Waldohreule - northern Germany, wild.jpg
[31]
Mute swan 1.001×10^9
Cygnus olor flirt edit.jpg
[31]
Common buzzard 1.001×10^9
Buteo buteo - Common Buzzard 03.jpg
[31]
Black vulture 1.009×10^9
Coragyps atratus brasiliensis Black vulture Belém 01.jpg
[31]
Greater rhea 1.03×10^9
Greater Rhea.jpg
[31]
Eurasian jay 1.085×10^9
Eurasian Jay on balcony.jpg
[44]
Alexandrine parakeet 1.096×10^9
Alexandrine Parakeet at Lochmara Lodge.jpg
[44]
Raccoon dog 1.16×10^9
Chapultepec Zoo - Raccoon dog (03).jpg
[51]
Tanimbar corella 1.161×10^9
A Goffin's Cockatoo on a perch.jpg
[44]
Saker falcon 1.204×10^9
Saker Falcon RWD4.jpg
[31]
Emu 1.335×10^9
Emu chick 1.jpg
[44]
Three-striped night monkey 1.468×10^9 [47]
Rook 1.509×10^9
Rook Corvus frugilegus.jpg
[44]
Grey parrot 1.566×10^9
Congo African Grey Parrot -head detail.jpg
[44]
Tawny owl 1.58×10^9
Waldkauz Strix aluco (Linnaeus, 1785).jpg
[31]
Capybara 1.6×10^9
Capybara.jpg
[41]
Common ostrich 1.62×10^9
Masai Mara National Reserve 17 - common ostrich (Struthio camelus).jpg
[31]
White-tailed eagle 1.65×10^9
White tailed eagle raftsund square crop.jpg
[31]
Jackal 1.73×10^9
2012-bb-jackal-1.jpg
[51]
Snowy owl 1.807×10^9
Snowy Owl (240866707).jpeg
[31]
Eurasian eagle-owl 1.897×10^9
Bubo bubo.jpg
[31]
Fox 2.11×10^9
Fox.jpg
[51]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 2.122×10^9
Cacatua galerita portrait.jpg
[44]
Raccoon 2.148×10^9
Racoon (3813039203).jpg
[48]
Kea 2.149×10^9
Kea on car.jpg
[44]
Raven 2.171×10^9 Brain only
Raven (Corvus corax) (8).jpg
[44]
Domestic pig 2.22×10^9
Sow and five piglets.jpg
[52]
Dog 2.253×10^9
Domestic Dog.jpg
[48]
Chihuahua (dog) 2.51×10^9
Chihuahua2.jpg
[51]
Dog (Chow Chow) 2.61×10^9
Chow Chow im Harz.JPG
[51]
Dog (Yorkshire Terrier) 2.64×10^9
Yorkshire terrier dog 02.jpg
[51]
Springbok 2.72×10^9
Springbok.JPG
[52]
Dog (West Highland White Terrier) 2.83×10^9
West Highland White Terrier.JPG
[51]
Blesbok 3.06×10^9
Blesbok - Damaliscus pygargus albifrons.jpg
[52]
Blue-and-yellow macaw 3.136×10^9 Brain only
Ara ararauna Luc Viatour.jpg
[44]
Common squirrel monkey 3.246×10^9
Common.squirrel.monkey.arp.jpg
[47]
Crab-eating macaque 3.44×10^9
Crab eating macaque face.jpg
[46]
Dog (German Shepherd) 3.53×10^9
Black-german-shepherd-29944091920.jpg
[51]
Tufted capuchin 3.691×10^9
Sapajus apella apella (French Guyana) 4.jpg
[47]
Bonnet macaque 3.78×10^9
Bonnet Macaque Kodaikanal.jpg
[46]
Striped hyena 3.885×10^9
Striped Hyena 5.jpg
[48]
Dog (Komondor) 3.99×10^9 [51]
Dog (Transylvanian Hound) 4.39×10^9
Siculus Alma Tisza.JPG
[51]
Lion 4.667×10^9
Lion waiting in Namibia.jpg
[48]
Greater kudu 4.91×10^9
Male greater kudu.jpg
[52]
Rhesus macaque 6.376×10^9
Macaca mulatta in Guiyang.jpg
[47]
Brown bear 9.586×10^9
Kamchatka Brown Bear near Dvuhyurtochnoe on 2015-07-23.jpg
[48]
Giraffe 1.075×10^10
Giraffe.jpg
[52]
Yellow baboon 1.095×10^10
Yellow Baboon - Mikumi National Park.jpg
[46]
Chimpanzee 2.8×10^10
Lightmatter chimp.jpg
[53]
Orangutan 3.26×10^10
Orang Utan, Semenggok Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia.JPG
[54]
Gorilla 3.34×10^10
Male gorilla in SF zoo.jpg
[54]
Human 8.6×10^10 ~1.5×10^14 Neurons for average adult
Akha cropped hires.JPG
[55][56][57]
African elephant 2.57×10^11
African Bush Elephant.jpg
[58][59]

