List of assassinated and executed heads of state and government

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Many notable Head of Governments and States whose deaths have resulted from assassination or execution.

This list considers only incumbent Head of State or Government. The list is chronological.

List[edit]

Target Title Date Place Country Assassin or other entity
Philip II King of Macedon October 30, 336 BC Aigai Vergina Sun - Golden Larnax.png Macedonia Pausanias of Orestis (personal bodyguard)
Julius Caesar Dictator of Rome March 15, 44 BC Rome  Roman Republic Liberatores
Caligula Emperor of Rome 24 January 41 Rome  Roman Empire Praetorian Guard
Claudius Emperor of Rome 13 October 54 Rome  Roman Empire Agrippina the Younger
Qutuz Sultan of Egypt 24 October 1260 Salihiyah [ar] Mameluke Flag.svg Mamluk Sultanate Baibars
Murad I Sultan of The Ottoman Empire 28 June 1389 Kosovo Field District of Branković Lazar Hrebeljanović
Henry III King of France 1 August 1589 Saint-Cloud Flag of France (XII-XIII).svg France Jacques Clément
Henry IV King of France 14 May 1610 Paris Flag of France (XII-XIII).svg France François Ravaillac
Charles I King of England 30 January 1649 London  England Rump Parliament
Nader Shah Shah of Iran 20 June 1747 Quchan Nader Shah Flag.svg Persia Salah Bey
Peter III Czar of Russia 17 July 1762 Ropsha  Russian Empire Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov
Gustav III King of Sweden 16 March 1792 Stockholm  Sweden Jacob Johan Anckarström
Louis XVI King of France 21 January 1793 Paris  France French Revolution
Paul I Czar of Russia 23 March 1801 St. Petersburg  Russian Empire Peter Ludwig von der Pahlen, Nikita Petrovich Panin, José de Ribas, Vladimir Mikhailovich Yashvil and Nikolay Zubov
Jean-Jacques Dessalines Emperor of Haiti 17 October 1806 Pont Rouge  Haiti unknown
Spencer Perceval Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 11 May 1812 Westminster  United Kingdom John Bellingham
Pedro Blanco Soto President of Bolivia 1 January 1829 Sucre  Bolivia unknown
Ioannis Kapodistrias Governor of the Hellenic State 9 October 1831 Nafplion  Greece Konstantis and Georgios Mavromichalis
Felipe Santiago Salaverry President of Peru 18 February 1836 Arequipa  Peru Andrés de Santa Cruz
Charles III Duke of Parma 26 March 1854 Parma  Duchy of Parma Unknown
Danilo I Prince of Montenegro 13 August 1860 Kotor  Montenegro Todor Kadić
José Santos Guardiola President of Honduras 11 January 1862 Comayagua  Honduras personal body guard
Barbu Catargiu Prime Minister of Romania 20 June 1862 Bucharest  Romania unknown
Abraham Lincoln President of the United States 14 April 1865
(d. 15 April 1865)
Washington, D.C.  United States John Wilkes Booth
Maximilian I Emperor of Mexico 19 June 1867 Santiago de Querétaro  Mexico
Venancio Flores President of Uruguay 19 February 1868 Montevideo  Uruguay unknown assailants, presumably of Blanco political faction
Juan Prim Prime Minister of Spain 30 December 1870 Madrid  Spain unknown
Tomás Gutiérrez President of Peru July 26, 1872 Lima  Peru Military coup d'état
Gabriel García Moreno President of Ecuador 6 August 1875 Quito  Ecuador Faustino Rayo
Juan Bautista Gill President of Paraguay 12 April 1877 Villarrica  Paraguay Nicanor Silvano Godoi
Alexander II Czar of Russia 13 March 1881 St. Petersburg  Russian Empire Narodnaya Volya
James A. Garfield President of the United States 2 July 1881
(d. 19 September 1881)
Washington, D.C.  United States Charles J. Guiteau
Ranodip Singh Kunwar Prime Minister of Nepal 22 November 1885 Kathmandu    Nepal Khadga Shumsher, Chandra Shumsher, and Dambar Shumsher
Mihailo III Prince of Serbia 10 June 1868 Belgrade  Serbia Pavle Radovanović, Kosta Radovanović
Marie François Sadi Carnot President of France 24 June 1894 Lyon  France Sante Geronimo Caserio
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar Shah of Persia 1 May 1896 Tehran  Iran Mirza Reza Kermani
Antonio Cánovas del Castillo Prime Minister of Spain 8 August 1897 Mondragón  Spain Michele Angiolillo
