List of artistic depictions of Mahatma Gandhi

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Mahatma Gandhi as photographed in London in 1931.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a key Indian independence movement leader known for employing nonviolent resistance against British Rule to successfully lead the campaign. He was the pioneer of Satyagraha — the resistance of alleged tyranny through mass civil disobedience, firmly founded upon ahimsa or total nonviolence — which inspired movements for civil rights and freedom around the world. Gandhi is commonly known in India and around the world with the honorific Mahatma Gandhi (Sanskrit: महात्मा mahātmā — "Great Soul") and as Bapu (Gujarati: બાપુ bāpu — "Father"). In India, he is recognised as the Father of the Nation by all Indians and 2 October, his birthday, is commemorated each year on Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday.

Currency and stamps[edit]

In 1996, the Government of India introduced the Mahatma Gandhi series of currency notes in rupees 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 denomination. Today, all the currency notes in circulation in India contain a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi. In 1969, the United Kingdom issued a series of stamps commemorating the centenary of Mahatma Gandhi.

There have been approximately 250 stamps issued bearing Gandhi's image from 80 different countries worldwide.[1]

Film[edit]

Literature[edit]

Memorials, paintings, sculptures, and statues[edit]

Mahatma Gandhi wax statue

There have been numerous memorials to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. In New Delhi, Gandhi Smriti, or Birla House, the home of Ghanshyam Das Birla, where Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948, was acquired by the Government of India in 1971 and opened to the public in 1973 as the Gandhi Smriti or "Gandhi Remembrance". It preserves the room where Mahatma Gandhi lived the last four months of his life and the grounds where he was shot while holding his nightly public walk. A Martyr's Column now marks the place where Mohandas Gandhi was assassinated.

In 1988, India donated a bust of Gandhi to the city of Burgos, Spain, which is located in a park.[7] The city of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa—where Gandhi was ejected from a first-class train in 1893—now hosts a commemorative statue that was unveiled during the 2003 Cricket World Cup by the Indian team led by captain Saurav Ganguly. In the United Kingdom, there are several prominent statues of Gandhi, most notably two in London: one in Tavistock Square near University College London where he studied law, and another in Parliament Square. 30 January is commemorated in the United Kingdom as the "National Gandhi Remembrance Day."

In the United States, there is a statue of Gandhi outside the Union Square Park in New York City, and the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site in Atlanta, and a Mahatma Gandhi Memorial on Massachusetts Avenue in Washington, D.C., near the Indian Embassy. There is a Gandhi statue in San Francisco Embarcadero Neighborhood. In 2009, a statue of Gandhi was installed outside the Bellevue Library in Washington state.[8] There are wax statues of Gandhi at the Madame Tussaud's wax museums in London, New York, and other cities around the world.

Józef Gosławski designed a caricature of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in 1932, which was cast in bronze in 2007.

Gandhi's Three Monkeys is a series of sculptures created by Indian artist Subodh Gupta. The sculptures recall a visual metaphor from Gandhi, of the "Three wise monkeys", representing the principle "see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil".[9]

In 2010, realist painter Gopal Swami Khetanchi depicted Gandhi's dream of an independent India in his exhibition titled Gandhigiri. The exhibition displayed twenty-one artworks depicting an elderly Gandhi with other elements and figures complementing or countering the discourse.[10][11][12][13][14]

In November 2017, the Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi unveiled a statue of Gandhi at the Roma Street Parkland in Brisbane, Australia. The statue was sculpted by Ram V. Sutar and Anil Sutar.[15] On 22 November 2018, President of India Ramnath Kovind unveiled a statue of Mahatma Gandhi in Parramatta, Sydney, Australia.[16][17]

In 2018, a statue of Gandhi at the University of Ghana, erected in 2016, was removed, "after protests from students and faculty who argue the Indian independence leader considered Africans 'inferior'.... Campaigners in Malawi are trying to stop another Gandhi statue from being erected in the capital Blantyre."[18]