List of animal species by forebrain (cerebrum or pallium) neuron number[edit]

The question of what physical characteristic of an animal makes an animal intelligent has varied over the centuries. One early speculation was brain size (or weight, which provides the same ordering.) A second proposal was brain-to-body-mass ratio, and a third was encephalization quotient, sometimes referred to as EQ. The current best predictor is number of neurons in the forebrain, based on Herculano-Houzel's improved neuron counts.[1] It accounts most accurately for variations in dependence on the cerebellum. The elephant depends on its exceptionally large cerebellum, while birds make do with a much smaller one.

Differing methods have been used to count neurons and these may differ in degree of reliability. These are the optical fractionator, an application of stereology and the isotropic fractionator, a recent methodological innovation. Most numbers in the list are the result of studies using the newer isotropic fractionator.[1][37][26][41][42][44][45][46][47][52][53][54][55][56][58][60] A variation of the optical fractionator was responsible for the previous total human brain neuron count of 100,000,000,000 neurons, which has been revised down to 86,000,000,000 by the use of the isotropic fractionator. This is in part why it may be considered to be less reliable. Finally, some numbers are the result of estimations based on correlations observed between number of cortical neurons and brain mass within closely related taxa.

The following table gives information on the number of neurons estimated to be in the sensory-associative structure (such as the pallium).

