List of antidepressants

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This is a complete list of clinically approved prescription antidepressants throughout the world, as well as clinically approved prescription drugs used to augment antidepressants, by pharmacological and/or structural classification. Chemical/generic names are listed first, with brand names in parentheses. All drugs listed are approved specifically for major depressive disorder unless noted otherwise.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)[edit]

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)[edit]

Serotonin modulator and stimulators (SMSs)[edit]

Serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors (SARIs)[edit]

  • Nefazodone (Dutonin, Nefadar, Serzone) – withdrawn/discontinued in most countries
  • Trazodone (Desyrel)

Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs)[edit]

Although marketed as an antidepressant, a meta-analysis found that reboxetine was ineffective and potentially harmful.[1]

Norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs)[edit]

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)[edit]

Tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs)[edit]

Mianserin, mirtazapine, and setiptiline are also sometimes described as noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs).

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)[edit]

Irreversible[edit]

Non-selective[edit]

Selective for MAO-B[edit]

Reversible[edit]

Non-selective[edit]

Caroxazone (Surodil, Timostenil) was formerly used as an antidepressant, but has been discontinued.

Selective for MAO-A[edit]

These drugs are sometimes described as reversible inhibitors of MAO-A (RIMAs).

Eprobemide (Befol) and minaprine (Brantur, Cantor) were also formerly used as antidepressants, but have been discontinued.

Mixed[edit]

Non-selective[edit]

  • Bifemelane (Alnert, Celeport) – RIMA, irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B, and weak NRI

Others[edit]

Marketed[edit]

Discontinued/withdrawn[edit]

Over-the-counter[edit]

The following antidepressants are available both with a prescription and over-the-counter:

Adjunctive treatments[edit]

Atypical antipsychotics[edit]

  • Amisulpride (Solian) – specifically approved, in low doses, as a monotherapy for dysthymia
  • Aripiprazole (Abilify) – specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder
  • Brexpiprazole (Rexulti) – specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder
  • Lurasidone (Latuda) – specifically approved for depressive episodes in bipolar disorder
  • Olanzapine (Zyprexa) – specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder
  • Quetiapine (Seroquel) – approved as an adjunct for both major depressive disorder and depressive episodes in bipolar disorder
  • Risperidone (Risperdal) – not specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder (used off-label)[6]

Others[edit]

  • Buspirone (Buspar) – 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label)
  • Lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid) – mood stabilizer (mechanism of action unknown/unclear) – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label)
  • Thyroxine (T4) – thyroid hormone (thyroid hormone receptor agonist) – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label)
  • Triiodothyronine (T3) – thyroid hormone (thyroid hormone receptor agonist) – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label)

Combination products[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eyding D, Lelgemann M, Grouven U, Härter M, Kromp M, Kaiser T, Kerekes MF, Gerken M, Wieseler B (2010). "Reboxetine for acute treatment of major depression: systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor controlled trials". BMJ. 341: c4737. doi:10.1136/bmj.c4737. PMC 2954275. PMID 20940209.
  2. ^ Arias HR, Santamaría A, Ali SF (2009). "Pharmacological and neurotoxicological actions mediated by bupropion and diethylpropion". Int. Rev. Neurobiol. International Review of Neurobiology. 88: 223–55. doi:10.1016/S0074-7742(09)88009-4. ISBN 9780123745040. PMID 19897080.
  3. ^ "SPRAVATO™ (esketamine) nasal spray FDA label" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  4. ^ Zhang MW, Harris KM, Ho RC (2016). "Is off-label repeat prescription of ketamine as a rapid antidepressant safe? Controversies, ethical concerns, and legal implications". BMC Med Ethics. 17: 4. doi:10.1186/s12910-016-0087-3. PMC 4714497. PMID 26768892.
  5. ^ Gian F. Placidi; Liliana Dell'Osso; Giuseppe Nistico; Hagop S. Akiskal (6 December 2012). Recurrent Mood Disorders: New Perspectives in Therapy. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 293–. ISBN 978-3-642-76646-6.
  6. ^ Thase ME (2016). "Adverse Effects of Second-Generation Antipsychotics as Adjuncts to Antidepressants: Are the Risks Worth the Benefits?". Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 39 (3): 477–86. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2016.04.008. PMID 27514300.