List of assassinations

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This is a list of assassinations, sorted by location.

For the purposes of this article, an assassination is defined as the deliberate, premeditated murder of a prominent figure, often for religious or political reasons.



Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
117 BC Hiempsal, co-ruler of Numidia Hiempsal's death was ordered by his cousin, Jugurtha.
December 24, 1942 François Darlan, senior figure of Vichy France Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle
March 4, 1957 Larbi Ben M'Hidi, Algerian nationalist and FLN leader (not sure) Hanged by French Army officers under Paul Aussaresses; at the time, his death was passed off as a suicide.
March 23, 1957 Larbi Tbessi, Nationalist and Association of Algerian Muslim Ulema president Thrown from a building by French Army officers under Paul Aussaresses; at the time, his death was passed off as a suicide.
June 21, 1957 Maurice Audin, Pied-noir and PC militant
March 15, 1962 Mouloud Feraoun, writer Organisation armée secrète
February 3, 1987 Mustafa Bouyali, Islamic fundamentalist Ambushed by Algerian security services.
June 29, 1992 Mohamed Boudiaf, Chairman of High Council of State Lembarek Boumaârafi Shot at Annaba.[1]
June 2, 1993 Tahar Djaout, journalist, poet and author Killed by the Armed Islamic Group.
August 21, 1993 Kasdi Merbah, former Prime Minister of Algeria
March 10, 1994 Abdelkader Alloula, playwright Killed by two members of the Islamic Front for Armed Jihad.
September 29, 1994 Cheb Hasni, singer
September 28, 1995 Aboubakr Belkaid [fr], politician
May 21, 1996 Seven Trappist monks of Tibérine The monks were kidnapped by the Armed Islamic Group in March 1996, and reportedly executed on May 21; others claim that the monks were accidentally killed by the Algerian army. See Assassination of the monks of Tibhirine.
August 1, 1996 Pierre Lucien Claverie, Catholic bishop of Oran
December 3, 1994 Saïd Mekbel, journalist Assassinated with a car bomb in Aïn Bénian.
January 28, 1997 Abdelhak Benhamouda, trade unionist
June 25, 1998 Lounès Matoub, Berberist singer
November 22, 1999 Abdelkader Hachani, Islamic fundamentalist Fouad Boulemia, a member of the Armed Islamic Group, was convicted for Hachani's murder and sentenced to death, but was later released.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
November 2, 1992 Jeremias Chitunda, Vice President of UNITA Killed by government troops as part of the Halloween Massacre.
November 2, 1992 Elias Salupeto Pena, UNITA senior advisor Killed by government troops as part of the Halloween Massacre.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
June 20, 1975 Michel Aikpé, government minister

Burkina Faso[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
October 15, 1987 Thomas Sankara, Head of State of Burkina Faso Killed in a coup d'état organised by Blaise Compaoré.
December 13, 1998 Norbert Zongo, journalist


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
October 13, 1961 Louis Rwagasore, Prime Minister of Burundi Georges Kageorgis
January 15, 1965 Pierre Ngendandumwe, Prime Minister of Burundi[2]
September 30, 1965 Joseph Bamina, Prime Minister of Burundi
April 29, 1972 Ntare V Ndizeye, deposed King of Burundi
October 21, 1993 Melchior Ndadaye, President of Burundi, founder of the Burundi Workers' Party Overthrown and killed in a military coup.
March 11,1995 Ernest Kabushemeye, government minister
September 9,1996 Joachim Ruhuna, Roman Catholic archbishop of Gitega
November 20, 2001 Kassi Manlan, World Health Organization representative Murdered in a conspiracy after discovering that aid money was being diverted into private accounts.
January 1, 2017 Emmanuel Niyonkuru, Minister of Water and the Environment Assassinated in the early hours of January 1, 2017 in Bujumbura.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
September 13, 1958 Ruben Um Nyobé, leader of the Union of the Peoples of Cameroon

Central African Republic[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1996 Christophe Grelombe, government minister


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
April 13, 1975 François Tombalbaye, President of Chad
October 22, 1993 Abbas Koty, rebel leader


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
May 29, 1978 Ali Soilih, former President of Comoros
November 26, 1989 Ahmed Abdallah, President of Comoros Overthrown in a coup.
June 13, 2010 Combo Ayouba, army chief of staff and former interim head of state

Congo (Brazzaville)[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
March 18, 1977 Marien Ngouabi, President of the Congo Barthélemy Kikadidi and others Shot in Brazzaville.[3]
March 23,1977 Émile Cardinal Biayenda, Roman Catholic archbishop of Brazzaville
August 28, 2004 Angèle Bandou, former presidential candidate

Congo (Kinshasa)[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
January 17, 1961 Patrice Lumumba, former Prime Minister of the Congo[4] Executed by firing squad.
January 17, 1961 Maurice Mpolo, former Minister of Interior, and associate of Lumumba[3]
January 17, 1961 Joseph Okito, Senate Vice-President and associate of Lumumba[4]
May 6,1997 Mahele Lieko Bokungu, military figure
January 16, 2001 Laurent-Désiré Kabila, President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo[3] Rashidi Muzele, one of Kabila's bodyguards