Common name Average number of sensory-associative structure neurons[a] Intraspecific variation[b] Method[c] Sensory-associative structure Binomial nomenclature Image Source
Common fruit fly 2,500* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster Proboscis.jpg
[61]
House cricket 50,000* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Acheta domesticus
Acheta domesticus, adultes Weibchen.jpg
[61]
Honey bee 170,000* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Genus: Apis
The Lone Pollinator.jpg
[61]
Common cockroach 200,000* Optical fractionator Corpora pedunculata Genus: Periplaneta
American-cockroach.jpg
[61]
African sheath-tailed bat 5,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Coleura afra [38]
Rufous trident bat 6,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Triaenops persicus [38]
Naked mole-rat 6,000,000 ± 1,065,587[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Heterocephalus glaber
Naked Mole rat baby.jpg
[37]
Little free-tailed bat 6,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Chaerephon pumilus
Chaerephon pumilus.jpeg
[38]
Common bent-wing bat 6,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Miniopterus schreibersii [38]
Commerson's roundleaf bat 8,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hipposideros commersoni
Commerson's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros commersoni) (10291616316).jpg
[38]
Heart-nosed bat 10,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Cardioderma cor
Cardioderma cor - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02562.JPG
[38]
Ansell's mole-rat 10,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys anselli
Graumull IMG 4042.jpg
[43]
Smoky shrew 10,000,000 ± 352,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sorex fumeus
SmokyShrew23.jpg
[40]
Short-palated fruit bat 10,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Casinycteris argynnis [38]
Mashona mole-rat 12,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys darlingi [43]
Woermann's bat 12,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Megaloglossus woermanni [38]
Northern short-tailed shrew 12,000,000 ± 1,569,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Blarina brevicauda
Blarina brevicauda.jpg
[40]
Zenker's fruit bat 13,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Scotonycteris zenkeri [38]
House mouse 14,000,000 ± 2,242,257[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mus musculus
Мышь 3.jpg
[40]
Hairy-tailed mole 16,000,000 ± 2,611,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Parascalops breweri
The quadrupeds of North America (Plate LXXIV) (7748318398).jpg
[40]
Star-nosed mole 17,000,000 ± 3,105,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Condylura cristata
Condylura.jpg
[40]
Golden hamster 17,000,000 ± 3,619,934[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mesocricetus auratus
Peach the pet hamster.jpg
[40]
Diamond dove 18,209,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Geopelia cuneata
Geopelia cuneata - Wüstenhaus 3.jpg
[31]
King quail 20,523,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Synoicus chinensis
Excalfactoria chinensis (aka).jpg
[31]
Damaraland mole-rat 21,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys damarensis
Damaraland mole-rat.jpg
[43]
Hottentot golden mole 22,000,000 ± 2,154,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Amblysomus hottentotus
Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen (Plate 39) (8557402518).jpg
[40]
Gray mouse lemur 22,310,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Microcebus murinus
Gray Mouse Lemur 1 edit.JPG
[46]
Common quail 22,568,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Coturnix coturnix
Kerro- Coturnix coturnix.jpg
[31]
Mechow's mole-rat 23,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Fukomys mechowii
Cryptomys mechowi Plzen zoo 02.2011.jpg
[43]
Franquet's epauletted fruit bat 23,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Epomops franqueti [38]
Hammer-headed bat 24,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hypsignathus mostrosus [38]
Hedgehog 24,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Subfamily Erinaceinae, various species
Igel01.jpg
[62]
Silvery mole-rat 25,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Heliophobius argenteocinereus
Silvery mole-rat.png
[43]
Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat 26,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Epomophorus wahlbergi
Epomophorus wahlbergi1.jpg
[38]
Cape mole-rat 26,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Georychus capensis
Georychus capensis - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02826.JPG
[43]
