List of artifacts in biblical archaeology
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|Part of a series on the|
- 1 Selected artifacts significant to biblical chronology
- 2 Other significant artifacts
- 3 Controversial
- 4 Forgery
- 5 Significant museums
- 6 External lists
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Selected artifacts significant to biblical chronology
The table lists artifacts which are of particular significance to the study of biblical chronology. The table lists the following information about each artifact:
- Current Location: Museum or site
- Discovered: Date and location of discovery
- Date: Proposed date of creation of artifact
- Writing: Script used in inscription (if any)
- Significance: Reason for significance to biblical archeology
- Refs: ANET and COS references, and link to editio princeps (EP), if known
|Autobiography of Weni||Cairo Museum||1880, Abydos||c.2280 BCE||Egyptian hieroglyphs||Records the earliest known Egyptian military campaigns in Sinai and the Levant.||ANET 227–228|
|Sebek-khu Stele||Manchester Museum||1901, Abydos||c.1860 BCE||Egyptian hieroglyphs||Records the earliest known Egyptian military campaign in Retjenu, including Sekmem (s-k-m-m, thought to be Shechem).||ANET 230|
|Statue of Idrimi||British Museum||1939, Alalakh||c.1500 BCE||Akkadian cuneiform||Records the earliest certain cuneiform reference to Canaan||ANET 557|
|Merneptah Stele||Cairo Museum||1896, Thebes||c. 1209 BCE||Egyptian hieroglyphs||While alternative translations have been put forward, the majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs on Line 27 as "Israel", such that it represents the first documented instance of the name Israel in the historical record, and the only record in Ancient Egypt.||COS 2.6 / ANET 376–378 / EP|
|Bubastite Portal||Original location||1828, Karnak||c. 925 BCE||Egyptian hieroglyphs||Records the conquests and military campaigns in c.925 BCE of Shoshenq I, of the Twenty-second Dynasty, identified with the biblical Shishaq. Towns identified include Rafah (rph), Megiddo (mkdi) and Ajalon (iywrn)||ANET 242–243|
|Mesha stele||Louvre||1868, Dhiban, Jordan||c.850 BCE||Moabite language||Describes the victories of Moabite king Mesha over the House of Omri (kingdom of Israel), it bears the earliest certain extra-biblical reference to the Israelite god Yahweh, and—if French scholar André Lemaire's reconstruction of a portion of line 31 is correct—the earliest mention of the "House of David" (i.e., the kingdom of Judah). One of the only two known artifacts containing the "Moabite" dialect of Canaanite languages (the second is the El-Kerak Inscription)||COS 2.23 / ANET 320–321|
|Kurkh Monoliths||British Museum||1861, Üçtepe, Bismil||c.850 BCE||Assyrian cuneiform||The Shalmaneser III monolith contains a description of the Battle of Qarqar at the end. This description contains the name "A-ha-ab-bu Sir-ila-a-a" which is generally accepted to be a reference to Ahab king of Israel, although it is the only known reference to the term "Israel" in Assyrian and Babylonian records, a fact brought up by some scholars who dispute the proposed translation.|
|Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III||British Museum||1846, Nimrud||c.825 BCE||Assyrian cuneiform||Contains what is thought to be the earliest known picture of a biblical figure: possibly Jehu son Omri (mIa-ú-a mar mHu-um-ri-i), or Jehu's ambassador, kneeling at the feet of Shalmaneser III.||COS 2.113F / ANET 278–281|
|Saba'a Stele||Istanbul Archaeology Museums||1905, Saba'a||c.800 BCE||Assyrian cuneiform||Records Adad-Nirari III's Assyrian campaign to Pa-la-áš-tu (Philistia)||COS 2.114E / ANET 282 / EP|
|Tel Dan Stele||Israel Museum||1993, Tel Dan||c.800 BCE||Old Aramaic||Its significance for the biblical version of Israel's past lies particularly in lines 8 and 9, which mention a "king of Israel" and a "house of David". The latter is generally understood by scholars to refer to the ruling dynasty of Judah. However, although the "king of Israel" is generally accepted, the rendering of the phrase bytdwd as "house of David" has been disputed by some. This dispute is occasioned in part because it appears without a word-divider between the two parts. The significance of this fact, if any, is unclear, because others, such as the late Anson F. Rainey, have observed that the presence or absence of word-dividers (for example, sometimes a short vertical line between words, other times a dot between words, as in this inscription) is normally inconsequential for interpretation.||EP|
