List of antidepressants

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This is a complete list of clinically approved prescription antidepressants throughout the world, as well as clinically approved prescription drugs used to augment antidepressants, by pharmacological and/or structural classification. Chemical/generic names are listed first, with brand names in parentheses. All drugs listed are approved specifically for major depressive disorder unless noted otherwise.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)[edit]

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)[edit]

Serotonin modulator and stimulators (SMSs)[edit]

Serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors (SARIs)[edit]

  • Nefazodone (Dutonin, Nefadar, Serzone) – withdrawn/discontinued in most countries
  • Trazodone (Desyrel)

Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs)[edit]

Although marketed as an antidepressant, a meta-analysis found that reboxetine was ineffective and potentially harmful.[1]

Norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs)[edit]

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)[edit]

Tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs)[edit]

Mianserin, mirtazapine, and setiptiline are also sometimes described as noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs).

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)[edit]

Irreversible[edit]

Non-selective[edit]

Selective for MAO-B[edit]

Reversible[edit]

Non-selective[edit]

Caroxazone (Surodil, Timostenil) was formerly used as an antidepressant, but has been discontinued.

Selective for MAO-A[edit]

These drugs are sometimes described as reversible inhibitors of MAO-A (RIMAs).

Eprobemide (Befol) and minaprine (Brantur, Cantor) were also formerly used as antidepressants, but have been discontinued.

Mixed[edit]

Non-selective[edit]

  • Bifemelane (Alnert, Celeport) – RIMA, irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B, and weak NRI

Others[edit]

Marketed[edit]

Discontinued/withdrawn[edit]

Over-the-counter[edit]

The following antidepressants are available both with a prescription and over-the-counter:

Adjunctive treatments[edit]

Atypical antipsychotics[edit]

  • Amisulpride (Solian) – specifically approved, in low doses, as a monotherapy for dysthymia
  • Aripiprazole (Abilify) – specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder
  • Brexpiprazole (Rexulti) – specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder
  • Lurasidone (Latuda) – specifically approved for depressive episodes in bipolar disorder
  • Olanzapine (Zyprexa) – specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder
  • Quetiapine (Seroquel) – approved as an adjunct for both major depressive disorder and depressive episodes in bipolar disorder
  • Risperidone (Risperdal) – not specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder (used off-label)[9]

Others[edit]

Combination products[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eyding D, Lelgemann M, Grouven U, Härter M, Kromp M, Kaiser T, Kerekes MF, Gerken M, Wieseler B (2010). "Reboxetine for acute treatment of major depression: systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor controlled trials". BMJ. 341: c4737. doi:10.1136/bmj.c4737. PMC 2954275. PMID 20940209.
  2. ^ Arias HR, Santamaría A, Ali SF (2009). "Pharmacological and neurotoxicological actions mediated by bupropion and diethylpropion". Int. Rev. Neurobiol. International Review of Neurobiology. 88: 223–55. doi:10.1016/S0074-7742(09)88009-4. ISBN 9780123745040. PMID 19897080.
  3. ^ "SPRAVATO™ (esketamine) nasal spray FDA label" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  4. ^ Zhang MW, Harris KM, Ho RC (2016). "Is off-label repeat prescription of ketamine as a rapid antidepressant safe? Controversies, ethical concerns, and legal implications". BMC Med Ethics. 17: 4. doi:10.1186/s12910-016-0087-3. PMC 4714497. PMID 26768892.
  5. ^ Gian F. Placidi; Liliana Dell'Osso; Giuseppe Nistico; Hagop S. Akiskal (6 December 2012). Recurrent Mood Disorders: New Perspectives in Therapy. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 293–. ISBN 978-3-642-76646-6.
  6. ^ Tarleton EK, Littenberg B, MacLean CD, Kennedy AG, Daley C (2017). "Role of magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression: A randomized clinical trial". PLOS One. 12 (6): e0180067. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0180067. PMC 5487054. PMID 28654669.
  7. ^ Veronese N, Stubbs B, Solmi M, Ajnakina O, Carvalho AF, Maggi S (Feb–Mar 2018). "Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplementation and the Treatment of Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Psychosomatic Medicine. 80 (2): 154–159. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000537. PMID 29076953.
  8. ^ Lopresti, Adrian L.; Drummond, Peter D. (November 2014). "Saffron (Crocus sativus) for depression: a systematic review of clinical studies and examination of underlying antidepressant mechanisms of action". Human Psychopharmacology. 29 (6): 517–527. doi:10.1002/hup.2434. ISSN 1099-1077. PMID 25384672.
  9. ^ Thase ME (2016). "Adverse Effects of Second-Generation Antipsychotics as Adjuncts to Antidepressants: Are the Risks Worth the Benefits?". Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 39 (3): 477–86. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2016.04.008. PMID 27514300.
  10. ^ Nasr, S (2004). "Modafinil as adjunctive therapy in depressed outpatients". Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. 16 (3): 133–8. doi:10.1080/10401230490486954. PMID 15517845.
  11. ^ Vaishnavi, Sandeep; Gadde, Kishore; Alamy, Sayed; Zhang, Wei; Connor, Kathryn; Davidson, Jonathan R. T. (August 2006). "Modafinil for atypical depression: effects of open-label and double-blind discontinuation treatment". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 26 (4): 373–378. doi:10.1097/01.jcp.0000227700.263.75.39. ISSN 0271-0749. PMID 16855454.
  12. ^ Ferraro, Luca; Fuxe, Kjell; Tanganelli, Sergio; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Rambert, Francis A.; Antonelli, Tiziana (2002-04-01). "Differential enhancement of dialysate serotonin levels in distinct brain regions of the awake rat by modafinil: possible relevance for wakefulness and depression". Journal of Neuroscience Research. 68 (1): 107–112. doi:10.1002/jnr.10196. ISSN 0360-4012. PMID 11933055.
  13. ^ Rosenblat JD, McIntyre RS (2018). "Efficacy and tolerability of minocycline for depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials". Journal of Affective Disorders. 227: 219–225. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2017.10.042. PMID 29102836.
  14. ^ Dean, Olivia M.; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Ashton, Melanie; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Ng, Chee Hong; Maes, Michael; Berk, Lesley; Sughondhabirom, Atapol; Tangwongchai, Sookjaroen (August 2017). "Adjunctive minocycline treatment for major depressive disorder: A proof of concept trial". The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 51 (8): 829–840. doi:10.1177/0004867417709357. ISSN 1440-1614. PMID 28578592.