In 2019, the fifth statue of Gandhi in the United Kingdom was unveiled at Manchester Cathedral. The statue weighing 800 kg and measuring 9 feet was a gift from Shrimad Rajchandra Mission Dharampur, a worldwide spiritual organization. It was unveiled by the mayor of Manchester and Pujya Gurudevshri Rakeshbhai along with several guests as a symbol of peace and compassion, post the 2017 incidents that shocked Manchester Arena.[19][20][21]

Music videos[edit]

Television[edit]

  • 2002-03: Gandhi is a main character in the animated series Clone High.
  • 2004:"One World: Telecom Italia 'Gandhi' ": An award-winning television commercial produced by Y&R, Italy and directed by Spike Lee. It depicts Gandhi broadcasting a speech during World War II, reaching audiences through the use of digital technology.[26][27]

Theater[edit]

Video games[edit]

Civilization[edit]

In the Civilization Turn-based strategy series (1991–present), Gandhi appears as the leader of the Indian civilisation starting from the first game in the series Civilization (1996) and all other games in the series excluding spin-offs.

If the player is not playing as the Indian civilisation, the computer makes Gandhi act in much the same way as real life (i.e. peaceful)[36] and will not attack other civilisations unless attacked himself.[37] As part of the series, the technology tree in the games allow both the player's own civilisation and others controlled by the computer to discover nuclear energy and subsequently develop nuclear weapons.

From the first game in the series up to and including Civilization IV (2005), Gandhi does use the weapons during a war (which by his very nature is strictly a defensive war) but not any more than any other peaceful leader (such as Abraham Lincoln, leader of the American civilisation) although it was perceived.[36][37][38][39]

Starting from Civilization V (2010) onwards, a new feature by programmer Jon Shafer was added as a joke where once Gandhi gains nuclear weapons, he will bomb neighbouring civilisation and the player's own.[39] The joke was that Gandhi is famous for his strict adherence to the principle of non-violence and so it would be extremely uncharacteristic of Gandhi to start a war, especially a nuclear war, leading to internet memes about a so-called "Nuclear Gandhi".[39]

Over time, it became a popular misconception that a glitch in the first game and/or the second game, Civilization II (1996) turned Gandhi into a nuclear warmonger under such circumstances. Supposedly, the glitch was caused by an integer overflow error whereby Gandhi's aggression level was set to "1" (the lowest level) and if it lowered again, instead of the non-existent "0", it would instead lower to "255" (the highest level) and make Gandhi very aggressive.