Juan Idiarte Borda President of Uruguay 25 August 1897 Montevideo  Uruguay Avelino Arredondo
José María Reina Barrios President of Guatemala 8 February 1898 Ciudad de Guatemala  Guatemala Edgar Zollinger
Ulises Heureaux President of the Dominican Republic 26 July 1899 Moca  Dominican Republic Ramón Cáceres
Umberto I King of Italy 29 July 1900 Monza  Italy Gaetano Bresci
William McKinley President of the United States 6 September 1901
(d. 14 September 1901)
Buffalo, New York  United States Leon Czolgosz
Alexander I King of Serbia 11 June 1903 Belgrade  Serbia May Overthrow
Dimitar Petkov Prime Minister of Bulgaria 11 March 1907 Sofia  Bulgaria anarchist
Carlos I King of Portugal 1 February 1908 Lisbon  Portugal Alfredo Luís da Costa and Manuel Buíça
Itō Hirobumi Prime Minister of Japan 26 October 1909 Harbin  China An Jung-geun
Boutros Ghali Prime Minister of Egypt 21 February 1910 Cairo  Egypt Watani Party member
Pyotr Stolypin Prime Minister of Russia 18 September 1911 Kiev  Russian Empire Dmitry Bogrov
Ramón Cáceres President of the Dominican Republic November 19, 1911 Santo Domingo  Dominican Republic rebels
José Canalejas Prime Minister of Spain 12 November 1912 Madrid  Spain Manuel Pardiñas
Manuel Enrique Araujo President of El Salvador 9 February 1913 San Salvador  El Salvador Mulatilo Virgilio, Fermin Perez and Fabian Graciano
Francisco I. Madero President of Mexico 22 February 1913 Mexico City  Mexico Francisco Cárdenas
George I King of Greece 18 March 1913 Thessaloniki  Greece Alexandros Schinas
Oreste Zamor President of Haiti July 27, 1915 Port-au-Prince  Haiti Vilbrun Guillaume Sam
Nicholas II Czar of Russia 17 July 1918 Yekaterinburg  Russian SFSR Yakov Yurovsky
Sidónio Pais President of Portugal 14 December 1918 Lisbon  Portugal José Júlio da Costa
Venustiano Carranza President of Mexico 21 May 1920 Tlaxcalantongo  Mexico Rodolfo Herrero
Eduardo Dato Prime Minister of Spain March 8, 1921 Madrid  Spain Lluís Nicolau, Pere Mateu, Ramon Casanelles
Hara Takashi Prime Minister of Japan 4 November 1921 Tokyo  Japan Nakaoka Kon'ichi
Nikolaos Stratos Prime Minister of Greece 15 November 1922 Athens  Greece Coup
Petros Protopapadakis Prime Minister of Greece 15 November 1922 Athens  Greece Coup
Gabriel Narutowicz President of Poland 16 December 1922 Warsaw  Poland Eligiusz Niewiadomski
Aleksandar Stamboliyski Prime Minister of Bulgaria 14 June 1923 Slavovitsa  Bulgaria Military coup d'état
Paul Doumer President of France 7 May 1932 Paris  France Paul Gorguloff
Inukai Tsuyoshi Prime Minister of Japan 15 May 1932 Tokyo  Japan May 15 Incident
Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro President of Peru April 30, 1933 Lima  Peru Abelardo de Mendoza
Mohammed Nadir Shah King of Afghanistan 8 November 1933 Kabul  Afghanistan Abdul Khaliq Hazara
Ion G. Duca Prime Minister of Romania December 30, 1933 Sinaia  Romania Nicolae Constantinescu
Kurt von Schleicher Chancellor of Germany 30 June 1934 Potsdam-Babelsberg  Nazi Germany Johannes Schmidt
Engelbert Dollfuss Chancellor of Austria July 25, 1934 Vienna  Austria July Putsch
Alexander I King of Yugoslavia 9 October 1934 Marseille  France Vlado Chernozemski
Louis Barthou Prime Minister of France
Armand Călinescu Prime Minister of Romania 21 September 1939 Bucharest  Romania Iron Guard members
Ahmad Mahir Pasha Prime Minister of Egypt 24 February 1945 Cairo  Egypt Mahmoud Elessawy
Benito Mussolini Prime Minister of Italy 28 April 1945 Giulino di Mezzegra  Italy Italian resistance movement
Gualberto Villarroel President of Bolivia 21 July 1946 La Paz  Bolivia organized mob
Mahmoud El Nokrashy Pasha Prime Minister of Egypt 28 December 1948 Cairo  Egypt Abdel Meguid Ahmed Hassan
Abdolhossein Hazhir Prime Minister of Iran 5 November 1949 Tehran  Iran Fada'iyan-e Islam
Husni al-Za'im President of Syria 14 August 1949 Damascus  Syria Coup
Muhsin al-Barazi Prime Minister of Syria
Carlos Delgado Chalbaud President of Venezuela 13 November 1950 Caracas  Venezuela Rafael Simon Urbina and Domingo Urbina.
