List of armed conflicts involving the United States

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The history of armed conflicts involving the United States of America spans a period of more than four centuries. A period ranging from the early era of European colonization and the formation of the new national polity that is to become the United States, to its evolvement through technological and political upheavals into a decisively modern republic and military force, and ascent onto the world stage, through the calamities of the 20th century, as the largely unrivaled imperial superpower that it is today.[1]

Armed conflicts in the colonial and early national period[edit]

The lines of conflict demarcating the wars, rebellions, and revolutions in the North American colonial and national period can be traced far back into early pre-columbian times. However, due to the scarcity of written sources, not least resulting from the Christian colonizers destroying a sizable amount of original Maya writings, deeming them to be heretical, historians typically make the early European settlements as their initial point of departure, of which sources are more plentiful.[2]

A further concern highlighted by historians, relating to history of slavery and colonialism in particular, is the inherent unevenness of the terrain in which conflicts erupt, and often tremendous disproportionality of means by which they are fought and settled. As historian Ira Berlin points out slavery, by its very definition, poses a profound asymmetry of power: "For three centuries, slave masters mobilized enormous resources that streched across continents and oceans and employed them with great ferocity in an effort to subdue their human property. Slaves, for their part, had little to depend upon but themselves."[3]

As such, four distinctive lines of conflict can be identified weaving through the colonial and early national period: Firstly, the conflicts between the European colonists and the Native American peoples whose land was being taken from them. Secondly, the rivaling between the European states' to subjugate the Americas. A rivalry that both settlers and Native Indians soon find themselves to be invariably and increasingly caught up in. Thirdly, the mounting tensions and armed conflicts between the settlers and their rulers in Europe. And lastly, as violence between the white people grew, so too did the revolutionary fervor of the African slaves in their quest for freedom through armed insurrection.[4]

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Results and assessment of outcome
Expedition of Juan Ponce de León

(1521)

Location: Southwest Florida
17th century engraving of Ponce de León (unauthenticated)
Spanish conquistadors Calusa People Conquistador defeat
  • Ponce de León fatally wounded by an arrow, presumed to have been poisoned with sap from the manchineel tree
  • Expedition driven off, and effort to establish settlement in southwest Florida aborted
Rebellion in San Miguel de Guadalupe

(1526)

Spanish settlers Guale People

African slaves

Spanish settlers defeat
  • Settlement abandoned in early 1527[5]
Mutiny at Charlesfort

(1562-1563)
Location: Parris Island, South Carolina

French colonists French mutineers

Native Americans

French colonist blunder
  • Commander-in-chief Albert de la Pierria deceased
  • 26 out of 27 man crew of the French colonist alleged to have fled across the Atlantic, aiming for France
  • Fort destroyed shortly after by Spanish colonists led by Hernando de Manrique de Rojas
Spanish assault on French Florida

(1565)

Location: Fort Caroline, Florida; Matanzas Inlet
Spain New Spain Croix huguenote.svg Huguenots French Huguenot defeat
Raid on St. Augustine

(1586)

Location: St. Augustine, Florida

 Spain
Apalachee People
 England
Roanoke Colony

(1587–1590)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Anglo-Powhatan Wars

(1610–1646)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Colony of Virginia

First Indian attack on Jamestown

(1622)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Colony of Virginia
A 1628 woodcut by Matthaeus Merian published along with Theodore de Bry's earlier engravings in 1628 book on the New World. The engraving shows the March 22, 1622 massacre when Powhatan Indians attacked Jamestown and outlying Virginia settlements.
Powhatan Indians English settlers English settlers defeat
Beaver Wars

(1629–1701)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Great Lakes region

Iroquois

 England
 Dutch Republic

Huron
Erie
Neutral
Odawa
Ojibwe
Mississaugas
Potawatomi
Algonquin
Shawnee
Wenro
Mahican
Innu
Abenaki
Miami
Illinois Confederation
Supported by:
 France
Pequot War

(1637–1638)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Southern New England

Pequot tribe English Colonists
* Massachusetts Bay Colony
* Plymouth Colony
* Saybrook Colony
* Connecticut Colony
Allies:
* Narragansett tribe
* Mohegan tribe
Kieft's War

(1643–1645)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: New Netherland

Second Indian attack on Jamestown

(1644)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Peach Tree War

(1655)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Pavonia, New Amsterdam, Staten Island, Bronx

Susquehannock and allied tribes  Dutch Republic
New Netherland
Native American victory
Esopus Wars

(1659–1663)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: New Netherland

Virginia's Indentured Servants' Plot

(1661)

Location: Virginia

King Philip's War

(1675–1678)

Part of the American Indian Wars
An artist's rendition of Indians attacking a garrison house
New England pine flag.svg New England Confederation
Mohegans
Pequots
Wampanoags
Nipmucks
Podunks
Narragansetts
Nashaway
Bacon's Rebellion

(1675–1676)

King William's War

(1689–1697)

Queen Anne's War

(1702–1713)

Part of the War of the Spanish Succession

Location: North America

Comanche Wars

(1706–1875)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: South-central United States and northern Mexico

Tuscarora War

(1711–1715)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Eastern North Carolina

New York slave revolt of 1712

(1712)

Location: New York City

Yamasee War

(1715–1717)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: eastern South Carolina

Dummer's War

(1722–1727)

Part of the American Indian Wars

War of Jenkin's Ear–King George's War

(1739–1744–1748)

Stono slave rebellion

(1739)

New York Conspiracy of 1741

(1741)

Location: New York City

French and Indian War

(1754–1763)

Pontiac's War

(1763)

Part of the American Indian Wars
In a famous council on April 28, 1763, Pontiac urged listeners to rise up against the British. (19th century engraving by Alfred Bobbett).
Ottawas
Ojibwas
Potawatomis
Hurons
Miamis
Weas
Kickapoos
Mascoutens
Piankashaws
Delawares
Shawnees
Wyandots
Mingos
Iroquois Iroquois
 Great Britain Stalemate
  • Native Americans concede British sovereignty but compel British policy changes
Conestoga Massacre

(1763)

Location: Pennsylvania

War of the Regulation

(1765–1771)

Location: North Carolina
British Royal Governor William Tryon confronts the North Carolina Regulators in 1771.
Regulators North Carolina colonial militia
Boston Massacre

(1770)

Part of the American Revolution

Location: Boston, Massachusetts, British America

Battle of Alamance Creek

(1771)

American Revolutionary War

(1775–1783)

Location: Eastern North America, Gibraltar, India, Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic

The Battle of Long Island, 27 August 1776
 United States
Kingdom of France France

Spain Spain

Iroquois

Watauga Association
Catawba
Lenape
Choctaw


 Dutch Republic


 Mysore

 Great Britain
Loyalists
Holy Roman Empire German Auxiliaries

Iroquois

Cherokee

U.S. allied victory
Lord Dunmore's War

(1774)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Upper Ohio Valley

Cherokee–American wars
(1776–1795)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Old Southwest

Abduction of Daniel Boone's daughter by the Cherokee
 United States Cherokee U.S. victory[citation needed]
Baylor Massacre

(1778)

Part of the American Revolutionary War

Location: River Vale, New Jersey

Northwest Indian War
(1785–1793)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Northwest Territory