Guyenne spiny rat 26,000,000 ± 2,155,723[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Proechimys cayennensis [40]
Eastern rock elephant shrew 26,000,000 ± 4,020,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Elephantulus myurus
Eastern Rock Elephant Shrew.jpg
[40]
Eastern mole 27,000,000 ± 5,113,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Scalopus aquaticus
ScalopusAquaticus.jpg
[40]
Opossum 27,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Didelphis virginiana
Opossum 2.jpg
[62]
Egyptian fruit bat 29,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Rousettus aegyptiacus
Rousettus aegyptiacus.jpg
[38]
Brown Rat 31,000,000 + 3,034,654[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Rattus norvegicus
Rat diabetic.jpg
[40]
Four-toed elephant shrew 34,000,000 ± 5,840,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Petrodromus tetradactylus
Petrodromus tetradactylus tordayi - Royal Museum for Central Africa - DSC06793.JPG
[40]
Grey partridge 36,882,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Perdix perdix
Perdix perdix (Marek Szczepanek).jpg
[31]
Ferret 38,950,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mustela putorius furo
Black footed ferret cropped.jpg
[48]
Northern bobwhite 39,112,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Colinus virginianus
Colinus virginianus - Bird Walk.jpg
[31]
African collared dove 39,997,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Streptopelia roseogrisea
Streptopelia roseogrisea, Waza NP, Cameroon.jpg
[31]
Cape dune mole-rat 43,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Bathyergus suillus
Georychus capensis - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02826.JPG
[43]
Guinea pig 43,510,000 ± 3,169,924[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Cavia porcellus
Cavia porcellus.jpg
[37]
Quebracho crested tinamou 48,292,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Eudromia formosa
Eudromia formosa (cropped).jpg
[31]
Common wood pigeon 51,325,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Columba palumbus
20200525 Gołąb grzywacz w Krakowie 1614 1886.jpg
[31]
Elegant crested tinamou 51,384,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Eudromia elegans
Tinamou, Elegant-crested2.jpg
[31]
Eurasian blackcap 52,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Sylvia atricapilla
Sylvia atricapilla -Lullington Heath, East Sussex, England -male-8.jpg
[44]
Prairie dog 53,770,000 ± 6,044,322[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Genus:Cynomys
Prairie Dog Washington Zoo.JPG
[37]
Zebra finch 55,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Taeniopygia guttata
Taeniopygia guttata - profile - dundee wildlife park.jpg
[44]
Chilean tinamou 59,130,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Nothoprocta perdicaria
Chilean Tinamou.jpg
[31]
Common treeshrew 60,000,000 ± 26,510,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Tupaia glis
Stavenn Tupaia glis 00.jpg
[40]
Red junglefowl 61,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Gallus gallus
Gallus gallus.jpg
[44]
Goldcrest 64,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Regulus regulus
Goldcrest 1.jpg
[44]
European rabbit 71,450,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Oryctolagus cuniculus
Oryctolagus cuniculus Tasmania 2.jpg
[37]
Rock dove 72,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Columba livia
Rock Pigeon Columba livia.jpg
[44]
Eastern gray squirrel 77,330,000 ± 2,634,444[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sciurius carolinensis
Eastern Grey Squirrel in St James's Park, London - Nov 2006 edit.jpg
[37]
Reeves's pheasant 80,688,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Syrmaticus reevesii
20200318Syrmaticus reevesii.jpg
[31]
Great tit 83,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Parus major
Great tit side-on.jpg
[44]
Eurasian sparrowhawk 87,832,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Accipiter nisus
Accipiter nisus, яструб малий.jpg
[31]
Western tree hyrax 99,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Dendrohyrax dorsalis
Beecroft'sTreeHyrax.JPG
[40]
Green-rumped parrotlet 103,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Forpus passerinus
Forpus passerinus-Venezuela-8a.jpg
[44]
Wild turkey 105,654,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Meleagris gallopavo
Male wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) strutting.jpg
[31]
Mallard 112,255,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Anas platyrhynchos
Anas platyrhynchos male female.jpg
[31]
Black-rumped agouti 113,000,000 ± 2,576,768[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Dasyprocta prymnolopha
Dasyprocta punctata (Mexico).jpg
[1]
Banded mongoose 115,770,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Mungos mungo