|Nimrud Slab||Unknown||1854, Nimrud||c.800 BCE||Akkadian cuneiform||Describes Adad-nirari III's early Assyrian conquests in Palastu (Phillistia), Tyre, Sidon, Edom and Humri (the latter understood as the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)).||COS 2.114G|
|Nimrud Tablet K.3751||British Museum||c.1850, Nimrud||c.733 BCE||Akkadian cuneiform||Describes Tiglath-Pileser III's (745 to 727 BCE) campaigns to the region, including the first known archeological reference to Judah (Yaudaya or KUR.ia-ú-da-a-a).||COS 2.117 / ANET 282–284|
|Sargon II's Prism A||N.A.||British Museum||c.1850, Library of Ashurbanipal||c.710 BCE||Akkadian cuneiform||Describes Sargon II's (722 to 705 BCE) campaigns to Palastu, Judah, Edom and Moab.||COS 2.118i / ANET 287|
|Siloam inscription||Istanbul Archaeology Museums||1880, Siloam tunnel||c.701 BCE||Paleo-Hebrew)||Records the construction of Siloam tunnel||COS 2.28 / ANET 321|
|Lachish relief||British Museum||1845, Nineveh||c.700 BCE||Assyrian cuneiform||Portion of the Sennacherib relief, which depicts captives from Judah being led into captivity after the Siege of Lachish in 701 BC||COS 2.119C / EP|
|LMLK seals||Various||1870 onwards||c.700 BCE||Phoenician alphabet (also known as Paleo-Hebrew)||c.2,000 stamp impressions, translated as "belonging to the King"||COS 2.77 / EP|
|Azekah Inscription||British Museum||c.1850, Library of Ashurbanipal||c.700 BCE||Akkadian cuneiform||Describes an Assyrian campaign by Sennacherib against Hezekiah, King of Judah, including the conquest of Azekah.||COS 2.119D|
|Sennacherib's Annals||British Museum, Oriental Institute of Chicago, and the Israel Museum||1830, likely Nineveh, unprovenanced||c.690 BCE||Assyrian cuneiform||Describes the Assyrian king Sennacherib's siege of Jerusalem in 701 BCE during the reign of king Hezekiah.||COS 2.119B / ANET 287–288|
|Esarhaddon's Treaty with Ba'al of Tyre||British Museum||c.1850, Library of Ashurbanipal||c.675 BCE||Akkadian cuneiform||Describes a treaty between Esarhaddon (reigned 681 to 669 BCE) and Ba'al of Tyre with respect to pi-lis-te||COS 2.120 / ANET 533|
|Ekron inscription||Israel Museum||1996, Ekron||c.650 BCE||Phoenician alphabet||The first known inscription from the area ascribed to Philistines||COS 2.42|
|Cylinders of Nabonidus||British Museum and Pergamon Museum||1854, Ur||c.550 BCE||Akkadian cuneiform||Describes Belshazzar (Balthazar) as Nabonidus' eldest son||COS 2.123A|
|Nebuchadnezzar Chronicle||(Photo Gallery)||British Museum||1896 (acquired), unprovenanced||c.550 – 400 BCE ||Akkadian cuneiform||Describes Nebuchadnezzar's first siege of Jerusalem in 597 BCE, the Siege of Jerusalem (597 BCE)||COS 1.137 / ANET 301–307|
|Cylinder of Cyrus||British Museum||1879, Babylon||c.530 BCE||Akkadian cuneiform||King Cyrus's treatment of religion, which is significant to the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah.||COS 2.124 / ANET 315–316|
|Nabonidus Chronicle||British Museum||1879 (acquired), Sippar, unprovenanced||4th –1st century BCE||Akkadian cuneiform||Describes the conquest of Babylon by the Persian king Cyrus the Great||COS 1.137 / ANET 301–307 / EP|
|Temple Warning inscription||Istanbul Archaeology Museums||1871, Jerusalem||c.23 BCE – 70 CE||Greek||Believed to be an inscription from Herod's Temple, warning foreigners ("allogenh") to refrain from entering the Temple enclosure|
|Trumpeting Place inscription||Israel Museum||1968, Jerusalem||c.1st century CE||Hebrew||Believed to be a directional sign for the priests who blew a trumpet, consistent with an account in Josephus|
|Arch of Titus||Original location||n.a., Roma||c.82 CE||Latin||Relief showing spoils from the Sack of Jerusalem by Titus in 70 CE. Depicted are the menorah and trumpets, as well as what might be the Table of Showbread.|
Other significant artifacts
- Creation myths and flood myths – recorded on the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Atra-Hasis tablets, the Enûma Eliš, the Eridu Genesis and the Barton Cylinder
- Law tablets – ancient Near East legal tablets: Code of Hammurabi, Laws of Eshnunna, the Code of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur (ca. 2050 BCE), the Laws of Eshnunna (ca. 1930 BCE) and the codex of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin (ca. 1870 BCE). Later codes than Hammurabi's include the Code of the Nesilim. Hittite laws, the Assyrian laws, and Mosaic Law / Ten Commandments. (see Cuneiform law).