 United States
Chickasaw
Choctaw
Western Confederacy Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain U.S. allied victory
Shays' Rebellion
(1786–1787)

Location: Massachusetts

Shays' troops are repulsed from the armory at Springfield, Massachusetts in early 1787.
 United States Anti-Government Protesters U.S. victory
Whiskey Rebellion
(1791–1794)

Location: Western Pennsylvania

George Washington reviews troops before their march to suppress the rebellion in western Pennsylvania.
 United States Frontier tax protesters U.S. victory
  • Armed resistance eliminated
  • Minor tax evasion
Battle of Fallen Timbers

(1794)

Nickajack Expedition

(1794-)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Southwest Territory

Quasi-War
(1798–1800)
Part of the French Revolutionary Wars

Location: Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean, the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean

 United States

Co-belligerent:
 Great Britain

France France Mixed
  • Convention of 1800
  • Peaceful cessation of Franco-American alliance
  • End of French privateer attacks on American shipping
  • American neutrality and renunciation of claims by France
Fries's Rebellion

(1799)

Location: Pennsylvania

 United States Tax protesters U.S. victory
  • Rebellion supressed

19th-century armed conflicts[edit]

Conflict U.S. and allies Opponents Results and assessment of outcome
Gabriel's slave rebellion

(1800)

First Barbary War
(1801–1805)
Part of the Barbary Wars

Location: Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Tripoli.

Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon at Derna, April 1805
 United States
 Sweden
border=no Eyalet of Tripolitania
Morocco Sultanate of Morocco
U.S. allied victory
  • Peace treaty
Sabine Expedition

(1806)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Sabine River (Texas–Louisiana)

1811 German Coast Uprising
(1811)

Location: Territory of Orleans

 United States Rebel slaves

Supported by:
Flag of Haiti (civil).svg Haiti

U.S. victory[citation needed]
  • Suppression and later trials
Tecumseh's War
(1811)

Part of the American Indian Wars and the War of 1812

Location: Northwest River Ohio

 United States Tecumseh's Confederacy
U.S. victory
  • Peace treaty
War of 1812
(1812–1815)

Location: Eastern and Central North America

General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders, by painter Edward Percy Moran in 1910.
 United States
Choctaw
Cherokee Nation
Creek Allies
 United Kingdom

Tecumseh's Confederacy

Spain Spain (1814)
Stalemate

Treaty of Ghent; Status quo ante bellum with no boundary changes

  • British assault on Sacket's Harbor repulsed
  • American invasions of British North America repulsed
  • British invasions of the United States repulsed
  • Defeat of Tecumseh's Confederacy
Creek War
(1813–1814)
Part of the American Indian Wars and the War of 1812

Location: Southern United States

 United States
Lower Creeks
Cherokee Nation
Choctaw
Red Stick Creek U.S. allied victory
  • Creek forced to cede 23 million acres (93,000 km²) of their territory to the United States in the Treaty of Fort Jackson
Second Barbary War
(1815)
Part of the Barbary Wars

Location: Mediterranean Sea and the Barbary states.

Decatur's squadron off Algiers
 United States Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Regency of Algiers U.S. victory[citation needed]
  • Peace treaty
First Seminole War
(1817–1818)

Part of the Seminole Wars and the American Indian Wars

Location: Pensacola, Florida

Barracks and tents at Fort Brooke near Tampa Bay
 United States Seminole

Spain Spanish Florida

Mixed
Texas–Indian wars
(1820–1875)

Part of the American Indian Wars and the Mexican Indian Wars

Location: Texas

A Kiowa ledger drawing depicting a battle between Southern Plains Indians and the U.S. Army during the Red River War
 Spain

 Mexico


 Republic of Texas
 United States

Comanche U.S. allied victory
Arikara War
(1823)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Missouri River

 United States Arikara Mixed[6]
Aegean Sea Anti-Piracy Operations of the United States
(1825–1828)

Part of Piracy in the Mediterranean

Location: Off Greece, Aegean Sea

Greek pirate boats attacking HMS Comet
 United States First Hellenic Republic Greek Pirates U.S. victory
  • Defeat of Greek pirates
  • HMS Comet liberated by American forces
  • Message of thanks issued to Louis Goldsborough from the British government
Winnebago War
(1827)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Illinois and Michigan Territory

 United States Prairie La Crosse Ho-Chunks
with a few allies
U.S. victory
  • Ho-Chunks cede lead mining region to the United States
First Sumatran expedition
(1832)

Part of the Sumatran expeditions

Location: Aceh Sultanate

U.S. infantry assaulting the Acehnese forts at Kuala Batu in 1832
 United States
 Netherlands
Chiefdom of Kuala Batee U.S. allied victory
Black Hawk War
(1832)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Illinois and Michigan Territory

Native women and children fleeing the Battle of Bad Axe
 United States
Ho-Chunk
Menominee
Dakota
Potawatomi
Black Hawks British Band
Ho-Chunk and Potawatomi allies
U.S. allied victory
Second Seminole War
(1835–1842)

Part of the Seminole Wars and the American Indian Wars

Location: Florida, United States

U.S. Marines search for Seminoles in the Everglades
 United States Seminole Mixed
Second Creek War

(1836)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Alabama

Caroline affair

(1837)

Location: Niagara River

 United StatesReform Movement of Upper Canada  United Kingdom Mixed
Osage Indian War

(1837)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Great Plains

Second Sumatran expedition
(1838)

Part of the Sumatran expeditions Location: Aceh Sultanate

 United States
 Netherlands
Chiefdom of Kuala Batee U.S. allied victory
  • Malays cease attacks on American vessels
Haun's Mill massacre

(1838)

Part of Missouri Mormon War

Location: Caldwell County, Missouri

Aroostook War
(1838)

Location: Maine and New Brunswick

 United States  United Kingdom Mixed
Webster–Ashburton Treaty
  • Modern border of Maine and New Brunswick agreed upon
  • British (Canadian) withdrawal from territory claimed by the United States
Pastry War
(1838–1839)

Location: Mexico

France France
United States United States
Republic of Texas Texas[citation needed]
Mexico Mexico
United Kingdom United Kingdom
United Kingdom British Canada
U.S. allied victory
  • Mexican government agrees to pay damages of 600,000 pesos[7][8]
Creole case

(1841)

Location: Nassau, BahamasNew Orleans, Louisiana

Ivory Coast Expedition
(1842)

Part of the African Slave Trade Patrol

Location: Ivory Coast

Veterans of the expedition on board Saratoga in 1842
 United States Ivory Coast Ivory Coast U.S. victory
Mexican–American War
(1846–1848)

Location: Texas, New Mexico, California and Mexico

2nd Dragoons charge the enemy at the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, 1846
 United States
California Republic
 Mexico U.S. allied victory
Conquest of California

(1846–1847)

Location: California
"Protecting The Settlers" Illustration by JR Browne for his work "The Indians Of California" 1864
 United States  Mexico Catastrophe
  • California Genocide[9]
  • Historian Benjamin Madley estimates that at least 9,400 to 16,000 California Indians were killed by non-Indians between 1846 and 1873, mostly occurring in more than 370 massacres[10] Ed Castillo suggests as many as 100,000 were victims of random killings during the first two years of the California Gold Rush.[11]
Cayuse War
(1847–1855)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Oregon

