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List of aquarium diseases

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of aquarium diseases. Aquarium fish are often susceptible to numerous diseases, due to the artificially limited and concentrated environment. New fish can sometimes introduce diseases to aquaria, and these can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Most fish diseases are also aggravated when the fish is stressed.

Common aquarium diseases include the following:


Disease Cause Fish Affected Image Symptoms Treatment
Piscine tuberculosis Mycobacterium marinum bacteria All Weight loss evident on underparts, with corresponding loss of appetite, papules, discoloration and bulging eyes. Amputation
Fin rot Bacterial All Erosion at edges of fins Improve water quality, remove fin-nippers and feed vitamin C enriched food. Use anti-fungal treatment to prevent secondary infections
Mouth fungus or columnaris Flexibacter bacteria All, especially livebearers Cottony growth near jaws and loss of appetite. Improve water conditions. Use commercially available antibiotics
Swim bladder disease May be bacterial, or caused by chilling or digestive issues All, especially balloon mollies Inability to balance in the water Check water temperature. A medical bath may help.
Vibrosis Vibrio bacteria All Discoloration, reddish staining of fins, bulging eyes, lethargic behavior Medicated food
Pseudomoniasis Pseudomonas bacteria All Hemorrhages in mouth and ulceration on body Medicated food
Saprolegnia Oomycetic All Whitish, fur-like growths Vitamin C enriched food, or a commercial remedy in a medical bath. Check to make sure that your fish doesn't prefer Brackish water
Egg fungus Fungal Eggs only Fungal growths on eggs Remove affected eggs. Use methylene blue to medicate the hatching tank.
Lymphocystis Viral All Cauliflower-like growths and white areas around the eyes Vaccines may be available
Iridovirus dwarf gourami disease Viral Gouramis, angelfish, Ramirez dwarf cichlids and others loss of appetite. Darkening in color. Enlarged abdomen. Occasionally lymphocystis None
Singapore angelfish diseases Angelfish Inactivity, loss of appetite, high and rapid mortality None
Malawi bloat Probably viral Lake Malawi cichlids, especially vegetarian ones Similar to dropsy Offer a high-fiber diet
White spots (ick) Ichthyophthirius multifiliis parasite All Small white spots, which may ulcerate Raise water temperature slightly and treat water with commercially available remedies
Hole-in-the-head Hexamita parasite Discus and cichlids Pale ulcerated area around head Metronidazole or similar medication. Use food containing vitamin C
Neon tetra disease Pleistophora hyphessobryconis parasite Neon tetras Discoloration None
Skin or gill flukes Gyrodactylus and Dactylogyrus parasites All Labored breathing, scraping against objects, abnormal gill function Commercially available medication
Anchor worm Lernaea parasite All Visible parasites attached to body leading to ulceration and irritation remove parasites with forceps and use medicated bath to prevent secondary infection. Insecticide may help
Dropsy Varies from temperature, to indigestion to infection All Bloat, scales stick out Varies depending on the cause
Tetrahymena [citation needed] Parasite Freshwater fish None


  • Cryptocaryon (marine ich)
  • Marine velvet or coral reef fish disease
  • Anemonefish disease


Disease Cause Fish Affected Image Symptoms Treatment
Marine velvet Amyloodinium parasite All, fresh and salt water Powdered appearance, gasping and disorganized swimming
Velvet disease Oodinium and other parasites All salt and freshwater fish Golden dots, rubbing against rocks while swimming
Septicemia or Egtved virus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus Many fresh and salt water fish hemorrhaging, internal and external Virkon AQUATIC


The goal of quarantine is to prevent problems in the main tank due to sickness. A quarantine tank should be used before to introduce any newly acquired animals in the main tank and to treat fish that are already sick. By doing this, the aquarist can avoid the spread of the disease and make it easier to treat the fish.[1]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "How To Quarantine Aquarium Fish And Invertebrates". Aquariums Life. 2009-03-24. Retrieved 2015-09-18.


External links[edit]