List of artificial objects leaving the Solar System
Of the major spacecraft Voyager 1, Voyager 2, and New Horizons are still functioning and are regularly contacted by radio communication, while Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 are now derelict. In addition to these spacecraft, some 3rd stages and de-spin weights are leaving the solar system, assuming they continued on their trajectories.
The objects are leaving the Solar System, because they have a velocity and direction that is taking them away from the Sun, but for the distance they are from the Sun, the Sun's gravitational pull would not be predicted to pull the object back to it or into orbit around it. They are not at all immune from the gravitational pull of the Sun and are being slowed down, but they are predicted to have enough velocity to coast into interstellar space; see escape velocity.
Planetary exploration probes
- Pioneer 10 – Launched in 1972, flew past Jupiter in 1973 and is heading in the direction of Aldebaran (65 light years away) in the constellation of Taurus. Contact was lost in January 2003.
- Pioneer 11 – Launched in 1973, flew past Jupiter in 1974 and Saturn in 1979. Contact was lost in November 1995. The spacecraft is headed toward the constellation of Aquila, northwest of the constellation of Sagittarius. Barring an incident, Pioneer 11 will pass near one of the stars in the constellation in about 4 million years.
- Voyager 2 – Launched in August 1977, flew past Jupiter in 1979, Saturn in 1981, Uranus in 1986, and Neptune in 1989. Although it entered the heliosheath, it is debated whether it has passed the heliopause. Voyager 2 is still active.
- Voyager 1 – Launched in September 1977, flew past Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980, making a special close approach to Saturn's moon Titan. The probe passed the heliopause on 25 August 2012 to enter interstellar space, and is still active. It is headed towards an encounter with a star called AC +79 3888, which lies 17.6 light-years from Earth, in about 40,000 years.
- New Horizons – Launched in 2006, the probe flew past Jupiter in 2007 and Pluto on 14 July 2015. It is currently headed towards a flyby of the Kuiper belt object (486958) 2014 MU69 (nicknamed Ultima Thule) on January 1, 2019, as part of the Kuiper Belt Extended Mission (KEM).
Although other probes were launched first, Voyager 1 has achieved a higher speed and overtaken all others. Voyager 1 overtook Voyager 2 a few months after launch, on 19 December 1977. It overtook Pioneer 11 in 1983, and then Pioneer 10—becoming the probe farthest from Earth—on February 17, 1998.
Depending on how the "Pioneer anomaly" impacts it, New Horizons will also probably pass the Pioneer probes, but will need many years to do so. It will not overtake Pioneer 11 until the 22nd Century; will not overtake Pioneer 10 until the end of that century, and it will never overtake the Voyagers.
Distance and speed from the Sun
|Name||Launched||Distance (AU)||Speed (km/s)|
The escape velocity of the Sun from its surface is 618. km/sec (1381600.8 mph). The force of gravity can be predicted with Newton's law of universal gravitation for a certain distance from the Sun, and the mass of the Sun and the object in question and where G is the Gravitational constant.
Every planetary probe was placed into its escape trajectory by a multistage rocket, the last stage of which ends up on nearly the same trajectory as the probe it launched. Because these stages cannot be actively guided, their trajectories are now different from the probes they launched (the probes were guided with small thrusters that allow course changes). However, in cases where the spacecraft acquired escape velocity because of a gravity assist, the stages may not have a similar course and there is the remote possibility that they collided with something. Some objects in heliocentric orbit have been reidentified with a telescope, and so it can be confirmed that they are still there. The stages on an escape trajectory are:
- Pioneer 10 third stage, a TE364-4 variant of the Star-37 solid fuel rocket.
- Voyager 1 third stage, a Star 37E solid fuel rocket.
- Voyager 2 third stage, a Star 37E solid fuel rocket.
- New Horizons third stage, a Star 48B solid fuel rocket, is on a similar escape trajectory out of the Solar System as New Horizons, even arriving at Jupiter by 6 hours before New Horizons. On Oct 15, 2015 it passed through Pluto's orbit at a distance of 213 million kilometers (over 1 AU) distant from Pluto. This was nearly four months after the New Horizons probe did.
In addition, two small yo-yo de-spin weights on wires were used to reduce the spin of the New Horizons probe prior to its release from the third-stage rocket. Once the spin rate was lowered, these masses and the wires were released, and so are also on an escape trajectory out of the Solar System. None of these objects are trackable (they have no power or radio antennae, spin uncontrollably, and are too small to be detected), and their exact positions are unknowable beyond their projected Solar System escape trajectories.
The third stage of Pioneer 11 is thought to be in solar orbit because its encounter with Jupiter would not have resulted in escape from the Solar System. Pioneer 11 gained the required velocity to escape the Solar System in its subsequent encounter with Saturn.
The only objects to date to be launched directly into a solar escape trajectory were the New Horizons spacecraft, its third stage, and the two de-spin masses. The New Horizons Centaur (second) stage is not escaping; it is in a 2.83-year heliocentric (solar) orbit.
In order to leave the Solar System, the probe needs to reach the escape velocity. After leaving Earth, the Sun's escape velocity is 42.1 km/s. In order to reach this speed, it is highly advantageous to utilize the orbital speed of the Earth around the Sun, which is 29.78 km/s. By passing near a planet, a probe can gain extra speed.
On January 19, 2006 the New Horizons spacecraft to Pluto was launched directly into a solar-escape trajectory at 16.26 kilometers per second (58,536 km/h; 36,373 mph) from Cape Canaveral using an Atlas V version with 5 of the AJ-60A SRBs and the Common Core Booster, Centaur upper stage, and Star 48B third stage . New Horizons passed the Moon's orbit in just nine hours.
Propulsive units for New Horizons which was launched directly to a solar escape velocity from Earth.
- Atlas V
- Common Core Booster (first stage)
- AJ-60A (strap on boosters)
- Centaur upper stage
- Star 48B
- New Horizon's spacecraft thrusters.
- 77 kilograms (170 pounds) of hydrazine feeding four 4.4 newton (1 lb thrusters) and twelve 0.8 newtons (about 3 ounces) (16 thrusters total)
Some have conjectured that some nuclear explosions may have accelerated debris to escape velocity, possible sending man-made debris out of the solar system.
- List of artificial objects in heliocentric orbit
- List of artificial objects on extra-terrestrial surfaces
- Deliberate crash landings on extraterrestrial bodies
- Oberth effect
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