Côte d'Ivoire[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
September 19,2002 Émile Boga Doudou, government minister


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
48 BC Pompey the Great, Roman general and politician Achillas, Lucius Septimius Salvius, and Julius Caesar
1121 Al-Afdal Shahanshah, vizier of Fatimid Egypt
1130 Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah, Fatimid Caliph
October 24, 1260 Qutuz, Mamluk sultan of Egypt
June 14, 1800 Jean Baptiste Kléber, French general Suleiman al-Halabi
February 20, 1910 Boutros Ghali, Prime Minister of Egypt Ibrahim Nassif al-Wardani
November 19, 1924 Sir Lee Stack, Governor-General of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
November 6, 1944 Walter Edward Guinness, Lord Moyne, the UK's Minister Resident in the Middle East Eliyahu Hakim, a member of Zionist group Lehi
February 24, 1945 Ahmed Maher Pasha, Prime Minister of Egypt[5] Mustafa Essawy
December 28, 1948 Mahmud Fahmi Nokrashi, Prime Minister of Egypt[6] Abdel Meguid Ahmed Hassan
February 12, 1949 Hassan al-Banna, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood
November 28, 1971 Wasfi al-Tal, Prime Minister of Jordan Shot by members of Black September during a visit to Cairo.[3]
October 6, 1981 Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt Khalid Islambouli Shot while reviewing a military parade;[3] see Assassination of Anwar El Sadat.
October 13, 1990 Rifaat al-Mahgoub, speaker of Egyptian parliament
June 8, 1992 Farag Foda, Egyptian politician and intellectual Islamist movement al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya claimed responsibility for the attack.

Equatorial Guinea[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1932 Gustavo de Sostoa y Sthamer, Spanish governor


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes



Ras Abebe Aragai, Prime Minister.

General Seare Mekonnen ,

Ethiopian Chief of army National Defense of Ethiopia.

Major General Gezae Abera, Assassinated together with General Seare

General Seare body guard.

The Gambia[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
December 16, 2004 Deyda Hydara, journalist


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1967 Emmanuel Kotoka, military figure


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
January 20, 1973 Amílcar Cabral, Pan-African intellectual Inocêncio Kani Killed in Conakry.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
March 1, 2009 Batista Tagme Na Waie, chief of staff of the army
March 2, 2009 João Bernardo Vieira, President of Guinea Bissau Shot by soldiers during armed attack on his residence in Bissau.
June 5, 2009 Baciro Dabó, government minister and independent presidential candidate
June 5, 2009 Helder Proença, former government minister


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
February 25, 1965 Pio Gama Pinto, socialist politician
July 5, 1969 Tom Mboya, Kenyan Minister of Economic Planning and politician[7]
1975 Josiah Mwangi Kariuki, Kenyan politician
1980 Joy Adamson, conservationist
1989 George Adamson, conservationist
February 1990 Robert Ouko, Foreign Minister of Kenya Disappeared on February 12–13; found dead on February 16.[8]
May 16, 1998 Seth Sendashonga, former interior minister of Rwanda
2000 John Anthony Kaiser, Roman Catholic priest
March 5, 2009 Oscar Kamau Kingara, human rights activist
March 5, 2009 John Paul Oulo, human rights activist


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
April 12, 1980 William R. Tolbert, Jr., President of Liberia Killed in military coup.[3]
September 1990 Samuel Doe, President of Liberia Tortured and killed on the orders of Prince Johnson.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
July 28, 2011 Abdul Fatah Younis, commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Libyan Republic Perpetrators unknown, possibly security guards or members of the Obaida Ibn Jarrah Brigade
October 20, 2011 Muammar Gaddafi, Libya's de facto head of state from 1969 to 2011 See Death of Muammar Gaddafi
September 12, 2012 J. Christopher Stevens, United States Ambassador


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
May 12, 1863 Radama II, King of Madagascar After Radama passed a controversial law allowing disputes to be settled by duelling, his palace was besieged on the orders of the Prime Minister, Rainivoninahitriniony. Radama was captured by soldiers and strangled with a silk sash; some historians believe he may have survived this attack and lived out the rest of his days in obscurity.
February 11, 1975 Richard Ratsimandrava, President of Madagascar Shot six days after taking power in military coup.[3]


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
February 3, 1915 John Chilembwe, anti-colonial leader


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1905 Xavier Coppolani, French governor


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1971 Ahmed Bahnini, former prime minister
1972 Mohamed Oufkir, government minister
1975 Omar Benjelloun, socialist politician Chabiba islamia