Mungos mungo qtl1.jpg
[48]
Victoria crowned pigeon 118,445,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Goura victoria
Goura victoria LC0384.jpg
[31]
Yellow-knobbed curassow 124,624,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Crax daubentoni
Crax daubentoni - zoo de Vincennes.JPG
[31]
Indian peafowl 129,621,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Pavo cristatus
Indian peafowl,Pavo cristatus, dance.jpg
[31]
Marbled duck 130,142,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Marmaronetta angustirostris
Marmaronetta angustirostris qtl1.jpg
[31]
Pygmy falcon 131,898,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Polihierax semitorquatus
PygmyFalcon.jpg
[31]
Common blackbird 136,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Turdus merula
Common Blackbird.jpg
[44]
Wood duck 138,206,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Aix sponsa
Aix sponsa -Ouwehands Dierenpark-8a.jpg
[31]
Red-breasted goose 148,617,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Branta ruficollis
Red-Breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis) (3).JPG
[31]
Budgerigar 149,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Melopsittacus undulatus
Budgie001.jpg
[44]
Eurasian teal 167,287,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Anas crecca
Anas crecca × Anas carolinensis, Redwood City, California.jpg
[31]
Rock hyrax 198,000,000 ± 29,082,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Procavia capensis
Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis) (7042223567).jpg
[40]
Northern greater galago 226,000,000 ± 87,570,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Otolemur garnettii
Garnett's Galago (Greater Bushbaby).jpg
[40]
Common starling 226,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Sturnus vulgaris
Sturnus vulgaris -California-8.jpg
[44]
Common kestrel 237,903,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Falco tinnunculus
Common kestrel falco tinnunculus.jpg
[31]
Raccoon dog 240,180,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Nyctereutes procyonoides
Nyctereutes procyonoides 2 (Piotr Kuczynski).jpg
[51]
Common marmoset 245,000,000 ± 81,180,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Callithrix jacchus
Marmoset copy.jpg
[40]
House cat 249,830,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Felis catus
Cat mouth closed.jpg
[48]
Brown bear 250,970,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Ursus arctos
Brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) running.jpg
[48]
Cockatiel 258,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Nymphicus hollandicus
Nymphicus hollandicus -perching on wires -Australia-6a.jpg
[44]
Greylag goose 258,650,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Anser anser
Greylag Goose - St James's Park, London - Nov 2006.jpg
[31]
Capybara 306,500,000 ± 62,726,120[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
Capybaras in riga zoo.jpg
[37]
Tarsius 310,000,000 Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Tarsius, unknown species
Tarsius tarsier Tandurusa zoo.JPG
[63]
Mute swan 323,661,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cygnus olor
Cygnus olor flirt edit.jpg
[31]
Greater rhea 330,342,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Rhea americana
Greater Rhea.jpg
[31]
Eastern rosella 333,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Platycercus eximius
Platycercus eximius diemenensis.jpg
[44]
Common buzzard 351,700,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Buteo buteo
CommonBuzzard DSCN4422.jpg
[31]
Red fox 355,010,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Vulpes vulpes
Vulpes vulpes laying in snow.jpg
[51]
Goeldi's marmoset 357,130,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Callimico goeldii
MP-Callimico goeldii.jpg
[46]
Eurasian pygmy owl 364,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Glaucidium passerinum
Eurasian pygmy owl (Glaucidium passerinum).jpg
[31]
Western grey kangaroo 370,170,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macropus fuliginosus
Western Grey Kangaroo SMC 2006.JPG
[64]
Golden jackal 393,620,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis aureus
Canis aureus Kaeng Krachan national park.jpg
[51]
Monk parakeet 396,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Myiopsitta monachus
Myiopsitta monachus monachus 3.JPG
[44]
Springbok 396,900,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Antidorcas marsupialis
Springbok.JPG
[52]
Black vulture 398,899,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Coragyps atratus
Coragyps-atratus-001.jpg
[31]
Azure-winged magpie 400,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cyanopica cyanus