 United States Cayuse U.S. victory
  • Cayuse reduced in numbers and forced to cede most of their lands
Ute Wars

(1849–1923)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Colorado, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico

Yuma War

(1850–1853)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Southern California

Johanna Expedition
(1851)

Location: Matsamudu, Johanna Island

 United States Comoros Sultanate of Johanna U.S. victory
  • Johannans surrender the town, houses, slaves, cattle and money to
Apache Wars
(1851–1900)

Part of the Texas–Indian wars

Location: Southwestern United States

U.S. Cavalry dash for cover while fighting Apaches, by F. Remington
 United States Apache
Ute
Yavapai
U.S. victory
Erie Railroad War

(1853–1854)

Location: Pennsylvania

Sioux Wars

(1854–1891)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Great Plains

Bleeding Kansas

(1854–1861)

Part of the prelude to the American Civil War

Location: Kansas and Missouri

Puget Sound War
(1855–1856)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Washington

 United States
Snoqualmie
Nisqually
Muckleshoot
Puyallup
Klickitat
Haida
Tlingit
U.S. allied victory
First Fiji Expedition

(1855)

Part of the Fiji Expeditions

Location: Fiji

 United States Fiji U.S. victory
Bloody Monday Election Riots of 1855

(1855)

Location: Louisville, Kentucky

Rogue River Wars
(1855–1856)

Location: Rogue Valley

 United States Rogue River people U.S. victory
  • Indians relocated to Siletz, Grand Ronde and Coast Reservations
Third Seminole War

Part of the Seminole Wars and the American Indian Wars
(1855–1858)

Location: Pensacola, Florida

 United States Seminole Stalemate[12]
  • By late 1850s, most Seminoles forced to leave their land; a few hundred remain deep in the Everglades on land unwanted by white settlers
Battle of Ty-ho Bay
(1855)

Location: Tai O, Hong Kong

United Kingdom United Kingdom
 United States
Chinese Pirates U.S. allied victory
Yakima War

Part of the American Indian Wars
(1855–1858)

Location: Washington Territory

Seattleites evacuate to the town blockhouse as USS Decatur opens fire on advancing tribal forces.
 United States
Snoqualmie
Yakama
Walla Walla tribe
Umatilla tribe
Nez Perce tribe
Cayuse tribe
U.S. allied victory
  • Peace treaty
Pottawatomie massacre

(1856)

Part of the prelude to the American Civil War

Location: Franklin County, Kansas

Second Opium War

Part of the Opium Wars
(1856–1859)

Location: China

Palikao's bridge, on the evening of the battle, by Émile Bayard
United Kingdom British Empire
France French Empire
 United States
Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1889-1912).svg Qing dynasty U.S. allied victory
Spirit Lake Massacre

(1857)

Location: Okoboji and Spirit Lake, Iowa

Utah War

Part of the Mormon wars
(1857–1858)

Location: Utah Territory and Wyoming

 United States Deseret/Utah Mormons (Nauvoo Legion) Mixed
  • Resolution through negotiation
  • Brigham Young replaced as governor of the territory
  • Full amnesty for charges of sedition and treason issued to the citizens of Utah Territory by President James Buchanan on the condition that they accept American Federal authority
Mountain Meadows Massacre

(1857)

Part of the Mormon wars

Location: Mountain Meadows, Utah Territory

Marais des Cygnes massacre

(1858)

Part of the prelude to the American Civil War

Location: Kansas Territory, Missouri

Navajo Wars
(1858–1866)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: New Mexico

 United States Navajo U.S. victory
Antelope Hills expedition

(1858)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Comancheria, Texas, Oklahoma

Mohave War

(1858–1859)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Arizona

Second Fiji Expedition

(1859)

Part of the Fiji Expeditions

Location: Fiji

 United States Fiji U.S. victory
John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry

(1859)

Part of pre-Civil War conflicts

Location: West Virginia

Harper's Weekly illustration of U.S. Marines attacking John Brown's "Fort" Teresa Baine
 United States Abolitionist Insurgents U.S. victory
First and Second Cortina War
(1859–1861)

Location: Texas and Mexico

United States United States

Confederate States of America Confederate States


 Mexico

Mexico Cortinista bandits U.S. allied victory
Paiute War

(1860)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Pyramid Lake, Nevada

 United States Paiute
Shoshone
Bannock
U.S. victory
American Civil War
(1861–1865)

Location: United States

The Battle of Antietam, by Kurz & Allison.
 United States  Confederate States U.S. victory
Bombardment of Qui Nhơn
(1861)

Location: Qui Nhơn, Vietnam

 United States Đại Nam under the Nguyễn Dynasty U.S. victory
Sacking of Osceola

(1861)

Part of the American Civil War

Location: Osceola, Missouri

Yavapai Wars
(1861–1875)

Location: Arizona

 United States Yavapai
Apache
Yuma
Mohave
U.S. victory
Dakota War of 1862
(1862)

Location: Minnesota and Dakota

The Siege of New Ulm, Minnesota on August 19, 1862
 United States Dakota Sioux U.S. victory
Lawrence massacre

(1863)

Part of the American Civil War

Location: Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas

Colorado War
(1863–1865)

Location: Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska

 United States Cheyenne
Arapaho
Sioux
Mixed
Shimonoseki War
(1863–1864)

Location: Kanmon Straits

Capture of a Choshu battery at Shimonoseki by British sailors and marines.
 British Empire
 Dutch Empire
France French Empire
 United States
border=no Chōshū Domain U.S. allied victory
  • U.S. withdrawal after naval engagement July 16, 1863.
  • Chōshū pays an indemnity of $3,000,000.
Centralia Massacre (Missouri)

(1864)

Part of the American Civil War

Location: Centralia, Missouri

Fort Pillow massacre

(1864)

Part of the American Civil War

Location: Lauderdale County, Tennessee

Snake War
(1864–1868)

Locations: Oregon, Nevada, California, and Idaho

 United States Paiute
Bannock
Shoshone
U.S. victory
Powder River War
(1865)

Location: Powder River State

 United States Sioux
Cheyenne
Arapaho
Mixed
Hualapai War

(1865–1870)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Arizona Territory

Second Franco-Mexican War
(1865–1867)

Location: Mexico

Mexico Mexico
 United States
France Second French Empire
Template:Country data Mexican Empire Mexican Empire
U.S. allied victory
Red Cloud's War
(1866–1868)

Location: Powder River State

The Fetterman Massacre
 United States Lakota
Cheyenne
Arapaho
U.S. defeat
Formosa Expedition
(1867)

Location: Southern Formosa (Taiwan)

US Marines and Sailors attack Formosan pirates.
 United States Paiwan U.S. defeat
  • American withdrawal after Marine commander killed, subsequent Formosan retreat[13]
  • No other casualties
Comanche Campaign
(1867–1875)

Location: Western United States

Battle of Beecher Island. One soldier and three horses have fallen, while others continue to wage the battle.
 United States Cheyenne
Arapaho
Comanche
Kiowa
U.S. victory
Opelousas massacre

(1868)