- Hittite texts (17th century BCE and later)
- Minoan Eruption – pumice found at various Tels dated to Late Bronze Age
- Execration texts – earliest references to many Biblical locations
- Shiphrah slave list – Shiphrah was one of two midwives who helped prevent the genocide of Hebrew children by the Egyptians, according to the Book of Exodus 1:15–21. The name is found in a list of slaves in Egypt during the reign of Sobekhotep III. This list is on Brooklyn 35.1446, a papyrus scroll kept in the Brooklyn Museum.
- Tombs of Ahmose, son of Ebana and Ahmose Pen-Nekhebet, record the earliest records of Egyptian control of Canaan. The Bible's depiction of Israel does not allow for Egyptian control over the area.
- Amarna letters (c. 13th century BCE) – correspondence on clay tablets between the Egyptian administration and various Middle East kings petty sub-rulers in Canaan during the New Kingdom. The Bible's depiction of Canaan at this time (the period of the Judges) contradicts these records.
- Great Hymn to the Aten is seen to possess strong similarities to Psalm 104, which may be based on it.
- Ipuwer Papyrus (probably 18th century BCE) – poem describing Egypt as afflicted by natural disasters and in a state of chaos. The archeological evidence does not support the story of the Exodus, and most histories of ancient Israel no longer consider it relevant to the story of Israel's emergence. Nevertheless, Ipuwer is often put forward in popular literature as confirmation of the Biblical account, most notably because of its statement that "the river is blood" and its frequent references to servants running away. This ignores the many points on which Ipuwer contradicts Exodus, such as the fact that its Asiatics are arriving in Egypt rather than leaving, and the likelihood that the "river is blood" phrase may refer to the red sediment colouring the Nile during disastrous floods, or may simply be a poetic image of turmoil.
- North Wall of the Medinet Habu temple and the Papyrus Harris (c. 1150 BCE) – depicts the Ramesses III's conquests in Canaan including the Battle of Djahy. This is not reflected in the Biblical history.
10th century BCE
- Early Paleo-Hebrew writing - contenders for the earliest Hebrew inscriptions include the Gezer calendar, Biblical period ostraca at Elah and Izbet Sartah, and the Zayit Stone
- Pim weight – evidence of the use of an ancient source for the Book of Samuel due to the use of an archaic term.
- Khirbet Qeiyafa pottery sherd – (10th century BCE) inscription - both the language it was written in and the translation are disputed. Was discovered in excavations near Israel's Elah valley.
- Tell es-Safi Potsherd (10th to mid 9th centuries BCE) – Potsherd inscribed with the two names "alwt" and "wlt", etymologically related to the name Goliath and demonstrate that the name fits with the context of late-tenth/early-ninth-century BCE Philistine culture. Found at Tell es-Safi, the traditional identification of Gath.
- Khirbet Qeiyafa shrines- cultic objects seen as evidence of a "cult in Judah at time of King David" and with features (triglyphs and recessed doors) which may resemble features in descriptions of the Temple of Solomon.
- Ophel inscription is a 3,000-year-old inscribed fragment of a ceramic jar found near Jerusalem's Temple Mount by archeologist Eilat Mazar. It is the earliest alphabetical inscription found in Jerusalem written in Hebrew or Proto-Canaanite language. Some scholars believe it to be an inscription of the type of wine that was held in a jar.