Haj Ali Razmara Prime Minister of Iran March 7, 1951 Tehran  Iran Fada'iyan-e Islam
Riad Al Solh Prime Minister of Lebanon 17 July 1951 Amman  Jordan member of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party
Abdullah I King of Jordan 20 July 1951 East Jerusalem Mustapha Shukari Usho
Liaquat Ali Khan Prime Minister of Pakistan 16 October 1951 Rawalpindi  Pakistan Saad Akbar Babrak
José Antonio Remón Cantera President of Panama 2 January 1955 Panama City  Panama unknown
Anastasio Somoza García President of Nicaragua 21 September 1956 León  Nicaragua Rigoberto López Pérez
Carlos Castillo Armas President of Guatemala 26 July 1957 Guatemala City  Guatemala Romeo Vásquez Sánchez
Ibrahim Hashem Prime Minister of Jordan 14 June 1958 Baghdad Flag of Iraq (1924–1959).svg Iraq Revolutionaries
Faisal II King of Iraq 14 July 1958 Military coup d'état
Nuri al-Said Prime Minister of Iraq 15 July 1958 Baghdad  Iraq
S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike Prime Minister of Ceylon 26 September 1959 Colombo  Ceylon Talduwe Somarama
Abebe Aregai Prime Minister of Ethiopia 17 December 1960 Addis Ababa  Ethiopia Failed Military coup d'état
Hazza' al-Majali Prime Minister of Jordan 29 August 1960 Amman  Jordan bomb explosion
Rafael Trujillo President of the Dominican Republic 30 May 1961 Ciudad Trujillo  Dominican Republic Juan Tomás Díaz, Antonio de la Maza, Amado García Guerrero, Antonio Imbert Barrera
Prince Louis Rwagasore Prime Minister of Burundi 13 October 1961 Bujumbura Belgium Ruanda-Urundi Jean (Ioannis) Kageorgis
Sylvanus Olympio President of Togo January 13, 1963 Lomé  Togo Military coup d'état
Abd al-Karim Qasim Prime Minister of Iraq 9 February 1963 Baghdad  Iraq Military coup d'état
Ngo Dinh Diem President of the Republic of Vietnam 2 November 1963 Saigon  South Vietnam Military coup d'état
John F. Kennedy President of the United States November 22, 1963 Dallas  United States Lee Harvey Oswald
Jigme Palden Dorji Prime Minister of Bhutan 6 April 1964 Phuntsoling  Bhutan Royal Bhutan Army
Hassan Ali Mansur Prime Minister of Iran 27 January 1965 Tehran  Iran Fada'iyan-e Islam
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa Prime Minister of Nigeria 15 January 1966 Lagos  Nigeria Military coup d'état
Hendrik Verwoerd Prime Minister of South Africa 6 September 1966 Cape Town  South Africa Dimitri Tsafendas
Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Head of State of Nigeria 29 July 1966 Lalupon  Nigeria Military coup d'état
Abdirashid Ali Shermarke President of Somalia October 15, 1969 Las Anod  Somalia personal bodyguards
Wasfi al-Tal Prime Minister of Jordan 28 November 1971 Cairo  Egypt Black September
Luis Carrero Blanco Prime Minister of Spain 20 December 1973 Madrid  Spain ETA
Richard Ratsimandrava President of Madagascar 11 February 1975 Antananarivo  Madagascar Republican Security Forces
Faisal I King of Saudi Arabia 25 March 1975 Riyadh  Saudi Arabia Faisal bin Musaid
François Tombalbaye President of Chad April 13, 1975 N'Djamena  Chad Military coup d'état
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman President of Bangladesh 15 August 1975 Dhaka  Bangladesh Bangladesh Army
Long Boret Prime Minister of Cambodia 17 April 1975 Phnom Penh  Cambodia Execution by shooting
Murtala Mohammed Head of State of Nigeria February 13, 1976 Lagos  Nigeria Buka Suka Dimka
Marien Ngouabi President of the Republic of Congo March 18, 1977 Brazzaville  Congo suicide commando
Ibrahim al-Hamdi President of North Yemen 11 October 1977 Sana'a  North Yemen unknown