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
February 3, 1969 Eduardo Mondlane, leader of the independence FRELIMO movement
1982 Ruth First, South African communist
November 22, 2000 Carlos Cardoso, Mozambican journalist Shot while investigating allegations of corruption in Mozambique's largest bank. Nyimpine Chissano and Anibal dos Santos were charged with orchestrating the murder.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
March 27, 1978 Clemens Kapuuo, Herero chief and politician
September 12, 1989 Anton Lubowski, leading white SWAPO activist Shot in front of his home in central Windhoek, allegedly by members of the government's Civilian Co-Operation Bureau.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
April 9, 1999 Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara, President of Niger Ambushed by soldiers.[3]


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
January 15, 1966 Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Prime Minister of Nigeria Killed in a military coup.
January 15, 1966 Ahmadu Bello, Premier of Northern Nigeria Killed in a military coup.
January 15, 1966 Samuel Akintola, Premier of Western Nigeria Killed in a military coup.
1966 Festus Okotie-Eboh, government minister
July 29, 1966 Adekunle Fajuyi, Military Governor of Western Nigeria Killed in a coup led by Theophilus Danjuma.
July 29, 1966 Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, Head of State of Nigeria Killed in a coup led by Theophilus Danjuma.
February 13, 1976 Murtala Mohammed, Head of State of Nigeria[3] Killed in an attempted coup led by Buka Suka Dimka.
October 19, 1986 Dele Giwa, journalist
1996 Kudirat Abiola
December 23, 2001 Bola Ige, justice minister of Nigeria
October 16, 2011 Modu Bintube, Borno state legislator Suspected to have been killed by Boko Haram militants.[9]
July 2, 2016 Gideon Aremu, Oyo state legislator and lawmaker. Under investigation.[10]


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1896 King Mibambwe IV Rutarindwa
December 1985 Dian Fossey, primatologist
April 6, 1994 Juvénal Habyarimana, President of Rwanda, and Cyprien Ntaryamira, President of Burundi Plane carrying the two leaders shot down by unknown attackers with a surface-to-air missile. The attack was the catalyst for the Rwandan Genocide.[3] See Assassination of Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira.
April 7, 1994 Agathe Uwilingiyimana, Prime Minister of Rwanda Killed one day after the Rwandan Genocide began.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
February 3, 1967 Demba Diop, government minister and mayor Abdou N'Daffa Faye


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
October 15, 1969 Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, President of Somalia Shot by one of his bodyguards, possibly for personal – rather than political – reasons.
1989 Salvatore Colombo, Roman Catholic bishop of Mogadishu
July 28, 2006 Abdallah Isaaq Deerow, former acting President of Somalia
June 17, 2009 Ali Said, Mogadishu police chief
June 18, 2009 Omar Hashi Aden, security minister Killed in the 2009 Beledweyne bombing, for which Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility.
June 10, 2011 Abdishakur Sheikh Hassan Farah, interior minister Haboon Abdulkadir Hersi Qaaf, Farah's teenage niece Killed in a suicide bomb attack; Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility.

South Africa[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1828 Shaka, king of the Zulus Dingane and Mhlangana, Shaka's half-brothers
September 6, 1966 Hendrik Verwoerd, Prime Minister of South Africa[3] Dimitri Tsafendas Tsafendas, a parliamentary messenger, stabbed Verwoerd to death with a dagger in the House of Assembly due to his opposition to Verwoerd's policy of apartheid.
1977 Robert Smit
August 17, 1982 Ruth First, anti-apartheid scholar and wife of Communist party leader Joe Slovo Killed by a letter bomb; her death was ordered by Craig Williamson.
May 21, 1985 Vernon Nkadimeng, South African dissident
March 29, 1988 Dulcie September, head of the African National Congress in Paris
1989 David Webster, anthropologist Civil Cooperation Bureau
April 10, 1993 Chris Hani, leader of the South African Communist Party Janusz Walus Anti-Communist killing.
November 5, 1994 Johan Heyns, prominent leader in the Dutch Reformed Church
January 22, 2009 Mbongeleni Zondi, South African politician


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
March 2, 1973 Cleo A. Noel, Jr., US Chief of Mission, George Curtis Moore, Deputy Chief of Mission, and Guy Eid, Belgian chargé d'affaires[3] Taken hostage and assassinated by members of Black September; see Attack on the Saudi Embassy in Khartoum.
January 1, 2008 John Granville, diplomat for the United States Agency for International Development


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
April 1, 2008 Gabriel Mkhumane, political opposition leader


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1969 Eduardo Mondlane, founder of FRELIMO
April 7, 1972 Abeid Karume, 1st President of Zanzibar and 1st Vice President of Tanzania
1979 David Sibeko, black nationalist


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
January 13, 1963 Sylvanus Olympio, first president of independent Togo Killed in the 1963 Togolese coup d'état.[4]
July 29, 1992 Tavio Amorin, socialist leader Shot in Lomé on July 23, later died in a Paris hospital.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
April 16, 1988 Khalil al-Wazir, military leader of the PLO Shot by Israeli commandos in Tunis.[3]
January 14, 1991 Salah Khalaf, deputy leader of the PLO Killed in Tunis.
February 6, 2013 Chokri Belaid, Tunisian opposition leader
July 25, 2013 Mohamed Brahmi, Tunisian opposition leader