9th century BCE
- Amman Citadel Inscription – 9th century BCE inscription in the Ammonite language, one of the few surviving written records of Ammon.
- Melqart stele – (9th–8th century BCE) William F. Albright identifies Bir-hadad with Ben-hadad I, who was a contemporary of the biblical Asa and Baasha.
- Ostraca House – (probably about 850 BCE, at least prior to 750 BCE) 64 legible ostraca found in the treasury of Ahab – written in early Hebrew.
- Balaam inscription (c. 840–760 BCE) 9th or 8th century BCE inscription about a prophet named Balaam (cf. the Book of Numbers).
8th century BCE
- Kuntillet Ajrud inscriptions – (9th - 8th century BCE) inscriptions in Phoenician script including references to Yahweh
- Sefire stele – (8th century BCE) described as "the best extrabiblical source for West Semitic traditions of covenantal blessings and curses."
- Stele of Zakkur – (8th century BCE) Mentions Hazael king of Aram.
- Tell al-Rimah stela (c.780 BCE) - tells of the exploits of Adad-nirari III, mentioning "Joash King of Samaria"
- Shebna's lintel inscription – (8th - 7th century BCE ?) found over the lintel or doorway of a tomb, has been ascribed to Hezekiah's comptroller Shebna.
- King Ahaz's Seal (732 to 716 BCE) – Ahaz was a king of Judah but "did not do what was right in the sight of the Lord his God, as his ancestor David had done" (2 Kings 16:2; 2 Chronicles 28:1). He worshiped idols and followed pagan practices. "He even made his son pass through fire, according to the abominable practices of the nations" (2 Kings 16:3). Ahaz was the son and successor of Jotham.
- Bullae (c.715–687 BCE or 716–687 BCE) (clay roundels impressed with a personal seal identifying the owner of an object, the author of a document, etc.) are, like ostraka, relatively common, both in digs and on the antiquities market. The identification of individuals named in bullae with equivalent names from the Bible is difficult, but identifications have been made with king Hezekiah and his servants (????? avadim in Hebrew).
- Annals of Tiglath-Pileser III (740-730 BCE):
- Layard 45b+ III R 9,1 possibly refers to [KUR sa-me-ri-i-na-a-a] as ["land of Samaria"]
- The Iran Stela refers to KUR sa-m[e]-ri-i-na-a-[a] "land of Samaria"
- Layard 50a + 50b + 67a refers to URU sa-me-ri-na-a-a "city of Sarnaria"
- Layard 66 refers to URU Sa-me-ri-na "city of Samaria"
- III R 9.3 50, refers to "Menahem the Samarian"
- Nimrud Tablet III R 10.2 28-29, refers to the overthrown of Pekah by Hoshea.
- one fragment refers to "Azriau" and another it has been joined to refers to "Yaudi". Some scholars have interpreted this as Ahaziah / Uzziah, although this is disputed and has not gained scholarly consensus.
- III R 10,2 refers to KUR E Hu-um-ri-a "land of Bit-Humri"
- ND 4301 + 4305 refers to KUR E Hu-um-ri-a "land of Bit-Humri"
- Babylonian Chronicle ABC1 - (725 BCE), Shalmaneser V refers to URU Sa-ma/ba-ra-'-in "city of Sarnaria"
- Annals of Sargon II (720 BCE):
7th century BCE
- Bulla of Shaphan (r. 609–598 BCE) – possible link to a figure during the reign of Jehoiakim.
- Seal of Jehucal – (7th century BCE) Jehucal or Jucal is mentioned in chapters 37 and 38 of the Book of Jeremiah where King Zedekiah sends Jehucal son of Shelemiah and the priest Zephaniah son of Maaseiah to the prophet Jeremiah saying `Please pray for us to the Lord our God` (Jeremiah 38:3). His seal and also one of Gedaliah, son of Pashur (also mentioned in Jeremiah 38:1 together with Jehucal) were found during excavation in the city of David in 2005 and 2008, respectively, by Dr. Eliat Mazar.