Location: Opelousas, Louisiana

Battle of Boca Teacapan

(1870)

Location: Boca Teacapan, Sinaloa, Teacapan Estuary

 United States Mexico Mexican pirates U.S. victory
Sheep Wars

(c.1870–1920)

Location: Texas, Arizona and the border region of Wyoming and Colorado

United States expedition to Korea
(1871)

Location: Ganghwado

American forces after capturing the Deokjin Fort during the Battle of Ganghwa in 1871.
 United States Flag of the king of Joseon.svg Joseon Dynasty Mixed[14]
Chinese massacre of 1871

(1871)

Part of Racism in the United States

Location: Los Angeles

Modoc War
(1872–1873)

Location: California and Oregon

Engraving of soldiers recovering the bodies of the slain May 3, 1873.
 United States Modoc U.S. victory
Colfax massacre

(1873)

Location: Colfax, Louisiana
Gathering the dead after the Colfax massacre, published in Harper's Weekly, May 10, 1873
Court attackers Court defenders Catastrophe
  • Approximately 150 black men were murdered by white Southerners
  • Some 97 men were initially indicted for the massacre, however only nine brought to trial, and after one acquittal and eight mistrials charges was dropped, and all were released
  • The publisity about the Colfax Massacre and subsequent Supreme Court ruling fuled further growth of white paramilitary organisation, such as the White League formed by Christopher Columbus Nash in may 1874
Election riot of 1874

(1874)

Location: Barbour County, Alabama

Red River War
(1874–1875)

Location: Texas

 United States Cheyenne
Arapaho
Comanche
Kiowa
U.S. victory
  • End to the Texas-Indian Wars
Coushatta massacre

(1874)

Location: Louisiana

Las Cuevas War
(1875)

Location: Texas and Mexico

Texan soldiers.
 United States  Mexico U.S. victory
  • Cattle returned to Texas
Great Sioux War of 1876
(1876–1877)

Location: Montana, Dakota and Wyoming

Custer's last stand at Little Bighorn.
 United States Lakota
Dakota Sioux
Northern Cheyenne
Arapaho
U.S. victory
  • Legal control of Powder River Country ceded to the United States
Hamburg massacre

(1876)

Part of the Reconstruction Era

Location: South Carolina

Buffalo Hunters' War
(1876–1877)

Location: Texas and Oklahoma

 United States Comanche
Apache
U.S. victory
Nez Perce War
(1877)

Location: Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana

Chief Joseph's band in the Battle of Bear Paw Mountain
 United States Nez Perce
Palouse
U.S. victory
Great Railroad Strike of 1877

(1877)

Location: Martinsburg, West Virginia

Bannock War
(1878)

Location: Idaho, Oregon, and Wyoming

 United States Bannock
Shoshone
Paiute
U.S. victory
Cheyenne War
(1878–1879)

Location: Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota and Montana

Aftermath of the Battle of "The Pit."
 United States Cheyenne U.S. victory
Sheepeater Indian War
(1879)

Location: Idaho

 United States Shoshone U.S. victory
Victorio's War
(1879–1881)

Location: Mexico

 United States
 Mexico
Apache U.S. allied victory
White River War
(1879–1880)

Location: Colorado

 United States Ute U.S. victory
Tong Wars

(1880–1913)

Location: San Francisco, Chicago, New York

Guadalupe Canyon Massacre

(1881)

Location: Peloncillo MountainsGuadalupe Mountains

Rock Springs massacre

(1885)

Location: Rock Springs, Wyoming

Great Southwest railroad strike of 1886

(1886)

Location: Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri and Texas

Bay View massacre

(1886)

Location: Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Haymarket affair

(1886)

Location: Chicago, Illinois

Hawaiian rebellions

(1887–1895)

Location: Hawaii
The USS Boston's landing force on duty at the Arlington Hotel, Honolulu, at the time of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, January 1893. Lieutenant Lucien Young, USN, commanded the detachment, and is presumably the officer at right.[15]
 United States
HawaiiCommittee of Safety
Hawaii Kingdom of Hawaii U.S. blunder
  • U.S. coup d'état against the Kingdom of Hawaii January 1893.
  • Investigation into the overthrow called for by president Grover Cleveland. Report of June 1893 concluded U.S. officials had "abused their authority and were responsible for the change in government".[16]
  • Formal abdication of Queen Liliʻuokalani after the 1895 Wilcox rebellion.
  • Annexing of Hawaii as U.S. territory, then later as State.
  • In 1993 the U.S. Congress issued official apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the U.S. for its involvement in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii.[16][17]
Hells Canyon massacre

(1887)

Location: Wallowa County, Oregon

Thibodaux massacre

(1887)

Location: Thibodaux, Louisiana

Crow War

(1887)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Montana

Pine Ridge Campaign
(1890–1891)

Location: South Dakota

Mass grave for the dead Lakota after the conflict at Wounded Knee Creek.
 United States Sioux Mixed
Garza Revolution
(1891–1893)

Location: Texas and Mexico

3rd Cavalry Troopers searching a suspected Revolutionist, 1892
 Mexico
 United States
Garzistas U.S. allied victory
Homestead Steel strike

(1892)

Location: Homestead, Pennsylvania

1892 Coeur d'Alene labor strike

(1892)

Location: Coeur d'Alene, Idaho

Rio de Janeiro Affair
(1894)

Location: Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Brazil First Brazilian Republic
 United States
Empire of Brazil Brazilian mutineers U.S. victory
  • End of rebel blockade
  • Rio de Janeiro reopened to American commerce
Cripple Creek miners' strike of 1894

(1894)

Location: Cripple Creek, Colorado

Bannock War of 1895

(1895)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Jackson's Hole, Wyoming

Yaqui Wars
(1896–1918)

Location: Arizona and Mexico

10th Cavalry soldiers holding Yaqui prisoners at their camp in Bear Valley, January 9, 1918.
 United States
 Mexico
Flag of the Yaqui tribe.png Yaqui
Pima
Opata
U.S. allied victory
Leadville miners' strike

(1896–1897)

Location: Leadville, Colorado

Lattimer massacre

(1897)

Location: Lattimer, Pennsylvania

Second Samoan Civil War
(1898–1899)

Location: Samoa

Samoan warriors and American servicemen during the Siege of Apia in March 1899.
Samoa
 United States
Mataafans
 Germany
Mixed
Battle of Sugar Point

(1898)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Leech Lake, Minnesota

Spanish–American War
(1898)

Location: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines and Guam

Teddy Roosevelt and the "Rough Riders" charge Spanish positions during the Battle of San Juan Hill.
 United States
Cuban Revolutionaries
Filipino Revolutionaries
Spain Spain U.S. allied victory
Illinois coal wars

(1898–1900)

Part of the Coal Wars

Location: Illinois

Philippine–American War
(1899–1902)