Cyanopica cyanus Yokohama 6.jpg
[44]
Little owl 400,822,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Athene noctua
Athene noctua - the little owl.jpg
[31]
Common hill myna 410,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Gracula religiosa
Gracula religiosa robusta-01.JPG
[44]
Domesticated pig 425,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sus scrofa domesticus
Sow with piglet.jpg
[65]
Barn owl 437,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Tyto alba
Tyto alba 1 Luc Viatour.jpg
[44]
Emu 439,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Dromaius novaehollandiae
Dromaius novaehollandiae - 02.jpg
[44]
West Highland White Terrier 440,160,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris
West Highland White Terrier Yoshi.jpg
[51]
Three-striped night monkey 442,000,000 ± 111,310,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Aotus trivirgatus
Stavenn Aotus trivirgatus 00.jpg
[1]
Saker falcon 442,946,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Falco cherrug
Falco cherrug 1 (Bohuš Číčel).jpg
[31]
Eurasian magpie 443,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Pica pica
Pica pica - 01.jpg
[44]
Raccoon 453,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Procyon lotor
Raccoon (4152678243).jpg
[60]
Chow Chow 471,500,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris
Chow Chow im Harz.JPG
[51]
Common ostrich 479,410,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Struthio camelus
Avestruz de cuello azul (Struthio camelus australis), cabo de Buena Esparanza, Sudáfrica, 2018-07-23, DD 87.jpg
[31]
Western jackdaw 492,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Coloeus monedula
CROP. Corvus monedula, naakka, Naantalin hautausmaa, Naantali, 8.11.2011..jpg
[44]
Striped hyena 495,280,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Hyaena hyaena
Streifenhyaene Hyaena hyaena Zoo Augsburg-09.jpg
[48]
Chihuahua 513,330,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris
Chihuahua2.jpg
[51]
Eurasian jay 529,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Garrulus glandarius
Garrulus glandarius 1 Luc Viatour.jpg
[44]
White-tailed eagle 542,926,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Haliaeetus albicilla
White tailed eagle raftsund square crop.jpg
[31]
Lion 545,240,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Panthera leo
Lions Family Portrait Masai Mara.jpg
[48]
Blesbok 570,670,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi
Blesbok at NC zoo.jpg
[52]
Yorkshire Terrier 572,140,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris
Yorkshire terrier dog 03.jpg
[51]
Alexandrine parakeet 575,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Psittacula eupatria
Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria), Jurong Bird Park, Singapore - 20090613.jpg
[44]
Tanimbar corella 599,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cacatua goffiniana
Cacatua goffiniana -captive-8a-3c.jpg
[44]
Golden retriever 627,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris
Golden Retriever Carlos (10581910556).jpg
[48]
Gracile capuchin monkey 650,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Cebus
Capuchin Costa Rica.jpg
[66]
Long-eared owl 673,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Asio otus
Asio Otus Otus - Waldohreule - northern Germany, wild.jpg
[31]
Transylvanian Hound 725,760,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris
Transylvanian Hound.jpg
[51]
Greater kudu 762,570,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Tragelaphus strepsiceros
Male greater kudu.jpg
[52]
Crab-eating macaque 800,960,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macaca fascicularis
Macaca-fascicularis flk18447014.jpg
[46]
Rook 820,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Corvus frugilegus
Corvus Frugilegus Berlin-2.jpg
[44]
Beagle 844,410,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris
Bronco the Beagle.JPG
[51]
Grey parrot 850,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Psittacus erithacus
Psittacus erithacus qtl1.jpg
[44]
Komondor 883,380,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris
Komondor IMG 0329.JPG
[51]
German Shepherd 885,460,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Canis lupus familiaris
Black-german-shepherd-29944091920.jpg
[51]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 1,135,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Cacatua galerita
Cacatua galerita portrait.jpg
[44]
Tufted capuchin 1,140,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Sapajus apella
Sapajus apella apella (French Guyana) 4.jpg
[40][1]
Tawny owl 1,153,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Strix aluco
Waldkauz-Strix aluco.jpg
[31]
Harp seal 1,168,000,000^

