List of antidepressants
This is a complete list of clinically approved prescription antidepressants throughout the world, as well as clinically approved prescription drugs used to augment antidepressants, by pharmacological and/or structural classification. Chemical/generic names are listed first, with brand names in parentheses. All drugs listed are approved specifically for major depressive disorder unless noted otherwise.
- 1 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
- 2 Serotonin–Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)
- 3 Serotonin Modulators and Stimulators (SMS)
- 4 Serotonin Antagonists and Reuptake Inhibitors (SARIs)
- 5 Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (NRIs)
- 6 Norepinephrine–Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors (NDRIs)
- 7 Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)
- 8 Tetracyclic Antidepressants (TeCAs)
- 9 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
- 10 Others
- 11 Adjunctive Treatments
- 12 Combination Products
- Citalopram (Celexa, Cipramil)
- Escitalopram (Lexapro, Cipralex)
- Fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem)
- Fluvoxamine (Luvox, Faverin)
- Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat)
- Sertraline (Zoloft, Lustral)
- Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq)
- Duloxetine (Cymbalta)
- Levomilnacipran (Fetzima)
- Milnacipran (Ixel, Savella)
- Venlafaxine (Effexor)
- Nefazodone (Dutonin, Nefadar, Serzone) – withdrawn/discontinued in most countries
- Trazodone (Desyrel)
- Atomoxetine (Strattera) - an NRI but not approved for depression (used off-label) but for ADHD
- Reboxetine (Edronax)
- Teniloxazine (Lucelan, Metatone) – also a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist
- Viloxazine (Vivalan)
- Bupropion (Wellbutrin) – weak NDRI, although its dopaminergic actions are controversial; may act as a norepinephrine–dopamine releasing agent (NDRA) alternatively or additionally; also a non-competitive antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)
- Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep)
- Amitriptylinoxide (Amioxid, Ambivalon, Equilibrin)
- Clomipramine (Anafranil)
- Desipramine (Norpramin, Pertofrane)
- Dibenzepin (Noveril, Victoril)
- Dimetacrine (Istonil)
- Dosulepin (Prothiaden)
- Doxepin (Adapin, Sinequan)
- Imipramine (Tofranil)
- Lofepramine (Lomont, Gamanil)
- Melitracen (Dixeran, Melixeran, Trausabun)
- Nitroxazepine (Sintamil)
- Nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl)
- Noxiptiline (Agedal, Elronon, Nogedal)
- Opipramol (Insidon)
- Pipofezine (Azafen/Azaphen)
- Protriptyline (Vivactil)
- Trimipramine (Surmontil)
Butriptyline (Evadyne), demexiptiline (Deparon, Tinoran), fluacizine (Phtorazisin), imipraminoxide (Imiprex, Elepsin), iprindole (Prondol, Galatur, Tertran), metapramine (Timaxel), propizepine (Depressin, Vagran), and quinupramine (Kinupril, Kevopril) were also formerly marketed, but have since been discontinued.
Tiazesim (Altinil) and tofenacin (Elamol, Tofacine) are technically not TCAs, but are heterocyclic antidepressants that are very closely related, and similarly to various TCAs, are no longer marketed.
Tetracyclic Antidepressants (TeCAs)
- Amoxapine (Asendin)
- Maprotiline (Ludiomil)
- Mianserin (Tolvon)
- Mirtazapine (Remeron)
- Setiptiline (Tecipul)
Mianserin, mirtazapine, and setiptiline are also sometimes described as noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs).
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
Many others, including benmoxin (Neuralex), iproclozide (Sursum), iproniazid (Marsilid), mebanazine (Actomol), nialamide (Niamid), octamoxin (Ximaol), pheniprazine (Catron), phenoxypropazine (Drazine), pivhydrazine (Tersavid), and safrazine (Safra) were used as antidepressants in the past, but have since been discontinued.
Selective for MAO-B
- Selegiline (Eldepryl, Zelapar, Emsam)
Caroxazone (Surodil, Timostenil) was formerly used as an antidepressant, but has been discontinued.
Selective for MAO-A
These drugs are sometimes described as reversible inhibitors of MAO-A (RIMAs).
- Bifemelane (Alnert, Celeport) – RIMA, irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B, and weak NRI
- Agomelatine (Valdoxan) – 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist
- Ketamine (Ketalar) – non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label)
- Tandospirone (Sediel) – 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist
- Tianeptine (Stablon, Coaxil) – weak and atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist
- α-Methyltryptamine [αMT] (Indopan) – non-selective serotonin receptor agonist, serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA), and weak RIMA
- Etryptamine [α-Ethyltryptamine (αET)] (Monase) – non-selective serotonin receptor agonist, SNDRA, and weak RIMA
- Indeloxazine (Elen, Noin) – serotonin releasing agent (SRA), NRI, and NMDA receptor antagonist
- Medifoxamine (Clédial, Gerdaxyl) – weak serotonin–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SDRI) and 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist
- Oxaflozane (Conflictan) – 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptor agonist
- Pivagabine (Tonerg) – unknown/unclear mechanism of action
- Ademetionine [S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe)] (Heptral, Transmetil, Samyl) – cofactor in monoamine neurotransmitter biosynthesis
- Hypericum perforatum [St. John's Wort (SJW)] (Jarsin, Kira, Movina) – TRPC6 activator, and various other actions
- Oxitriptan [5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)] (Cincofarm, Levothym, Triptum) – precursor in serotonin biosynthesis
- Rubidium chloride [RbCl] (Rubinorm) – unknown/unclear mechanism of action
- Tryptophan (Tryptan, Optimax, Aminomine) – precursor in serotonin biosynthesis
- Aripiprazole (Abilify) – specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder
- Brexpiprazole (Rexulti) – specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder
- Lurasidone (Latuda) – specifically approved for depressive episodes in bipolar disorder
- Olanzapine (Zyprexa) – specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder
- Quetiapine (Seroquel) – approved as an adjunct for both major depressive disorder and depressive episodes in bipolar disorder
- Risperidone (Risperdal) – not specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder (used off-label)
- Buspirone (Buspar) – 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label)
- Lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid) – mood stabilizer (mechanism of action unknown/unclear) – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label)
- Thyroxine (T4) – thyroid hormone (thyroid hormone receptor agonist) – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label)
- Triiodothyronine (T3) – thyroid hormone (thyroid hormone receptor agonist) – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label)
Pindolol (Visken), a beta blocker and to a lesser extent 5-HT1A receptor weak partial agonist or functional antagonist, has sometimes been used off-label as an augmentation therapy for SSRIs, but a 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis found that it was ineffective.
- Amitriptyline/perphenazine (Etafron) – TCA and typical antipsychotic combination
- Flupentixol/melitracen (Deanxit) – TCA and typical antipsychotic combination
- Olanzapine/fluoxetine (Symbyax) – SSRI and atypical antipsychotic combination – specifically approved as a monotherapy for depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and treatment-resistant depression
- Tranylcypromine/trifluoperazine (Parstelin, Parmodalin, Jatrosom N, Stelapar) – MAOI and typical antipsychotic combination
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