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
September 22, 1972 Benedicto Kiwanuka, Chief Justice of Uganda
February 17, 1977 Janani Luwum, Archbishop of Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Boga-Zaire from 1974 until 1977

Western Sahara[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1970 Mohamed Bassiri, Sahrawi leader and journalist "Disappeared" in June 1970, in El Aaiún; reportedly executed by the Spanish Legion.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
March 18, 1975 Herbert Chitepo, Zimbabwean nationalist leader Hugh Hind


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1896 Mlimo, the Ndebele religious leader Frederick Russell Burnham, British Army scout Mlimo's death effectively ended the Second Matabele War.[11]
1983 Attati Mpakati, Malawian dissident
May 2008 Tonderai Ndira, member of the Movement for Democratic Change

The Americas[edit]

Antigua and Barbuda[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1710 Daniel Parke, British governor of the Leeward Islands


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1828 Manuel Dorrego, Governor of Buenos Aires Province Juan Lavalle
1870 Justo José de Urquiza, former president of Argentina
1909 Ramón Falcón, chief of the National Police Simón Radowitzky Assassinated by anarchists as a retaliation for his brutal repression of workers.
1935 Enzo Bordabehere, National Senator for Santa Fe Province Ramón Valdez Cora Killed during a session of the Argentine Senate.
1970 Pedro Aramburu, former de facto president of Argentina Executed by the peronist guerrilla Montoneros in revenge for the abduction of Evita's body and for the execution of those implicated in a failed uprising fifteen years before, during Aramburu's dictatorship.
1974 Rodolfo Ortega Peña, National Deputy for Buenos Aires Province Argentine Anticommunist Alliance
1974 Carlos Prats, Chilean general, former Commander-in-chief of the Chilean Army Michael Townley Killed by the secret service of the Pinochet dictatorship, during his exile in Argentina.
1975 Hipólito Acuña, National Deputy for Santa Fe Province Montoneros
1975 Alberto Manuel Campos, mayor of General San Martín Partido Montoneros
1976 Zelmar Michelini, Uruguayan senator, founder of the Broad Front Exiled in Argentina as a result of the 1973 Uruguayan coup, he was killed after the 1976 Argentine coup, under the Operation Condor, which involved the collaboration between military dictatorships in the Southern Cone.
1976 Héctor Gutiérrez Ruiz, former speaker of the Uruguayan House of Representatives Killed alongside Zelmar Michelini, while exiled in Argentina.
1976 Juan José Torres, former military President of Bolivia Exiled in Argentina after his overthrow by Hugo Banzer. He was killed after the 1976 Argentine coup d'état, under the Operation Condor, which involved the collaboration between military dictatorships in the Southern Cone.
2012 Carlos Soria, Governor of Río Negro Province Susana Freydoz Killed by his wife.
2019 Héctor Enrique Olivares, National Deputy for La Rioja Province


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1973 Richard Sharples, Governor of Bermuda Erskine "Buck" Burrows and Larry Tacklyn Shot outside Bermuda's Government House. Sharples's aide-de-camp Captain Hugh Sayers was also killed.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1829 Pedro Blanco Soto, President of Bolivia
1865 Manuel Isidoro Belzu, President of Bolivia
1946 Gualberto Villarroel, President of Bolivia
1989 Elders Jeffrey Brent Ball and Todd Ray Wilson, LDS Missionaries
2016 Rodolfo Illanes, Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs of Bolivia Protesting miners


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1915 Pinheiro Machado, Brazilian politician
1930 João Pessoa Cavalcânti de Albuquerque
1964 Adib Shishakli, Syrian military dictator
1975 Vladimir Herzog, journalist
1976 Zuzu Angel, Brazilian activist
1988 Chico Mendes, Brazilian environmental activist
1996 Paulo César Farias, Collor de Mello's campaign treasurer
2001 Antonio da Costa Santos, Mayor of Campinas
2002 Celso Daniel, Mayor of Santo André
2005 Dorothy Stang, American nun Killed by business interests
2018 Marielle Franco, Brazilian human rights activist


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1868 Thomas D'Arcy McGee, Father of Canadian Confederation Patrick J. Whelan
1872 William End, Magistrate in northern New Brunswick He and his office set aflame by ex-convict.
1880 George Brown, Father of Canadian Confederation George Bennett
1914 William C. Hopkinson, immigration officer, British intelligence agent Mewa Singh, Ghadarite sympathizer
1970 Pierre Laporte, Vice Premier and Minister of Labour of Quebec Bernard Lortie, Paul Rose, Jacques Rose, Francis Simard[12] Kidnapped and murdered by the FLQ.
1982 Atilla Altıkat, Turkish diplomat Assassinated by Armenian nationalists in Ottawa


