List of artificial objects on extra-terrestrial surfaces

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Artificial objects by planet or moon[edit]

Mars Hubble.jpg List of artificial objects on Mars

Moon-Mdf-2005.jpg List of artificial objects on the Moon

Venus globe.jpg List of artificial objects on Venus

Artificial objects on other Solar-System bodies[edit]

Objects that landed substantially intact[edit]

  • On the asteroid Eros, the NEAR Shoemaker probe touched down on the surface on 12 February 2001, although it had not been specifically designed for this purpose.
  • On Titan, a moon of Saturn, the Huygens probe from the Cassini–Huygens mission landed successfully on 14 January 2005. NASA steered the main spacecraft into Saturn's atmosphere after its mission ended to prevent the contamination of Titan's surface by any terrestrial microbes.
  • On the asteroid 25143 Itokawa, a target marker from the Hayabusa probe, which has a list of 880,000 names etched on it, was released to the surface on 19 November 2005.
  • On the asteroid Ryugu, the probe Hayabusa2 delivered three rovers. The first two, Rover-1A and Rover-1B, on 21 September 2018. Twelve days later, the German and French rover MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout) landed successfully. A fourth rover is expected to land on the asteroid in July 2019.

Objects destroyed on impact[edit]

  • The Galileo spacecraft released a 339-kg probe into Jupiter's atmosphere in 1995. During the parachute-assisted descent, contact with the probe was lost when it overheated. The probe melted in the following hours. The main spacecraft stayed in orbit around Jupiter until 2003 when it was deliberately sent into Jupiter's atmosphere by ground controllers as a measure to prevent forward-contamination of the moon Europa, which may have a subsurface ocean, by any terrestrial microbes and radioactive waste. Lacking its probe's heat shield, it disintegrated upon entry in Jupiter's atmosphere in a matter of seconds.
  • The MESSENGER probe was the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury. It exhausted all of its propellant after four years and crashed onto the surface of Mercury on April 30, 2015.

Estimated total masses of objects[edit]

Surface Total estimated mass of objects (kg)
Churyumov–Gerasimenko 100
Eros 487
Itokawa 0.591
Jupiter 2,564
Mars 9,303
Mercury 507.9
The Moon 180,244
Ryugu 11.8
Tempel 1 370
Titan 319
Venus 22,642
Total 216,549


See also[edit]