- Khirbet Beit Lei contains oldest known Hebrew writing of the word "Jerusalem" dated to 7th century BCE "I am YHWH thy Lord. I will accept the cities of Judah and I will redeem Jerusalem" "Absolve us oh merciful God. Absolve us oh YHWH"
- Mesad Hashavyahu Ostracon is an inscribed pottery fragment dated to 7th century BCE and written in ancient Hebrew language. It contains earliest extra-biblical reference to the observance of Shabbat.
- Victory stele of Esarhaddon
6th century BCE
- Ketef Hinnom priestly blessing – Probably the oldest surviving texts currently known from the Hebrew Bible – Priestly blessing dated to 600 BCE. Text from the Book of Numbers in the Old Testament. Described as "one of most significant discoveries ever made" for biblical studies.
- Jehoiachin's Rations Tablets (6th century BCE) – Describe the rations set aside for a royal captive identified with Jehoiachin, king of Judah (Cf. 2 Kings 24:12,15–6; 25:27–30; 2 Chronicles 36:9–10; Jeremiah 22:24–6; 29:2; 52:31–4; Ezekiel 17:12).
- Nebo-Sarsekim Tablet – (circa 595 BCE) a clay cuneiform inscription referring to an official at the court of Nebuchadrezzar II, king of Babylon, possibly the same official named in the Biblical Jeremiah.
- Lachish letters – letters written in carbon ink by Hoshaiah, a military officer stationed near Jerusalem, to Joash the commanding officer at Lachish during the last years of Jeremiah during Zedekiah’s reign (c.588 BCE) (see Nehemiah 12:32, Jeremiah 42:1, 43:2). Lachish fell soon after, two years before the fall of Jerusalem.
- House of Yahweh ostracon is an ancient pottery fragment discovered at Tel Arad probably referring to the Temple at Jerusalem.
5th century BCE
- Elephantine papyri, ancient Jewish papyri dating to the 5th century BCE, name three persons mentioned in Nehemiah: Darius II, Sanballat the Horonite and Johanan the high priest.
2nd century BCE
- Hasmonean coinage (164 BCE – 35 BCE)
1st century BCE
- Western Wall – (c. 19 BCE) is an important Jewish religious site located in the Old City of Jerusalem. Just over half the wall, including its 17 courses located below street level, dates from the end of the Second Temple period, being constructed around 19 BCE by Herod the Great. The remaining layers were added from the 7th century onwards.
1st century CE
- Rock of Calvary (Golgotha), identified by Constantine's mother Saint Helena and Macarius of Jerusalem, within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
- Grotto of the Nativity, identified by Constantine's mother Saint Helena and Macarius of Jerusalem, within the Church of the Nativity
- Pilate Stone – (c. 36 CE) carved inscription attributed to Pontius Pilate, a prefect of the Roman-controlled province of Judaea from 26–36 CE.
- Erastus Inscription (Roman period, disputed)
- Judaea Capta coinage (after 70 CE)
- Nazareth Inscription bears an edict of Caesar prohibiting grave robbing; relevant to claims of resurrection.
- Borsippa – identified as the Tower of Babel in Talmudic and Arabic culture, but not accepted by modern scholarship
- Ebla tablets – once thought to have made references to, and thus confirmed, the existence of Abraham, David and Sodom and Gomorrah among other Biblical references.
- Foundation Stone – stone also called the Well of Souls, now located in the Dome of the Rock. According to the Bible, King David purchased a threshing floor owned by Araunah the Jebusite, and some believe that it was upon this rock that he offered the sacrifice mentioned in the verse. David wanted to construct a Temple in Jerusalem, but as his hands were "bloodied," he was forbidden to do so himself. The task was left to his son Solomon, who completed the Temple in c. 950 BCE.
- Uzziah Tablet – (8th century BCE or 30–70 CE?) controversial tablet discovered in 1931 by Professor E.L. Sukenik of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in a Russian convent.
- Jehoash Inscription – controversial black stone tablet in Phoenician regarding King Jehoash's repair work. Suspected to be a forgery, (but see: Book of Kings).
- Warren's Shaft – possible route corresponding to the biblical account of Joab, king David's commander, launching a secretive attack against the Jebusites, who controlled Jerusalem.
- Ivory pomegranate
- Pool of Bethesda – in the nineteenth century, archaeologists discovered the remains of a pool corresponding to a description in John’s Gospel.
- Tower of Siloam – ruins possibly mentioned in the Gospel of Luke.