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1818 Luis Carrera and his brother Juan José Carrera, both independence war heroes attributed to the head of the government, Bernardo O'Higgins
1818 Manuel Rodriguez, Chilean lawyer and guerrilla leader, considered one of the founders of independent Chile attributed to the head of the government, Bernardo O'Higgins
1837 Diego Portales, As a minister of president José Joaquín Prieto Diego Portales played a pivotal role in shaping the state and government politics in the 19th century, delivering with the Constitution of 1833 the framework of the Chilean state for almost a century. Colonel José Antonio Vidaurre
1970 René Schneider, Chilean general, Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army After several attempts, he was kidnapped and killed by far-right paramilitary squads, due to his opposition to any intervention of the armed forces to block the election of left-wing candidate Salvador Allende in 1970.
1971 Edmundo Pérez Zujovic, Chilean ex Secretary of Interior Affairs
1973 Victor Jara, Chilean left-wing singer Killed after the coup of 1973.
1982 Eduardo Frei Montalva, former President of Chile and opponent of the Pinochet dictatorship Although he officially died by sepsis after a low-risk surgery, recent research suggests he was poisoned by the secret service of Pinochet. However, there isn't an absolute certainty about the real causes of his death.[13]
1982 Tucapel Jiménez [es], Chilean trade-unionist Killed by the military dictatorship of Pinochet.[14]
1991 Jaime Guzmán, Chilean right-wing Senator Killed by far-left guerrillas after the return of democracy.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1830 Antonio José de Sucre, Venezuelan politician, statesman, soldier
1914 Rafael Uribe Uribe, lawyer, journalist, diplomat, soldier
1948 Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, Liberal Party leader
1984 Rodrigo Lara Bonilla, Minister of Justice The assassination was ordered by the Medellin Cartel
1985 Tulio Manuel Castro Gil, Judge who had indicted Pablo Escobar
1985 Alfonso Reyes Echandia, Head of the Supreme Court. Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Fabio Calderon Botero, Supreme Court Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Pedro Elias Serrano Abadia, Supreme Court Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Dario Velasquez Gaviria, Supreme Court Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Jose Eduardo Gnecco Correa, Supreme Court Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Ricardo Medina Moyano, Supreme Court Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Alfonso Patiño Rosselli, Supreme Court Justice. Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Carlos Medellin Forero, Supreme Court Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Fanny Gonzalez Franco, Supreme Court Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Dante Luis Fiorillo Porras, Supreme Court Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Manuel Gaona Cruz, Supreme Court Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Horacio Montoya Gil, Supreme Court Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Carlos Horacio Uran Rojas, State Council Assistant Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Lizandro Juan Romero Barrios, State Council Assistant Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Emiro Sandoval Huertas, State Council Assistant Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Julio Cesar Andrade Andrade, State Council Assistant Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1985 Jorge A Correa Echeverry, State Council Assistant Justice Killed during the Palace of Justice Siege.
1986 Guillermo Cano Isaza, Director of El Espectador newspaper The assassination was ordered by the Medellin Cartel
1987 Jaime Pardo Leal, Presidential candidate, leader of the Patriotic Union party
1987 Carlos Mauro Hoyos, Attorney General of Colombia The assassination was ordered by the Medellin Cartel.
August 18, 1989 Luis Carlos Galán, Presidential candidate, leader of the Colombian Liberal Party The assassination was ordered by the Medellin Cartel.
1989 Jorge Enrique Pulido, journalist, Director of Mundovision The assassination was ordered by the Medellin Cartel
March 22, 1990 Bernardo Jaramillo Ossa, Presidential candidate, leader of the Patriotic Union party[3]
Waldemar Franklin Quintero, Commander of the Police of Antioquia The assassination was ordered by the Medellin Cartel
1990 Carlos Pizarro Leongómez, Presidential candidate, leader of the M-19 party
1991 Enrique Low Murtra, former Colombian Ambassador to Switzerland The assassination was ordered by the Medellin Cartel
1994 Manuel Cepeda Vargas, Senator, leader of the Patriotic Union party
1995 Alvaro Gómez Hurtado, former presidential candidate and director of El Nuevo Siglo newspaper
1999 Jaime Garzón, journalist and satirist
2000 Crispiniano Quiñones Quiñones, Colombian Army General Assassinated by members of FARC
2003 Guillermo Gaviria Correa, Governor of Antioquia


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
May 8, 1935 Antonio Guiteras, Revolutionary Socialist leader


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
May 5, 2013 Helmin Wiels, The leader of the Sovereign People party. Elvis Kuwas

Dominican Republic[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1899 Ulises Heureaux, president of the Dominican Republic
May 30, 1961 Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, Dominican Republic dictator Shot in ambush
1973 Francisco Alberto Caamaño Deñó


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1875 Gabriel García Moreno, President of Ecuador Faustino Rayo Shot outside Quito Cathedral, owing to his pro-religious views.
1999 Jaime Hurtado and Pablo Tapia, communist legislators Killed in Quito

