List of archaeological periods
The names for archaeological periods in the list of archaeological periods vary enormously from region to region. This is a list of the main divisions by continent and region. Dating also varies considerably and those given are broad approximations across wide areas.
The three-age system has been used in many areas, referring to the prehistorical and historical periods identified by tool manufacture and use, of Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. Since these ages are distinguished by the development of technology, it is natural that the dates to which these refer vary in different parts of the world. In many regions, the term Stone Age is no longer used, as it has been replaced by more specific geological periods. For some regions, there is need for an intermediate Chalcolithic period between the Stone Age and Bronze Age. For cultures where indigenous metal tools were in less widespread use, other classifications, such as the lithic stage, archaic stage and formative stage refer to the development of other types of technology and social organization.
Historical periods denotes periods of human development with the advantage of the development of writing. Written records tend to provide more socio-political insight into the dominant nations, and hence allow categorization according to the ruling empires and cultures, such as Hellenistic, Roman, Viking. Inevitably these definitions of periods only relate to the region of that empire or culture.
The Industrial Age or Modern era is generally taken to refer to post-1800. From this time, the industrial revolution which began in Western Europe resulted in global trade and greatly increased cultural exchange.
Archaeological period articles – by continent and region
|Continents||Regions||Periods articles||Major periods|
|Africa||North Africa||North Africa||Paleolithic|
|Sub-Saharan Africa||Sub-Saharan Africa||Earlier Stone Age|
Middle Stone Age
|Asia||Near East||Levantine||Stone Age (2,000,000 – 3300 BCE)|
Bronze Age (3300 – 1200 BCE)
|South Asia||South Asian Periods||1) Paleolithic (c.53000 - 10000 BCE).|
2) Mesolithic (c.10000 - 6500 BCE).
|East Asia||East Asia Periods||Neolithic c. 7500 BCE Pengtoushan culture|
|North Asia||North Asia Periods|
|Korea||Korean Periods||Paleolithic c. 40,000/30,000 – c. 8000 BCE|
Jeulmun pottery period c. 8000 – 1500 BCE
|Japan||Japan Periods||Paleolithic c. 35,000 – c. 10,000 BCE|
Jōmon period c. 10,000 – 300 BCE
|China||China Periods||Paleolithic c. 1.36 million years ago|
Neolithic period c. 10,000 – 2100 BCE
|Americas||North America||North America||Lithic/Paleo-Indian (pre 8000 BCE)|
Archaic (c. 8000 – 1000 BCE)
|Mesoamerica||Mesoamerica||Lithic/Paleo-Indian (pre 8000 BCE)|
Archaic (c. 8000 – 1000 BCE)
|South America||South America
|Lithic/Paleo-Indian (pre c. 8200 BCE) |
Archaic (c. 8200 – 1000 BCE)
|Australasia||Australia||Australia||Indigenous Period (60,000 BCE – 1606 CE)|
European-Contact Pre-Settlement Period (1606 – 1788 CE)
|New Zealand||New Zealand||Archaic period (1000 – 1350/1650 CE) |
Classic period (1350 – 1800; 1650 – 1800 in eastern South Island)
|Europe||Northern Europe||Northern Europe||Nordic Stone Age
Nordic Bronze Age (c. 1700 BCE - c. 500 BCE)
|Western Europe||Western Europe||Paleolithic (pre c. 8800 BCE) |
Mesolithic (c. 8800 – 4900 BCE)
|Southeastern Europe||Southeastern Europe||Paleolithic |