- James Ossuary
- Caiaphas ossuary
- Sudarium of Oviedo
- Titulus Crucis
- Acheiropoieta (see Shroud of Turin, Image of Edessa, and the Veil of Veronica)
- Relics attributed to Jesus, including those identified by Constantine's mother Saint Helena and Macarius of Jerusalem, such as the Holy Nails, Holy Tunic and the True Cross
- Stone Seal of Manasseh – Stone seal of Manasseh, King of Judah c.687–642 BCE. Reportedly offered to a private collector for one million dollars.
- Shapira collection
- Israel Museum, Jerusalem
- Bible Lands Museum, Jerusalem
- Hecht Museum
- Oriental Institute, Chicago
- British Museum
- The Louvre
- ANET: Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Third Edition with Supplement. Ed. James B. Pritchard. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969
- COS: The Context of Scripture. 3 volumes. Eds. William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger. Leiden: Brill, 1997-2002
- RANE: Readings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study. Baker Academic. ISBN 978-0801022920.
- Indices to ANET and COS:  and 
- Dr. Ralph W. Klein's tables of artifacts - 10 pages of tables sorted by era
- Extra-biblical sources for Hebrew and Jewish history (1913)
- Bible History Daily The Biblical Archaeology Society website, publishers of Biblical Archaeology Review
- Archaeology of Israel
- Assyrian Siege of Jerusalem
- Assyro-Babylonian religion
- The Bible and history
- Biblical archaeology (excavations and artifacts)
- Chronology of the Bible
- Cities of the Ancient Near East
- Hittite sites – Hittites – History of the Hittites
- Library of Ashurbanipal
- List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources
- List of burial places of Biblical figures
- List of Egyptian papyri by date
- List of megalithic sites
- Model of Jerusalem in the Late 2nd Temple Period
- Near Eastern archaeology
- Nag Hammadi library – early Christian gnostic papyri.
- Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible
- Oxyrhynchus Papyri – collection of Old and New Testament papyri, Apocryphal works and works of Philo
- Levantine archaeology
- List of proposed Assyrian references to Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)
- ANET: Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Third Edition with Supplement. Ed. James B. Pritchard. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969
- COS: The Context of Scripture. 3 volumes. Eds. William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger. Leiden: Brill, 1997–2002
- Petrie, WM Flinders; Spiegelberg, Wilhelm (1897), Six temples at Thebes, 1896, London: Quaritch
- The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship edited by Frederick E. Greenspahn, NYU Press, 2008 P.11
- Ancient Canaan and Israel: New Perspectives By Jonathan Michael Golden, ABC-CLIO, 2004, P.275
- Reliefstele Adadniraris 3 aus Saba'a und Semiramis (1916)
- Stavrakopoulou 2004, pp. 86–87.
- Rainey 1994, p. 47.
- Biran, Avraham; Naveh, Joseph (1993). "An Aramaic Stele Fragment from Tel Dan". Israel Exploration Journal. Israel Exploration Society. 43 (2–3): 81–98.
- The Philistines in Transition: A History from Ca. 1000–730 B.C.E. By Carl S. Ehrlich P:171
- Discoveries Among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, p128
- Warren, Charles (1870). "Phoenician inscription on jar handles". Palestine Exploration Quarterly. 2 (30 September): 372. External link in
- "Photos of the Nebuchadnezzar Chronicle. Clay tablet; New Babylonian. Chronicle for years 605-594 BC. © Trustees of the British Museum". Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- "Babylonian Chronicle Tablet (The British Museum, #21946)". Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- Clyde E. Fant, Mitchell G. Reddish, Lost Treasures of the Bible: Understanding the Bible Through Archaeological Artifacts in World Museums, p. 228. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2008. ISBN 0-8028-2881-7
- Sidney Smith, 1924
- The Writing on the Wall, Tablet and Floor
- Charles F. Horne (1915). "The Code of Hammurabi: Introduction". Yale University. Retrieved 14 September 2007.
- "Code of Nesilim". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- Meyers 2005, p. 5-6.
- Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 81.
- Enmarch 2011, p. 173-175.
- "Archaeology: What an Ancient Hebrew Note Might Mean". Christianity Today. 18 January 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- Nir Hasson, 'Israeli archaeologists dig up artifact from time of Kings David and Solomon,' at Haaretz, 15 July 2013.