El Salvador[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1913 Manuel Enrique Araujo, President of El Salvador
1932 Farabundo Martí, communist leader and peasant revolt organizer
1975 Roque Dalton, poet and revolutionary
1977 Rutilio Grande García, S.J., Roman Catholic priest
1977 Alfonso Navarro Oviedo, Roman Catholic priest
1978 Ernesto Barrera, Roman Catholic priest
1979 Octavio Ortiz Luna, Roman Catholic priest
1979 Rafael Palacios, Roman Catholic priest
1979 Alirio Napoleón Macías, Roman Catholic priest
1980 Óscar Arnulfo Romero, Archbishop of San Salvador Killed by right-wing death squad
1980 Enrique Álvarez Córdova and five other leaders of the opposition Democratic Revolutionary Front ("FDR," for its Spanish initials) Captured and killed by government aligned security forces.
1980 Ita Ford, Maura Clarke, Dorothy Kazel, and Jean Donovan, Roman Catholic nuns Killed by the National Guard of El Salvador.
1983 Albert Schaufelberger, senior U.S. Naval representative
1989 Ignacio Ellacuría, Roman Catholic Jesuit priest Killed by Atlacatl Battalion of the Salvadoran Army
1989 Ignacio Martín-Baró, Roman Catholic Jesuit priest Killed by Atlacatl Battalion of the Salvadoran Army
1989 Segundo Montes, Roman Catholic Jesuit priest Killed by Atlacatl Battalion of the Salvadoran Army
1989 María Cristina Gómez, teacher and community leader


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1983 Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1898 José María Reina Barrios, President of Guatemala
1957 Carlos Castillo Armas, president of Guatemala, killed by bodyguard[4]
1970 Karl von Spreti, German ambassador in Guatemala
1979 Alberto Fuentes Mohr, Social Democratic Party leader
1979 Manuel Colom Argueta, Mayor of Guatemala City
1980 Hugo Rolando Melgar Melgar, Law professor at San Carlos University and leftist leader Rios Montt regime Hugo Rolando was ambushed on his way to work by the Guatemalan army on the morning of March 24th
1993 Jorge Carpio Nicolle, Liberal politician and journalist
1998 Juan José Gerardi, Roman Catholic bishop
2012 Valentín Leal, legislator
2013 Carlos Castillo Medrano, Mayor of Jutiapa


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
November 18, 1978 Leo Ryan, Member of the US House of Representatives Members of the People's Temple in Jonestown Was shot to death in Guyana while investigating human rights violations by members of the People's Temple.
1980 Walter Rodney, Guyanese historian and political figure
2006 Satyadeow Sawh, Agriculture Minister Murdered along with his brother and sister, a security guard by masked gunmen dressed in military fatigues


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1806 Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Emperor of Haiti
1993 Antoine Izméry, businessman and Lavalas supporter
1993 Guy Malary, minister of justice
2000 Jean Dominique, journalist
2005 Jacques Roche, journalist


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1966 Maximiliano Hernández Martínez, president of El Salvador from 1931 to 1944
2008 Mario Fernando Hernández, deputy speaker of Congress for the Liberal Party


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1520 Motecuhzoma II Xocoyotl, Emperor of the Aztec Alliance
February 22, 1913 Francisco I. Madero, President of Mexico, Nov 6, 1911 to Feb 19, 1913.[4]
March 7, 1913 Abraham González, revolutionary, governor of Chihuahua and mentor to Pancho Villa
April 10, 1919 Emiliano Zapata, revolutionary Officers under Colonel Jesús Guajardo Shot at his hacienda San Juan, Chinameca in Mexico.
May 20, 1920 Venustiano Carranza, President of Mexico[4] Officers under General Rodolfo Herrero.
July 20, 1923 Doroteo Arango a.k.a. Pancho Villa, revolutionary[15] Unknown Shot while being driven in an open car at Parral in Mexico. His bodyguards Rafael Madreno and Claro Huertado were also killed.
1924 Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Governor of Yucatán
July 17, 1928 Álvaro Obregón, President-elect[15] José de León Toral
1929 Julio Antonio Mella, Cuban revolutionary
August 20, 1940 Leon Trotsky, Russian communist leader[15] Ramón Mercader Killed by penetrating head injury from an ice axe.
1985 Enrique Camarena, U.S. DEA Agent
1986 Carlos Loret de Mola Mediz, journalist and State governor
1993 Juan Jesús Posadas Ocampo, Roman Catholic Cardinal of Guadalajara Unknown Assassinated at the Guadalajara Airport, among 6 other people, by cocaine drug gang Tijuana Cartel using Logan Heights (San Diego, CA) street gang, either as a mistaken attack on another cartel leader (Sinaloa Cartel) or to silence Ocampo regarding possible corrupt connections between government and drug cartels; some more recent speculation that an anti-church group was involved.
March 23, 1994 Luis Donaldo Colosio, Presidential candidate[3] Mario Aburto Assassinated rally at campaign in Tijuana.
September 28, 1994 José Francisco Ruiz Massieu, Secretary-General of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional
1999 Paco Stanley, comedian
2001 Digna Ochoa, human rights lawyer
2004 Francisco Ortiz Franco, contributing editor to Zeta
2010 Jesús Manuel Lara Rodríguez, Mayor of Guadalupe
2010 Rodolfo Torre Cantú, politician


