List of artificial objects on extraterrestrial surfaces

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This is a partial list of artificial objects left on extraterrestrial surfaces.

Artificial objects on Venus[edit]

Artificial objects on the Moon[edit]

Artificial objects on Mars[edit]

Artificial objects on other extraterrestrial bodies[edit]

Surface Object Mass Owner Landing Location Ref.
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Philae 100 kg (220 lb) EuropeGermany ESA/DLR 12 November 2014 "Abydos"
Rosetta 1,230 kg (2,710 lb) Europe ESA 30 September 2016 "Sais"
433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker 487 kg (1,074 lb) United States NASA/APL 12 February 2001 South of Himeros crater [1]
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa target marker 0.6 kg (1.3 lb)[citation needed] Japan JAXA 20 November 2005 Muses Sea [2]
Mercury MESSENGER 1,108 kg (2,443 lb) United States NASA/APL 30 April 2015 Suisei Planitia
162173 Ryugu MASCOT 9.6 kg (21 lb) FranceGermany CNES/DLR 3 October 2018 Alice's Wonderland [3][4][5]
MINERVA-II Rover-1A 1.1 kg (2.4 lb) Japan JAXA 21 September 2018 Tritonis [6][7][5]
MINERVA-II Rover-1B 1.1 kg (2.4 lb)
MINERVA-II Rover-2 1.0 kg (2.2 lb) October 2019 Unknown [8][9]
Hayabusa2 Small Carry-on Impactor 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) 5 April 2019 "C01" [10][11]
Hayabusa2 Deployable Camera 3 2.0 kg (4.4 lb) April 2019 Unknown [12]
Hayabusa2 Target Marker B 0.3 kg (0.66 lb) 25 October 2018 "L08" [13]
Hayabusa2 Target Marker A 0.3 kg (0.66 lb) 30 May 2019 "S01" [11]
Hayabusa2 Target Marker E 0.3 kg (0.66 lb) September 2019 Unknown [14]
Hayabusa2 Target Marker C 0.3 kg (0.66 lb) September 2019 Unknown [14]
9P/Tempel Deep Impact impactor 372 kg (820 lb) United States NASA/JPL 4 July 2005
Titan Huygens lander 319 kg (703 lb) Europe ESA 14 January 2005 Northeast of Adiri [15][16]
Huygens heat shield Unknown
Huygens parachute Unknown
Dimorphos Double Asteroid Redirection Test impactor 570 kg (1,260 lb) United States NASA/JHUAPL 26 September 2022

Estimated total masses of objects[edit]

Surface Total estimated mass of objects (kg) Total estimated local weight of objects (N)
Churyumov–Gerasimenko 100 ?
Eros 487 ?
Itokawa 0.591 ?
Jupiter 2,564 59,400
Mars 10,240 37,833
Mercury 507.9 1,881
The Moon 189,344 308,025
Ryugu 18.5 ?
Tempel 1 370 2.5
Titan 319 372
Venus 22,642 201,256
Dimorphos 570 ?
Total 227,156 608,770+

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Spaceflight Now staff (28 February 2001). "NEAR Shoemaker phones home for the last time". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 7 December 2018. NEAR Shoemaker now rests silently just to the south of the saddle-shaped feature Himeros...
  2. ^ Rayl, A.J.S. (21 November 2005). "Hayabusa Does Not Land on Asteroid in First Attempt, But Successfully Delivers Target Marker". The Planetary Society. Archived from the original on 21 June 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2018. ...Sunday, November 20 (JST) JAXA received the signal that Hayabusa had carried out its task successfully [...] the target marker landed about six and a half minutes after it left Hayabusa, settling down just as planned in the nice flat region that the team dubbed Muses Sea...
  3. ^ Wall, Mike (23 August 2018). "Landing Site on Asteroid Ryugu Chosen for Japan's Hayabusa2 Mission". Space.com. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018. The Hayabusa2 spacecraft's Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT) will land at a site in the asteroid Ryugu's southern hemisphere dubbed MA-9...
  4. ^ Nowakowski, Tomasz (5 October 2018). "European MASCOT spacecraft successfully lands on asteroid Ryugu". Spaceflight Insider. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018. A small European spacecraft, known as the Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT), successfully landed on asteroid Ryugu on Wednesday, Oct. 3 [...] MASCOT weighs some 21 lbs. (9.6 kilograms)...
  5. ^ a b "Correction to the name of the MINERVA-II1 landing site". JAXA. 1 February 2019.
  6. ^ Lakdawalla, Emily (24 August 2018). "Hayabusa2 Team Announces Ryugu Landing Sites, Initial Science Survey Results". The Planetary Society. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018. "N6" marks the likely drop zone for MINERVA-II, which will deploy four microrovers.
  7. ^ ABC/Wires (24 September 2018). "Hayabusa 2: Japanese space agency makes history by landing two rovers on an asteroid". ABC News Australia. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018. The rovers, each with a diameter of 18cm, height of 7cm and weight of about 1.1kg, were released from the Hayabusa2 spacecraft on Friday.
  8. ^ The Downlink: Station Crew Home, Hayabusa2 Deploys Rover. Jason Davis, The Planetary Society. 4 October 2019.
  9. ^ @haya2e_jaxa (2 October 2019). "[MINERVA-II2] MINERVA-II2 is confirmed to have separated today (10/3) at 01:38 JST. The separation time was 00:57 J…" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  10. ^ "Approach to the 2nd touchdown–Part 3: To go or not to go–". JAXA. 8 July 2019.
  11. ^ a b "The Pinpoint Touchdown – Target Marker 1A (PPTD-TM1A) operation". JAXA. 5 May 2019.
  12. ^ Gough, Evan (16 July 2019). "Hayabusa 2 is the First Spacecraft to Sample the Inside of an Asteroid". Universe Today.
  13. ^ "The touchdown site". JAXA. 19 February 2019.
  14. ^ a b "Target marker separation operation". JAXA. 16 September 2019.
  15. ^ Cook, Jia-Rui C. (14 January 2010). "Land Ho! Huygens Plunged to Titan Surface 5 Years Ago". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018. The Huygens probe parachuted down to the surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan exactly five years ago on Jan. 14, 2005 [...] as it plunged through Titan's hazy atmosphere and landed near a region now known as Adiri.
  16. ^ NSSDCA staff (2005). "Huygens (NSSDCA/COSPAR ID: 1997-061C)". National Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA). Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018. Mass: 319 kg