Location: Philippines

Kurz & Allison print of the Battle of Quingua.
1899-1902
 United States

1902-1906
 United States

1899-1902
 Philippine Republic

Limited Foreign Support:
 Empire of Japan


1902-1906
Flag of the Katagalugan Republic.svg Tagalog Republic

Catastrophe
  • War crimes perpetrated by U.S. Army in the March across Samar, according to historical sources employing rape and torture of civilians, burning entire villages, killing 3,000 native Fillipinos, women and children, and placing entire village populations in concentration camps.[18][19] Filipino historians believe around 50,000 civilians were massacred.[20]
  • Occupation of the Philippines.
  • Dissolution of the First Philippine Republic.
  • Estimated 20,000 Filipino troops killed, more than 200,000 civilians perished as a result of combat, hunger, or disease. Of the 4,300 Americans lost, some 1,500 were killed in action, while nearly twice that number succumbed to disease.[21]
Moro Rebellion
(1899–1913)

Philippines

The 8th Infantry Regiment defeat the Moros in the four-day battle of Bagsak Mountain on Jolo Island in the Philippines.
 United States Moro
Remnants of the Sulu Sultanate
Catastrophe
Boxer Rebellion
(1899–1901)

Location: China

Corporal Titus, of the 14th Infantry Regiment, scaling the walls of Peking.
British Empire United Kingdom
 Russia
 Japan
France France
 United States
 Germany
 Italy
 Austria-Hungary
Righteous Harmony Society (Boxers)
 China
U.S. allied victory
  • Rebellion suppressed
  • Signing of the Boxer Protocol
  • Provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing

20th-century armed conflicts[edit]

Conflict U.S. and allies Opponents Results and assessment of outcome
St. Louis streetcar strike of 1900

(1900)

Location: St. Louis, Missouri

Colorado Labor Wars

(1903–1904)

Location: Colorado

1905 Chicago teamsters' strike

(1905)

Location: Chicago, Illinois

San Francisco streetcar strike of 1907

(1907)

Location: San Francisco

Crazy Snake Rebellion
(1909)

Location: Oklahoma

Creek prisoners of war.
 United States Creek U.S. victory[citation needed]
Pressed Steel Car strike of 1909

(1909)

Location: McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania

Border War
(1910–1919)
Part of the Mexican Revolution

Location: Mexico–United States border

American troops of the 16th Infantry Regiment rest for the night on 27 May 1916
 United States  Mexico
 Germany
U.S. victory
Westmoreland County coal strike

(1910–1911)

Location: Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania

Battle of Kelley Creek

(1911)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Humboldt County, Nevada

Negro Rebellion
(1912)
Part of the Banana Wars

Location: Cuba

USS Mississippi in Cuba
Cuba Cuba
 United States
Cuba Cuban PIC U.S. allied victory
  • Rebellion suppressed
  • Dissolution of the PIC
Paint Creek Mine War

(1912–1913)

Location: Cabin Creek, West Virginia

Occupation of Nicaragua
(1912–1933)
Part of the Banana Wars

Location: Nicaragua

US Marines holding a captured Sandinista flag.
 United States
 Nicaragua
Flag of Nicaragua.svg Nicaraguan Liberals
Flag of Nicaragua.svg Sandinistas
U.S. allied victory
  • Nicaragua occupied until 1933.
  • Great Depression marked US withdrawal in 1933.
  • Instauration of a US-backed Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua.
Copper Country strike of 1913–14

(1913–1914)

Location: Copper Country, Michigan

Bluff War
(1914–1915)

Location: Utah and Colorado

Prisoners of the Bluff War in Thompson, Utah, waiting to board a train for their trial in Salt Lake City.
 United States Ute
Paiute
U.S. victory
Ludlow Massacre

(1914)

Location: Colorado

Occupation of Veracruz
(1914)
Part of the Mexican Revolution

Location: Mexico

American ships at Veracruz
 United States Mexico Mexico U.S. victory
  • Veracruz occupied
Occupation of Haiti
(1915–1934)
Part of the Banana Wars

Location: Haiti

2nd Marine Regiment in Haiti
 United States
Haiti Haiti
Haiti Haitian Rebels U.S. allied victory
  • Haiti occupied
Bayonne refinery strikes

(1915–1916)

Location: Bayonne, New Jersey

Occupation of the Dominican Republic
(1916–1924)
Part of the Banana Wars

Location: Dominican Republic

US Marines in the Occupation of the Dominican Republic.
 United States Dominican Republic Dominican Republic U.S. victory
  • Dominican Republic occupied
World War I
(1914–1918)

Location: Europe, Africa, Asia, Middle East, the Pacific Islands, and coast of North and South America

Two US troops pass by dead German soldiers on a battlefield.
 France

United Kingdom British Empire

 Russia
 United States
Republic of China (1912–1949) China
 Italy
 Japan
 Serbia
 Montenegro
 Romania
 Belgium
 Greece
 Portugal
 Brazil

 Germany
 Austria-Hungary
 Ottoman Empire
 Bulgaria
U.S. allied victory
Everett massacre

(1916)

Location: Everett, Washington

Battle of Bear Valley

(1918)

Part of the American Indian Wars

Location: Arizona

Russian Civil War
(1918–1920)

Location: Russia, Mongolia, and Iran

US troops march through Russia before the Battle of Romanovka.
Russia White Movement
United Kingdom British Empire

 Japan
 Czechoslovakia
 Greece
 Poland
 United States
France France
 Romania
 Serbia
 Italy
Republic of China (1912–1949) China

 Russian SFSR
 Far Eastern Republic
Latvian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
Commune of Estonia
Mongolian Communists
U.S. allied defeat
  • Allied withdrawal from Russia
  • Bolshevik victory over White Army
  • Some Supplies captured at Vladivostok
  • Humanitarian effort
Centralia massacre (Washington)

(1919)

Location: Centralia, Washington

Steel strike of 1919

(1919)

Location: United States

Battle of Matewan

(1920)

Location: Matewan, West Virginia

Ocoee massacre

(1920)

Part of Racism in the United States

Location: Ocoee, Florida

Tulsa race riot

(1921)

Part of Racism in the United States

Location: Greenwood, Tulsa

Battle of Blair Mountain

(1921)

Part of Coal Wars

Location: Logan County, West Virginia

Perry race riot

(1922)

Part of Racism in the United States

Location: Perry, Florida

Herrin massacre

(1922)

Part of Coal Wars

Location: Herrin, Illinois

Last Indian Uprising
(1923)

Location: Utah

Ute and Paiute prisoners of war.
 United States Ute
Paiute
Victory
Rosewood massacre

(1923)

Part of Racism in the United States

Location: Rosewood, Florida

Hanapepe massacre

(1924)

Location: Hanapepe, Hawaii

Columbine Mine massacre

(1927)

Location: Serene, Colorado

Harlan County War

(1931–1939)

Part of Coal Wars

Location: Harlan County, Kentucky

Ford Hunger March

(1932)

Location: Detroit, Michigan

California agricultural strikes of 1933

(1933)

Location: California

Textile workers strike

(1934)

Location: New England, the Mid-Atlantic states and the U.S. Southern states

Ponce massacre

(1937)

Location: Ponce, Puerto Rico

Women's day massacre

(1937)

Location: Youngstown, Ohio

Little Steel strike

(1937)

Location: United States

World War II
(1939–1945)

Location: Europe, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Southeast Asia, Middle East, Mediterranean, North Africa, North and South America

