List of anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms
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The following is a list of anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms, where "anti-cultural" means sentiments of hostility towards a particular culture, "anti-national" refers to sentiments of hostility towards a particular state or other national administrative entity, and "anti-ethnic" refers to ethnic hatred or sentiments of hostility towards an ethnic group.
The use of all of these terms is controversial, as they tend to be used prominently in local rhetorical appeals to fallacy—namely the natural confusion between politically directed opposition and ethnically directed hostility, often deliberately disregarding this distinction for propaganda purposes.
These discriminatory attitudes are similar in nature to various religion-based hostile movements, such as Christianophobia and Anti-Catholicism, based on the mixture of xenophobia and ideological/political opposition.
The linguist and activist Noam Chomsky noted that perhaps the original Western use of the[which?] term, from which all similar terms originate, was by the Israelite King Ahab, in calling the prophet Elijah as "thou troubler of Israel." Chomsky further argues that such terms are similar in that they are used by nationalists and their associated governments to espouse the supremacy of nationalism over dissent within the culture, and are considered absurd in the context of cultures which have a much deeper connection to their ethnic history.
- Anti-Australian sentiment
- Anti-British sentiment
- Anti-Chilean sentiment
- Anti-Chinese sentiment
- Anti-Estonian sentiment
- Anti-Georgian sentiment
- Anti-German sentiment
- Anti-Hispanic sentiment
- Anti-Hungarian sentiment
- Anti-Igbo sentiment
- Anti-Iranian sentiment
- Anti-Irish racism
- Anti-Japanese sentiment
- Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea
- Anti-Korean sentiment
- Anti-Kurdish sentiment
- Anti-Malay racism
- Anti-Mexican sentiment
- Anti-Polish sentiment
- Anti-Romanian discrimination
- Anti-Russian sentiment
- Anti-Scottish sentiment
- Racial antisemitism
- Anti-Serbian sentiment
- Anti-Spanish sentiment
- Anti-Soviet sentiment
- Anti-Ukrainian sentiment
- Anti-Vietnamese sentiment
- Anti-Welsh sentiment
While religion related phobias are formally defined as negative attitude to religion, also interpreted as attitudes to cultures associated with these religions.
- Albanophobia – fear, dislike or hatred of Albanians.
- Anglophobia – fear/dislike of England, English culture, Teutonic etc.
- Atheophobia – fear, dislike, and hatred of atheism, atheists, and/or anything atheistic.
- Christophobia – fear, dislike and hatred of Christianity, Christians and things Christian.
- Francophobia – fear/dislike of the French.
- Germanophobia – dread of things Teutonic
- Hibernophobia – fear, dislike or hatred of the Irish.
- Hungarophobia – fear, dislike of the Hungarians
- Hispanophobia – fear, dislike or hatred of Hispanics
- Indophobia – fear or hatred of Indians and in particular Hindu culture
- Islamophobia – fear, dislike and hatred of Islam, Muslims and things Islamic.
- Italophobia – fear or dislike of Italian people.
- Japanophobia or Nipponophobia – fear or hatred of the Japanese.
- Judeophobia – fear or hatred of Jews. Antisemitism relates to race, while Judeophobia to the religion.
- Lusophobia – fear, dislike or hatred of the Portuguese
- Polonophobia – fear/dislike of Poles, Polish culture, etc.
- Russophobia – a phobic attitude towards Russia or Russians.
- Serbophobia – fear, dislike or hatred of Serbs.
- Sinophobia – fear/dislike of the Chinese, Chinese culture, etc.
- Turkophobia – fear, dislike or hatred of Turks.