Mohammed Daoud Khan President of Afghanistan 28 April 1978 Kabul  Afghanistan Saur Revolution
Ali Soilih President of the Comoros May 29, 1978 Moroni  Comoros French Colonel Bob Denard
Ahmad al-Ghashmi President of North Yemen June 24, 1978 Sana'a  North Yemen Military coup d'état
Salim Rubai Ali Heads of state of Yemen 26 June 1978 Aden  South Yemen
Francisco Mendes Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau 7 July 1978 Bissau  Guinea-Bissau PAIGC dissitens
Nur Muhammad Taraki Prime Minister of Afghanistan 14 September 1979 Kabul  Afghanistan Military coup d'état
Park Chung-hee President of South Korea 26 October 1979 Seoul  South Korea Kim Jae-gyu (president's security chief)
Hafizullah Amin President of Afghanistan 27 December 1979 Kabul  Afghanistan Operation Storm-333
William R. Tolbert President of Liberia April 12, 1980 Monrovia  Liberia Military coup d'état
Sultan Ibraimov Prime Ministers of Kyrgyzstan 4 December 1980 Cholpon Ata  Soviet Union KGB (suspected)
Ziaur Rahman President of Bangladesh 30 May 1981 Chittagong  Bangladesh faction of officers of Bangladesh Army
Mohammad-Javad Bahonar Prime Minister of Iran 30 August 1981 Tehran  Iran People's Mujahedin of Iran
Mohammad-Ali Rajai President of Iran 30 August 1981 Tehran  Iran People's Mujahedin of Iran
Anwar Sadat President of Egypt 6 October 1981 Cairo  Egypt Khalid Islambouli
Maurice Bishop Prime Minister of Grenada 19 October 1983 St. George's  Grenada coup
Indira Gandhi Prime Minister of India 31 October 1984 New Delhi  India Satwant Singh and Beant Singh (personal bodyguards)
Haruo Remeliik President of Palau 30 June 1985 Koror  Palau unknown
Olof Palme Prime Minister of Sweden 28 February 1986 Stockholm  Sweden unknown
Thomas Sankara President of Burkina Faso 15 October 1987 Ouagadougou  Burkina Faso Blaise Compaoré
René Moawad President of Lebanon November 22, 1989 Beirut  Lebanon car bomb
Ahmed Abdallah President of the Comoros 26 November 1989 Moroni  Comoros coup
Nicolae Ceaușescu President of Romania 25 December 1989 Târgoviște  Romania National Salvation Front
Samuel Doe President of Liberia September 9, 1990 Monrovia  Liberia Prince Y. Johnson
Rajiv Gandhi Prime Minister of India 21 May 1991 Sriperumbudur  India Dhannu (militant, LTTE)
Mohamed Boudiaf President of Algeria June 29, 1992 Annaba  Algeria Lambarek Boumaarafi
Ranasinghe Premadasa President of Sri Lanka 1 May 1993 Colombo  Sri Lanka LTTE
Melchior Ndadaye President of Burundi 21 October 1993 Bujumbura  Burundi Military coup d'état
Juvénal Habyarimana President of Rwanda 6 April 1994 Kigali  Rwanda Presidential aircraft shootdown
Cyprien Ntaryamira President of Burundi 6 April 1994 Kigali  Rwanda Presidential aircraft shootdown
Agathe Uwilingiyimana Prime Minister of Rwanda 7 April 1994 Kigali  Rwanda Rwandan Armed Forces
Yitzhak Rabin Prime Minister of Israel 4 November 1995 Tel Aviv  Israel Yigal Amir
Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara President of Niger 9 April 1999 Niamey  Niger Military coup d'état
Vazgen Sargsyan Prime Minister of Armenia 27 October 1999 Yerevan  Armenia Nairi Hunanyan
Laurent-Désiré Kabila President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo 16 January 2001 Kinshasa  Congo, Democratic Republic of the Rashidi Muzele
Zoran Đinđić Prime Minister of Serbia 12 March 2003 Belgrade  Serbia and Montenegro Zvezdan Jovanović
João Bernardo Vieira President of Guinea-Bissau 2 March 2009 Bissau  Guinea-Bissau Armed Forces of Guinea-Bissau
Muammar Gaddafi Leader of Libya 20 October 2011 Sirte  Libya National Transitional Council forces

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]