U.S. Army Soldiers advancing at dawn in the cover of a M4 Sherman tank, during the Battle of Bougainville, 1944.
 Soviet Union
 United States
 United Kingdom
 China
 France
 Poland
 Canada
 Australia
 New Zealand
 India
 South Africa
 Yugoslavia
 Greece
 Denmark
 Norway
 Netherlands
 Belgium
 Luxembourg
 Czechoslovakia
 Brazil
Mexico Mexico
 Ethiopia
 Mongolia
 Philippines
North Vietnam Viet Minh
Korea KLA
 Albania
 Germany
 Japan
 Italy
 Hungary
 Romania
 Bulgaria
 Finland
 Thailand
 Manchukuo
 Mengjiang
 Croatia
 Slovakia
U.S. allied victory
First Indochina War
(1946–1954)
Part of the Cold War

Location: French Indochina

 France
South Vietnam State of Vietnam
Flag of Cambodia under French protection.svg Kingdom of Cambodia
Laos Kingdom of Laos
Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg United States
Flag of North Vietnam (1945-1955).svg Viet Minh
Laos Pathet Lao
Flag of the People's Republic of Kampuchea.svg Khmer Issarak
U.S. allied defeat
Korean War
(1950–1953)
Part of the Cold War

Location: Korea

American soldiers in the Korean war with the Browning M1919A6 LMG.
 South Korea
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 Belgium
Canada
 France
Philippines
 Colombia
Ethiopia
Greece
 Luxembourg
Netherlands
 New Zealand
South Africa
 Thailand
 Turkey
 North Korea
 China
 Soviet Union
Stalemate
  • North Korean invasions of South Korea repelled
  • Subsequent United Nations invasion of North Korea repelled
  • Subsequent Chinese-North Korean-Soviet invasion of South Korea repelled
  • Korean Armistice Agreement. Although this ended the actual fighting in the Korean Peninsula, the war is not (technically) over because a peace treaty was never signed
Operation Ajax
(1953)
Location:
Tehran, Imperial State of Iran
Coup supporters celebrating in Tehran
House of Pahlavi
 United States[a]
 United Kingdom[a]
Government of Iran Mixed
Laotian Civil War
(1953–1975)
Part of the Indochina Wars and Cold War
Location: Laos
A U.S. Air Force Bell UH-1P from the 20th Special Operations Squadron "Green Hornets" at a base in Laos, 1970.
 Kingdom of Laos
 United States
 South Vietnam
 Thailand
Supported by:
Philippines
 Taiwan

Laos Pathet Lao
 North Vietnam
Supported by:
 Soviet Union
China

U.S. allied defeat
Lebanon Crisis
(1958)

Location: Lebanon

US Marine sits in a foxhole and points his machine gun toward Beirut.
Lebanon Lebanon
 United States
Lebanon Lebanese Opposition: Mixed
Bay of Pigs Invasion
(1961)
Part of the Cold War

Location: Cuba

Cuba CDRF
 United States
Cuba Cuba U.S. allied defeat
  • Invasion of Cuba suppressed
Simba Rebellion
(1964)
Part of the Cold War

Location: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo-Léopoldville
 Belgium
 United States
Simba Rebels U.S. allied victory
  • Rebellion defeated
Vietnam War
(1965–1973[b], 1975[c])
Part of the Cold War and Indochina Wars

Location: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos

1st Cavalry Division, Battle of Ia Drang, 1965.
 South Vietnam
 United States
 South Korea
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Thailand
 Philippines
Cambodia Khmer Republic
border=no Kingdom of Laos
 North Vietnam
Viet Cong Viet Cong
border=no Khmer Rouge
Laos Pathet Lao
 China
 North Korea

Supported by:

 Soviet Union

U.S. allied defeat
Communist insurgency in Thailand
(1965-1983)
Part of the Cold War

Location: Thailand

Ta Ko Bi Cave, a former hideout used by communist rebels.
 Thailand
 Taiwan (until July 1967)
 United States
 Malaysia
Communist Party of Thailand

Pathet Lao
Khmer Rouge (until 1978)[23][24]
Supported by:
 North Vietnam (until 1976)
 Vietnam (from 1976)
 People Republic of China (1971–1978)
Malayan Communist Party
 North Korea[24]

U.S. allied victory
  • Amnesty declared on 23 April 1980 by the Thai government.
  • Order 66/2523 signed by Prime Minister Prem Tinsulanonda.
  • Communist insurgency declines and ends in 1983.
Korean DMZ Conflict
(1966–1969)
Part of the Korean conflict and the Cold War

Location: Korean Demilitarized Zone

ROK and US troop stationed at the DMZ, 1967.
 South Korea
 United States
 North Korea U.S. allied victory
  • North Korean failure to launch an insurgency in South Korea
Dominican Civil War
(1965–1966)

Location: Dominican Republic

US soldiers push a child underneath a Jeep to protect him during a firefight in Santo Domingo on May 5, 1965.
 Dominican Loyalists
 United States
Inter-American Peace Force
 Dominican Constitutionalists U.S. allied victory
Insurgency in Bolivia
(1966–1967)
Part of the Cold War

Location: Bolivia

 Bolivia
 United States
Ejército de Liberación Nacional U.S. allied victory
  • CIA supported Bolivian armed groups oppress Che Guevara's guerrilla forces
  • Che Guevara captured and executed
Cambodian Civil War
(1967–1975)
Location: Cambodia
US troops and tanks entering town in Cambodia.
Kingdom of Cambodia (1967–1970)
Khmer Republic (1970–1975)
 United States
 South Vietnam

Other Supports

National United Front of Kampuchea

Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rumdo
Khmer Việt Minh
 North Vietnam
Việt Cộng

Other Supports

U.S. allied defeat
Golden Dragon massacre

(1977)

Part of Gangs in the United States

Location: San Francisco, California

War in South Zaire
(1978)

Location: Zaire

 Zaire
 France
 Belgium
 United States
 Morocco
State of Katanga Front for the National Liberation of the Congo
Supported by:

Angola Angola
 Cuba
 Soviet Union

U.S. allied victory
  • FNLC forces repelled
  • Thousands of civilians evacuated from Kolwezi
Soviet–Afghan War
(1979)

Location: Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

Sunni Mujahideen
 Iran
 China
 United States
 Soviet Union Soviet Union
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
 East Germany
Supported by:

Angola Angola
 Cuba
 Soviet Union

Mixed
Greensboro massacre

(1979)

Location: Greensboro, North Carolina

Operation Eagle Claw
(1980)
Part of the Iranian hostage crisis

Location: Iran

Wreckage at the Desert One base in Iran.
 United States  Iran U.S. blunder
  • 1 helicopter and 1 transport aircraft destroyed
  • 5 helicopters abandoned/captured
Gulf of Sidra encounter
(1981)

Location: Gulf of Sidra

 United States  Libya U.S. victory
Lebanese Civil War
(1982–1984)

Location: Lebanon

US Marines on patrol in Beirut, April 1983
Lebanese Armed Forces
UNIFIL
Multinational Force in Lebanon:
Lebanese Front
Army of Free Lebanon
SLA