In 2020, the first game's creator, Sid Meier stated that no such glitch was in the first Civilization and the game was not programmed in such a manner as the first game used the programing language C and the second game used C++. In both, those programing languages, all integer variables are signed by default making such a glitch impossible.[38][39]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Most Visible Indian in the World of Stamps Archived 20 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ O'Neil, Sean (23 March 2015). "We got it all on UHF: An oral history of "Weird Al" Yankovic's cult classic". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  3. ^ Jha, Subhash (19 March 2007). "'I'm pleased with Hirani's Gandhigiri,' says Gandhi's grandson". IANS. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2007.
  4. ^ Kolappan, B. (18 December 2011). "Anna Hazare watches film on Gandhi". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  5. ^ "Om Puri shoots 'Gandhigiri' in Lucknow". 11 May 2015.
  6. ^ Shyam, Kumar (29 January 2019). "'India has a love hate relationship with Gandhi': 'The Gandhi Murder' filmmakers talk to us as movie's release in India cancelled". The National. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  7. ^ Gandhi en Burgos ABC, 12 March 2007
  8. ^ Long, Katherine (16 October 2009). "Gandhi's statue a rare gift in recognition of Bellevue-India ties". The Seattle Times.
  9. ^ "Gandhi's Three Monkeys get a different rendition". The Peninsula. 28 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
  10. ^ Pant, Garima (27 September 2010). "Gandhigiri framed". The Financial Express. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  11. ^ Gupta, Gargi (2 October 2010). "Father figure". Business Standard. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  12. ^ Sanyal, Amitava (25 September 2010). "In the name of the father". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  13. ^ Kalra, Vandana (2 October 2010). "Mark of the Mahatma". The Indian Express. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  14. ^ Ceciu, Ramona L. (2013). "Fiction, Film, Painting, and Comparative Literature". Clcweb: Comparative Literature and Culture. Purdue University Press. 15 (6). doi:10.7771/1481-4374.2360. ISSN 1481-4374. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  15. ^ Moore, Tony (16 November 2014). "Indian PM Narendra Modi unveils Gandhi statue". Brisbane Times.
  16. ^ "President unveils Mahatma Gandhi's bronze statue in Australia". The Pioneer.
  17. ^ "Prez Kovind emphasizes on need to strengthen business relation between Australia & India". newsonair.com.
  18. ^ Safi, Michael (14 December 2018). "'Racist' Gandhi statue removed from University of Ghana". The Guardian.
  19. ^ "Manchester Mahatma Gandhi statue unveiled". BBC. BBC. 25 November 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  20. ^ Maidment, Adam (25 November 2019). "All-singing, all-dancing ceremony as Manchester's Mahatma Gandhi statue unveiled". No. 25 Nov 2019. M.E.N. Media. Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  21. ^ Mudgal, Sparsh (26 November 2019). "A 9-Ft High Statue of Mahatma Gandhi Unveiled in Manchester UK As Symbol of Strength & Unity". ScoopWhoop. ScoopWhoop Media Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  22. ^ Shyamhari Chakra (3 October 2007). "Tributes through songs". The Hindu.
  23. ^ "MC Yogi Debuts "Be The Change" Music Video Celebrating Ghandi's Life + Legacy". PRWeb. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  24. ^ Yogi, MC (3 October 2012). "Happy Birthday to A Real Super Hero: Mahatma Gandhi". Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
  25. ^ "Top 10 Epic Rap Battles of History". Archived from the original on 29 June 2013.
  26. ^ CGSociety (28 September 2004). "Spike Lee and Framestore CFC Team Up for Telecom Italia Spot". Archived from the original on 17 January 2006. Youtube clip
  27. ^ Adforum: Epica Awards 2004
  28. ^ a b c d Phukan, Vikram (19 August 2016). "Gandhi: a stage favourite". Mint. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  29. ^ "It's fashionable to be anti-Gandhi". DNA. 1 October 2005. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  30. ^ Dutt, Devina (20 February 2009). "Drama king". Live Mint. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  31. ^ World: South Asia Gandhi play banned
  32. ^ Ahmed, Afshan (5 January 2016). "Manoj Shah's new play discovers the early days of Gandhi, the legend". The National. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  33. ^ "Yugpurush". Yugpurush. Shrimad Rajchandra Mission Dharampur. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  34. ^ "Play looks at a scholar who shaped Mahatma Gandhi's spiritual journey". The Times of India. Times News Network. Archived from the original on 22 November 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  35. ^ Phukan, Vikram (3 October 2021). "Beyond Mahatma: Gandhi on the international stage has a less unimpeachable aura". News9Live. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  36. ^ a b "Sid Meier says Civilization's nuclear Gandhi bug isn't real".
  37. ^ a b "Почему история о баге с "ядерным Ганди" в Civilization, скорее всего, выдумана — Игры на DTF". 5 September 2019.
  38. ^ a b Meier, Sid (2020). "Funny Business". Sid Meier's Memoir!: A Life in Computer Games. W. W. Norton. pp. 261–266. ISBN 978-1-324-00587-2.
  39. ^ a b c d "Overclockers.ru: "Разрушитель миров" Ганди возглавляет Индию в Civilization VI".