6,100,000,000*

Estimated

Optical fractionator

Pallium (cortex) Pagophilus groenlandicus
Harp seal.jpg
[67][68]
Horse 1,200,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Equus ferus caballus
Nokota Horses cropped.jpg
[69]
Raven 1,204,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Corvus corax
Corvus corax jouveniles.jpeg
[44]
Snowy owl 1,270,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Bubo scandiacus
Snowy Owl (240866707).jpeg
[31]
Kea 1,281,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Nestor notabilis
Kea.jpg
[44]
Eurasian eagle-owl 1,328,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Bubo bubo
Eagle Owl IMG 9203.JPG
[31]
Common squirrel monkey 1,340,000,000 ± 20,000,000[40] Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Saimiri sciureus
Saimiri sciureus-1 Luc Viatour.jpg
[40]
Bonnet macaque 1,660,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macaca radiata
Bonnet Macaque Macaca radiata Threat display by Dr. Raju Kasambe DSCN5340 (5).jpg
[40]
Rhesus macaque 1,710,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Macaca mulatta
Macaca mulatta in Guiyang.jpg
[40]
Giraffe 1,731,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Giraffa camelopardalis
Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis.jpg
[52]
Blue and yellow macaw 1,900,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (DVR) Ara ararauna
Schläfrige Gelbbrustaras (sleepy Blue-and-yellow Macaws) Weltvogelpark Walsrode 2010.jpg
[44]
Pygmy sperm whale 2,020,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Kogia breviceps
Pygmy sperm whale.jpg
[70]
Leopard seal 2,386,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Hydrurga leptonyx
Leopard seal 2.jpg
[67]
Guenon 2,500,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Cercopithecus, unknown species
[63]
Pigtail Macaque 2,531,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Macaca nemestrina
(Macaca.nemestrina-1-PragueZOO.jpg
[67]
Gelada baboon 2,568,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Theropithecus gelada
Gelada (Theropithecus gelada gelada) juvenile male.jpg
[67]
Red-and-green macaw 2,646,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (DVR) Ara chloropterus
Red-and-green Macaw 02.jpg
[67]
Harbor porpoise 2,750,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Phocoena phocoena
Ecomare - bruinvis Michael in 2015 (bruinvis-michael2015-9313-sw).jpg
[67][68]
Yellow baboon 2,880,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Papio cynocephalus
Papio cynocephalus.jpg
[46]
Hyacinth macaw 2,944,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (DVR) Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus
Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) feeding on palm nuts ... - Flickr - berniedup.jpg
[67]
Hamadryas baboon 2,990,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Papio hamadryas
Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) female.jpg
[67]
Mandrill 3,102,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Mandrillus sphinx
Mandrill portrait (2), Berlin Zoo.jpg
[67]
Walrus 3,929,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Odobenus rosmarus
Noaa-walrus30.jpg
[67]
Southern elephant seal 3,994,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Mirounga leonina
Southern Elephant Seal poses seductively on the beach (5797919211).jpg
[67]
African elephant 5,600,000,000 Isotropic fractionator Pallium (cortex) Loxodonta africana
[58]
Short-beaked common dolphin 6,700,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Delphinus delphis
Short-beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) (14825276609).jpg
[67][70]
Asian elephant 6,775,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Elephas maximus
Asian Elephant in Thailand.jpg
[67]
Pygmy chimpanzee or bonobo 7,250,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Pan paniscus
BonoboFishing02 cropped.jpeg
[67]
Chimpanzee 7,400,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Pan troglodytes
Eastern Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (7068198095) (cropped).jpg
[71]
Orangutan 7,704,000,000^ - 8,900,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Genus: Pongo
Orang Utan, Semenggok Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia.JPG
[67][54]
Western gorilla 9,100,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Gorilla gorilla
[67][54]
Cuvier's beaked whale 9,100,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Ziphius cavirostris
Beached Cuvier's Beaked Whale (28740971527).jpg
[70]
Beluga whale 10,000,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Delphinapterus leucas
Baby Beluga Whale.jpg
[67]
Bottlenose dolphin 12,700,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Tursiops truncatus
Tursiops truncatus 01.jpg
[67][70]
Common minke whale 12,800,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Balaenoptera acutorostrata
Minke Whale (NOAA).jpg
[72]
Fin whale 15,000,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Balaenoptera physalus
[67][73]
Blue whale 15,000,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Balaenoptera musculus
Anim1754 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg
[67]
Human 16,340,000,000

21,000,000,000*

± 2,170,000,000[40] Isotropic fractionator

Optical fractionator

Pallium (cortex) Homo sapiens
Akha cropped hires.JPG
[40][55][1][74][75]
Risso's dolphin 18,750,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Grampus griseus
Risso's dolphin.jpg
[67]
Short-finned pilot whale 35,000,000,000^ Estimated Pallium (cortex) Globicephala macrorhynchus
Short-finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) (8604841637).jpg
[67]
Long-finned pilot whale 37,200,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Globicephala melas
Pilot whale spyhop.jpg
[76]
Killer whale 43,100,000,000* Optical fractionator Pallium (cortex) Orcinus orca
[67][70]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ ^ = Estimated
    * = Optical fractionator
  2. ^ ± standard deviation
  3. ^ For the estimated values, the numbers of cortical neurons estimated from brain mass for different mammalian and bird orders are based on correlation observed between number of cortical neuron and brain mass per order[40]

References[edit]

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