 Israel
Lebanese National Movement
Jammoul
PLO
Amal Movement

 Iran

Hezbollah


Islamic Unification Movement


 Syria

Arab Deterrent Force
Mixed
Invasion of Grenada
(1983)
Part of the Cold War

Location: Grenada

American soldiers in mortar positions in Grenada.
 United States
 Barbados
 Jamaica
 Antigua and Barbuda
 Dominica
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 Saint Lucia
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Grenada PRG of Grenada
 Cuba
Military advisors:
U.S. allied victory
  • Military dictatorship of Hudson Austin deposed
  • Defeat of Cuban military presence
  • Restoration of Constitutional Government
Action in the Gulf of Sidra
(1986)
Libyan corvette obliterated after attempting to fire on US forces
 United States Libya Libya U.S. victory
  • Libyan naval forces damaged or destroyed
  • Libyan air defenses damaged
Bombing of Libya
(1986)

Location: Libya

USAF F-111 taking off for Libya
 United States Libya Libya U.S. victory
  • Ground targets destroyed.
  • Failed Libyan Scud missile response.
  • Muammar Gaddafi survives.
Tanker War
(1987–1988)

Location: Persian Gulf

Iranian frigate Sahand after being attacked by U.S. aircraft.
United States United States Iran Iran Mixed
  • Successful operations against Iran during the Iran–Iraq War
  • U.S. Navy vessel USS Vincennes shoots down civilian Iran Air Flight 655 killing all 290 passengers, among them 66 children.
  • Iran-Iraq war ends in August of 1988 following UN-brokered ceasefire.
Tobruk encounter
(1989)

Location: Mediterranean Sea

Gun camera depicting the last remaining MiG-23 fighters exploding after being shot down.
 United States  Libya U.S. victory
  • Two Libyan MiG-23 fighters shot down
Invasion of Panama
(1989–1990)

Location: Panama

U.S. troops prepare to take a neighborhood in Panama City, December 1989.
 United States
 Panamanian Opposition
 Panama U.S. allied victory
Gulf War
(1990–1991)

Location: Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Israel

M1 Abrams tanks of the 3rd Armored Division advance on Medina Ridge.
 Kuwait
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Saudi Arabia
 France
 Canada
 Egypt
 Syria
 Qatar
 Bahrain
 United Arab Emirates
 Oman
 Bangladesh
Iraq U.S. allied victory
Iraqi No-Fly Zone Enforcement Operations
(1991–2003)

Location: Iraq

A Tomahawk cruise missile is fired from an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer during Operation Desert Fox in December 1998.
 United States
 United Kingdom
 France
 Australia
 Belgium
 Netherlands
 Saudi Arabia
 Turkey
 Italy
Iraq U.S. allied victory
  • Various bombings of Iraqi forces both arial and naval
  • Mass numbers of Iraqi targets killed or destroyed
  • Reduction in Iraqi air defense
  • Beginning of the Iraq War
First Intervention in the Somali Civil War
(1992–1995)

Location: Somalia

US Marines on patrol in Somalia.
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Spain
 Saudi Arabia
 Malaysia
 Pakistan
 Italy
 India
 Greece
 Germany
 France
 Canada
 Botswana
 Belgium
 Australia
 New Zealand
Somalia Somali National Alliance Mixed
  • Pyrrhic tactical U.S./U.N. victory
  • Failure to capture SNA leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid; specific Aidid lieutenants captured
  • Withdrawal of U.S. forces 5 months after the Battle of Mogadishu
  • The UN mandate saved close to 100,000 lives, before and after U.S. withdrawal
  • Civil war is ongoing
Bosnian War
(1992–1995)
Part of the Yugoslav Wars

Location: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Russian and American troops on a joint patrol around the Bosnian town of Zvornik on the afternoon of 29 February 1996.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia Herzeg-Bosnia
 Croatia


 United States
 Belgium
 Canada
 Denmark
 France
 Germany
 Italy
 Luxembourg
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Portugal
 Spain
 Turkey
 United Kingdom

 Republika Srpska
YPA
 Serbian Krajina
Western Bosnia
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia FR Yugoslavia
Stalemate
Intervention in Haiti
(1994–1995)

Location: Haiti

US troops arrive in Haiti.
 United States
 Poland
 Argentina
 Haiti Mixed
Kosovo War
(1998–1999)
Part of the Yugoslav Wars

Location: Serbia

Bombing of Novi Sad.
KLA
Albania AFRK
 Albania
 Croatia
 United States
 Belgium
 Canada
 Czech Republic
 Denmark
 France
 Germany
 Hungary
 Italy
 Luxembourg
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Portugal
 Poland
 Spain
 Turkey
 United Kingdom
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia FR Yugoslavia Mixed[28][29][30][31]
  • Yugoslav forces pull out of Kosovo
  • De facto separation of Kosovo from FR Yugoslavia under UN administration
  • Ceasefire reached through Kumanovo Agreement of june 1999.
Operation Infinite Reach
(1998)

Location: Sudan and Afghanistan

al-Qaeda training camp in Afghanistan.
 United States al-Qaeda
 Sudan

Harkat-ul-Mujahideen
Lashkar-e-Taiba
U.S. blunder
  • Strikes hit targets but failed objectives
  • al-Qaeda suffers damage and casulties however its senior leaders survive the strikes
  • Al-Shifa pharmaceutical plant destroyed
  • Al-Qaeda propaganda victory leads to Osama bin Laden's image be praised in the Muslim world as a symbol of resistance
  1. ^ a b Covertly
  2. ^ Direct U.S. involvement ended in 1973 with the Paris Peace Accords. Air Force and Special Ops continued some operations until April 1975; President Ford in a televised speech on April 23, 1975 declared the end of Vietnam War.
  3. ^ The war reignited on 13 December 1974 with offensive operations by North Vietnam, leading to victory over South Vietnam in under two months.

21st-century armed conflicts[edit]

Conflict U.S. and allies Opponents Results and assessment of outcome
Nepalese Civil War

(2002–2006)

Part of the War on Terror

Location: Nepal

Three Maoist rebels wait on top of a hill in the Rolpa district for orders to relocate
 Kingdom of Nepal

 United States

 United Kingdom

 Belgium

 India

Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
U.S. allied defeat
War in Afghanistan
(2001–present)
Part of the War on Terror

Location: Afghanistan

American and British soldiers take a tactical pause during a combat patrol in the Sangin District area of Helmand Province.
Resolute Support Mission
 Afghanistan
 United States
 Canada
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 Croatia
 Czech Republic
 Georgia
 Germany
 Italy
 Romania
 Spain
 Turkey

Formerly:
ISAF
Afghanistan Taliban

Allied groups
HIG
al-Qaeda
IJU[32]


Taliban splinter groups


Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant IS-Affiliates:

2001 Invasion:
Afghanistan Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

Ongoing
Insurgency in the Maghreb

(2002–present)

Part of the War on Terror

Location: Maghreb, Sahara desert, Sahel
U.S. NCO training member of Malian counter-terrorism unit in weapons marksmanship, December 2010.
 Algeria
 Morocco
Mauritania Mauritania
Tunisia Tunisia
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso
 Chad
 Mali
 Niger
Nigeria Nigeria
 Senegal
Supported & Trained By:
United States United States
Canada Canada
France France
Germany Germany
Netherlands Netherlands
Spain Spain
 United Kingdom
Flag of Jihad.svg al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (2007–17)
Flag of Jihad.svg Ansar Dine (2012–17)
Flag of Jihad.svg Jama'at Nasr al-Islam wal Muslimin 2017–present
Supported By:
Flag of Jihad.svg Boko Haram (2009–15)
Flag of Jihad.svg MOJWA (2011–13)