- Hoftijzer, J. & van der Kooij, G. (1976) "Aramaic Texts from Deir 'Alla", in: Documenta et Monumenta Orientis Antiqui 19. Leiden: Brill
- Stern, Philip. Balaam in scripture and in inscription. Midstream (2002), (accessed 27 February 2009).
- Kaufman, S. A. Anchor Bible Dictionary. pp. 173–78.
- Text and History: Historiography and the Study of the Biblical Text, page 168
- See William F. Albright for the former and for the latter Edwin R. Thiele's, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (3rd ed.; Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983) 217. But Gershon Galil dates his reign to 697–642 BCE.
- Grena (2004), p. 26, Figs. 9 and 10
- Kelle, Brad (2002), "What's in a Name? Neo-Assyrian Designations for the Northern Kingdom and Their Implications for Israelite History and Biblical Interpretation", Journal of Biblical Literature, 121 (4): 639–646
- Kalimi, Isaac (2005). The Reshaping Of Ancient Israelite History In Chronicles. Eisenbrauns. p. 106. ISBN 9781575060583. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- On the Reliability of the Old Testament, Kenneth Anderson Kitchen
- Bible.org, Quote: "For a defense of the idea that Azariah of Judah headed up an anti-Assyrian coalition, see Tadmor, “Azarijau of Yaudi” Scripta Hierosolymitana 8 (1961): 232-271. However, Israelite and Judaean History, Old Testament Library. Edited by John H. Hayes and J. Maxwell Miller. London: SCM Press, 1977 says, “Recently, Na’aman [Nadav Na’aman. “Sennacherib’s ‘Letter to God’ on His Campaign to Judah,” BASOR CCXIV (1974) 25-39] has shown conclusively that the fragment presumably mentioning Azriau king of Yaudi actually belongs to the time of Sennacherib and refers not to Azariah but to Hezekiah. In Tiglath-Pileser’s annals there are two references to an Azariah (in line 123 as Az-ri-a-[u] and in line 131 as Az-r-ja-a-í) but neither of these make any reference to his country. Thus the Azriau of Tiglath-pileser’s annals and Azariah of the Bible should be regarded as two different individuals. Azriau’s country cannot, at the present, be determined.” Na’aman separates the country (Yaudi) from the name Azriau (p. 36). Also p. 28 on line 5 where the original transcription was “[I]zri-ja-u mat Ja-u-di” he reads “ina birit misrija u mat Jaudi” However, Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (OROT), p. 18, is less dogmatic. He says “Hence we cannot certainly assert that this Azriau (without a named territory!) is Azariah of Judah; the matter remains open and undecided for the present and probably unlikely.” See Also CAH, 3:35-36."
- In Search of "Ancient Israel": A Study in Biblical Origins Philip R. Davies, p.63: "The reference to az-ri-a-u (? ANET ia-u-ha-zi) (mat)ia-u-da-a is seen by a minority of scholars (see e.g. ANET) as a reference to Azariah of Judah; the majority, however, identify the state in question as Y’di, mentioned in the Zinjirli inscription and located in northern Syria."
- Seals of Jeremiah's captors discovered
- "Solving a Riddle Written in Silver". The New York Times. 28 September 2004. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- "The Challenges of Ketef Hinnom: Using Advanced Technologies to Recover the Earliest Biblical Texts and their Context", Gabriel Barkay et al., Near Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 66, No. 4 (Dec., 2003), pp. 162–171 (at JSTOR).
- "Biblical Artifact Proven to Be Real". Webcenters.netscape.compuserve.com. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- Thomas, D. Winton (1958) Documents from Old Testament Times; 1961 ed. Edinburgh and London: Thomas Nelson and Sons; p. 84.
- "Lachish letters". Formerthings.com. 10 January 1938. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- T.C. Mitchell (1992). "Judah Until the Fall of Jerusalem". In John Boardman; I. E. S. Edwards; E. Sollberger; N. G. L. Hammond. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BCE. Cambridge University Press. p. 397. ISBN 978-0521227179.
- 1 Chronicles 21:25, and 2 Samuel 24:18–25.
- Luke 13
- "Biblical artifacts". Athenapub.com. Retrieved 29 December 2011.