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1934 Augusto César Sandino, Nicaraguan revolutionary
September 21, 1956 Anastasio Somoza García, President of Nicaragua[3] Rigoberto López Pérez
1978 Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal, newspaper editor, Nicaraguan Somoza opposition
September 17, 1980 Anastasio Somoza Debayle, former President Ambushed in Paraguay[3]
1991 Enrique Bermúdez, founder and former top commander of the Nicaraguan Contras


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
January 2, 1955 José Antonio Remón Cantera, President of Panama Killed at racetrack by machine gun[4]
July 31, 1981 Omar Efraín Torrijos Herrera, Governor Head of Panama Killed at an Aircraft accident by a radio detonated bomb


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1877 Juan Bautista Gill, President of Paraguay
1980 Anastasio Somoza Debayle, former President of Nicaragua
March 23, 1999 Luis María Argaña, vice president of Paraguay Ambushed[3]


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1541 Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conquistador
1872 Jose Balta, President of Peru
1933 Luis M. Sánchez Cerro, president of Peru
1992 María Elena Moyano, a community organizer in Villa El Salvador


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1982 Bram Behr, Surinamese journalist Victim of the December murders

United States[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
June 27, 1844 Joseph Smith, President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and presidential candidate in 1844 Masked mob Was shot while in jail at Carthage, Illinois under state protection, awaiting trial for treason. See Death of Joseph Smith.
April 14, 1865 Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States John Wilkes Booth Was shot while watching the play Our American Cousin in the presidential box at Ford's Theater in Washington D.C. Lincoln died the next morning on April 15 across the street in a boarding house. Booth and accomplice David Herold hid in a barn in Virginia. Herold surrendered while troops set the barn on fire and shot and killed Booth.
December 22, 1867 Cornelius S. Hamilton, U.S. Congressman from Ohio Thomas Hamilton
October 22, 1868 James M. Hinds, U.S. Congressman from Arkansas George Clark Killed by a Ku Klux Klan member as part of intimidation of Republican carpetbaggers
July 2, 1881 James A. Garfield, President of the United States Charles J. Guiteau Shot by Guiteau while waiting for a train at a Washington train station. Garfield did not die until September 19, 1881.
April 3, 1882 Jesse James, outlaw Robert Ford Ford assassinated James at his home along with his brother Charles Ford. Both were sentenced to death by hanging however they were later pardoned in the same day by Missouri governor Thomas T. Crittenden. The assassination of James has been attributed to one of the worst acts of human betrayal in American history. Charles committed suicide in 1884 and Robert Ford himself was assassinated in 1892.
October 15, 1890 David Hennessy, Police Chief of New Orleans
October 28, 1893 Carter Harrison Sr., Mayor of Chicago Patrick Eugene Prendergast Killed after assailant was rejected for appointment to a patronage position.
February 3, 1900 William Goebel, Governor of Kentucky Unknown political opponents Uncertain, but killed in the context of a disputed, fraudulent election
September 6, 1901 William McKinley, President of the United States Leon Czolgosz Czolgosz shot McKinley while he was shaking hands at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. Didn't die until September 14.
December 30, 1905 Frank Steunenberg, Governor of Idaho Harry Orchard Killed by a mining company informant in an attempt to cast blame on a labor union
July 16, 1926 Don Mellett, newspaper editor and campaigner against organized crime
March 6, 1933 Anton Cermak, Mayor of Chicago Giuseppe Zangara Disputed; suspected of striking Cermak instead of intended target President-elect Franklin Roosevelt
September 8, 1935 Huey Long, U.S Senator from Louisiana Carl Weiss Long attended the State Capital building to help pass "House Bill Number One". Long was able to help get the bill to pass. After the meeting, Carl Weiss, the son-in-law of Long's long-time opponent, Judge Benjamin Henry Pavy, confronted Long, pulled out a handgun and shot Long in the abdomen. Weiss was shot and killed by Long's bodyguards. Long died two days later. An alternative version of events, not generally accepted by historians, is that Long was hit by one of his own bodyguard's bullets as they fired at Weiss.
December 9, 1935 Walter Liggett, Minnesota newspaper editor
January 11, 1943 Carlo Tresca, anarchist organizer
June 15, 1955 Curtis Chillingworth, a Florida judge
June 12, 1963 Medgar Evers, U.S. civil rights activist.[3] Byron De La Beckwith Evers, an African American activist and NAACP leader, was shot by De La Beckwith, a Ku Klux Klan member, who was convicted in 1994.
November 22, 1963 John F. Kennedy, President of the United States Lee Harvey Oswald [16]
November 24, 1963 Lee Harvey Oswald Jack Ruby Shot and killed in basement garage of Dallas Police Headquarters. First murder seen live on US television.