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIL

Ongoing
Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa

(2002–present)

Location: Horn of Africa, Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel
U.S. soldiers and French commandos marine conduct a reconnaissance patrol during joint-combined exercise in Djibouti.
 NATO ISIL
al-Qaeda
Harakat al-Shabaab Mujahedeen
al-Itihaad al-Islamiya
Islamic Courts Union
Hizbul Islam
Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia
Ras Kamboni Brigades
Jabhatul Islamiya
Mu'askar Anole

Pirates:
* Somali Marines
* National Volunteer Coast Guard (NVCG)
* Marka group
* Puntland Group
* Yemeni Pirates

Ongoing
Iraq War
(2003–2011)
Part of the War on Terror

Location: Iraq

Soldiers from 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment conduct security before a cordon and search operation in Biaj, Iraq with their M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank.
 United States
 Iraq
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 South Korea
 Italy
 Georgia
 Poland
 Spain
 Netherlands
 Ukraine
 Romania

MNF–I

Ba'ath Loyalists

Islamic State of Iraq
al-Qaeda in Iraq
Mahdi Army
Special Groups
IAI
Ansar al-Sunnah


2003 Invasion:

Iraq Iraq

Mixed
War in North-West Pakistan
(2004–present)
Part of the War on Terror

Location: Pakistan

MQ-1 Predator drones are typically used in covert bombing operations in the Federally administered tribal regions of Pakistan
 United States

 Pakistan

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
al-Qaeda
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
Turkistan Islamic Party
Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi

Daesh

Ongoing
War in Somalia
(2007–present)

Location: Somalia and Northeastern Kenya

MQ-9 Reaper commonly used in covert drone strikes in Somalia.
 Somalia
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Kenya
 Ethiopia
AMISOM
Al-Shabaab
Hizbul Islam

Daesh
Alleged support:
 Eritrea

Ongoing
Operation Ocean Shield
(2009–2016)

Location: Indian Ocean

A tall plume of black smoke rises from a destroyed pirate vessel that was struck by USS Farragut in March 2010.
 NATO
 United States
 Malaysia
 Norway
 United Kingdom
 New Zealand
 Denmark
 Netherlands
 Italy
 South Korea
 India
Somali pirates U.S. allied victory
  • Number of pirate attacks have decreased dramatically since the start of such operations, however attacks still occur near the coast waters of Oman, Yemen, Kenya, and Somalia
  • The US Office of Naval Intelligence have officially reported that in 2013, only 9 incidents of piracy were reported and that none of them were successfully hijacked
  • Piracy drops 90% [42]
American-led intervention in Libya
(2011)
Part of the Libyan Crisis

Location: Libya

US vessels launch missiles in support of the Libyan Civil War.
 NATO
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Belgium
 Bulgaria
 Canada
 Denmark
 France
 Greece
 Italy
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Romania
 Spain
 Turkey
 Sweden
 Jordan
 Qatar
 United Arab Emirates

Anti-Gaddafi rebels

Libya U.S. allied victory
Operation Observant Compass

(2011-2017) Location: Uganda

U.S. Marine Sgt. Joseph Bergeron, a task force combat engineer, explains combat marksmanship tactics to a group of Ugandan soldiers.

 United States

Uganda Uganda

Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo

Central African Republic Central African Republic

South Sudan

Lord's Resistance Army Mixed/ongoing
  • LRA shrinks to about 100 members.
  • Having reduced the LRA's operational capacity to non-threat status the United States withdraws from the conflict, which remains ongoing.[44]
American-led intervention in Iraq
(2014–2017)
Part of Operation Inherent Resolve, the Iraqi Civil War, the Spillover of the Syrian Civil War, and the International ISIS campaign

Location: Iraq


General Stephen J. Townsend observes a HIMARS strike that destroyed a building near Haditha, September 2016
 United States
 Iraq
 Kurdistan
 Australia
 Belgium
 Canada
 Denmark
 France
 Germany
 Jordan
 Morocco
 Netherlands
 United Kingdom
 Turkey

 Iran
Hezbollah

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State of Iraq and Syria Mixed/ongoing
  • Over 10,000 American airstrikes conducted in Iraq since 2014
  • Heavy damaged caused to ISIS forces resulting in losses of about 40% of its held territory by 2016, and by December 2017, its remaining strongholds were destroyed leaving small pockets of fleers.
  • Multinational humanitarian support to civilians and arming of local ground troops and militias
  • Advising and training of Iraqi forces
  • Massive numbers of war crimes committed by ISIS including ethnic cleansing, murder, rape, and enslavement. Additionally there are reports of organ trafficking
American-led intervention in Syria
(2014–present)
Part of Operation Inherent Resolve, the Syrian Civil War and the International ISIS campaign

Location: Syria

United States United States

Democratic Federation of Northern Syria


CJTF-OIR Members:
 United Kingdom
 France
 Australia
 Canada
 Jordan
 Denmark
 Netherlands
 Belgium
 Lebanon
 Morocco
 Saudi Arabia
 UAE
 Qatar
 Bahrain


Turkey


 Israel (limited involvement; against Hezbollah and government forces only)


Formerly:
Syrian opposition Free Syrian Army (2011-2017)

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIS

al-Qaeda linked groups:

Partial Support:
 Qatar
 UAE
 Saudi Arabia


 Syria (limited encounters with US and Israel)

Supported by:
 Russia
 Iran
Hezbollah
 China

Ongoing
Yemeni Civil War
(2015–present)

Location: Yemen

U.S. Naval vessel patrolling along the coastline of Yemen enforcing the American-Saudi blockade against Iran.
Hadi government

Saudi-led Coalition:
 Saudi Arabia
 United Arab Emirates
 Senegal
 Sudan
 Qatar (2015-2017)
 United States
 France
 United Kingdom
Supreme Political Council
Houthis
Ahrar al-Najran
Supported by:
 Iran
Hezbollah
 North Korea

AQAP


IS-affiliated groups:

Ongoing
  • Yemen's capital city of Sana'a falls under Houthi control
  • Saudi-led coalition begin to bomb Houthi rebel positions
  • Aden becomes the new capital for the Hadi government
  • Cholera outbreak in 2016
  • Former Yemeni president Ali Abdullah Saleh killed in fire fight by a sniper during the ongoing battle in Sana'a
  • Targeted killing program against radical groups in the region continue since 2002; intensify after beginning of civil war
  • U.S. Naval blockade put in place in attempt to assist Saudi Arabia in preventing Iranian weapons from moving weapons into Houthi territory
  • Raids against al-Qaeda conducted U.S. Special Forces
  • Famine caused by war is affecting over 17 million people leaving 50,000 children to be a risk of dying in 2017
American intervention in Libya
(2015–present)
Part of the Second Libyan Civil War

Location: Libya

 United States
 Libya
Islamic State in Libya Ongoing
  • Liberation of Sirte
  • Hundreds of airstrikes carried out in Libya against Islamic State affiliated militant groups

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]