December 11, 1964 Sam Cooke, American singer, songwriter and entrepreneur Bertha Franklin Shot and killed at the age of 33 in Los Angeles, California, US.
February 21, 1965 Malcolm X, black Muslim leader Norman 3X Butler, Thomas 15X Johnson, Talmadge Hayer Killed in a Manhattan banquet room as he began a speech.
August 25, 1967 George Lincoln Rockwell, leader of the American Nazi Party John Patler, a former aide Shot in the chest as he was leaving a laundromat.
April 4, 1968 Martin Luther King, Jr., U.S. civil rights activist.[3] James Earl Ray [17] Ray pleaded guilty but later recanted, while a 1999 civil trial convicted Jowers and 'unknown others', while also noting that 'governmental agencies were parties' to the plot.[18] See Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
June 5, 1968 Robert F. Kennedy, American politician, who served as a United States Senator for New York and leading Democratic presidential candidate in 1968. Sirhan Sirhan Shot after giving a speech after winning the California primary. Died 26 hours later on June 6. Sirhan was convicted on April 17, 1969, and less than a week later was sentenced to death.[19] The sentence was commuted to life in prison in 1972 after the California Supreme Court, in its decision in California v. Anderson, invalidated all pending death sentences imposed in California prior to 1972.
December 4, 1969 Fred Hampton, Deputy Chair of the Chicago chapter of the Black Panther Party Shot and killed by Chicago police with alleged FBI involvement. Tensions with the Police and American Government.
1970 Dan Mitrione, US adviser in Latin America Kidnapped and murdered by members of the Tupamaros guerilla group.
1973 Marcus Foster, School District Superintendent in Oakland, CA Killed by members of the Symbionese Liberation Army
June 30, 1974 Alberta Williams King, mother of Martin Luther King Jr. Marcus Chenault Killed while her husband was preaching.
1975 Anna Mae Aquash, a Mi'kmaq activist from Nova Scotia, Canada who became the highest-ranking woman in the American Indian Movement
June 13, 1976 Don Bolles, investigative reporter for Arizona Republic Killed by car bomb, Max Dunlap and James Robison convicted, alleged Mafia ties.
September 21, 1976 Orlando Letelier, Chilean ambassador to the United States for the administration of Chile's democratically elected President Salvador Allende Michael Townley Killed along with his American assistant, Ronni Moffitt, by a car bomb placed by Chilean DINA agents.
November 18, 1978 Leo Ryan, U.S. Congressman from California Members of the Peoples Temple See Jonestown massacre
November 27, 1978 Harvey Milk, San Francisco Supervisor, first openly gay elected official in the US, and gay rights activist, and George Moscone, mayor of San Francisco Dan White, former San Francisco Supervisor who opposed Milk's advocacy See Moscone–Milk assassinations
December 8, 1980 John Lennon, British musician, member of The Beatles Mark David Chapman See Assassination of John Lennon.
June 18, 1984 Alan Berg, radio talk-show host Killed by neo-Nazis
October 15, 1984 Henry Liu, Taiwanese-American writer Allegedly killed by Kuomintang agents
1985 Alex Odeh, Arab anti-discrimination group leader Killed when bomb exploded in his Santa Ana, California office
1986 Alejandro González Malavé, undercover policeman Killed in Bayamón
August 22, 1989 Huey Newton, founder of Black Panther Party Killed by member of Black Guerrilla Army (BGA).
1990 Meir David Kahane, Member of the Israeli Knesset, Founder of the JDL and the Kach Party, Zionist El Said Nosair Killed by an Arab gunman in a Manhattan hotel, El Said Nosair who was found guilty of conspiracy charges linking him to Sheik Abdul Rahman, "the blind sheik", Al Qaeda's point man in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Kahane's assassination was Al Qaeda's first act of terror on US soil.
1991 Ioan P. Culianu, Romanian historian of religion, culture, and ideas Killed at the University of Chicago where he taught at the Divinity School Swift Hall, allegedly because of opposition to his writings.
1993 David Gunn, abortion provider Michael F. Griffin Shot outside his clinic. See Murder of David Gunn.
1994 John Britton, physician, abortion provider Paul Jennings Hill Shot at his clinic.
March 31, 1995 Selena, American singer-songwriter Yolanda Saldivar Shot during an argument. See: Murder of Selena
September 13, 1996 Tupac Shakur, American rapper, actor Shot at an intersection in Las Vegas in a drive-by shooting on September 7. See: Murder of Tupac Shakur
September 13, 1996 Barnett Slepian, physician, abortion provider James Charles Kopp Shot in his kitchen.
March 9, 1997 The Notorious B.I.G., American rapper Shot at an intersection in Los Angeles in a drive-by shooting. See: Murder of The Notorious B.I.G.
July 15, 1997 Gianni Versace Andrew Cunanan Shot on his home's front steps in Miami
December 8, 2004 Darrel Lance Abbott, American musician Nathan Gale Shot multiple times while performing at a nightclub in Ohio. Writings discovered in the aftermath of Abbott's murder revealed that Gale suffered from schizophrenic delusions. Gale claimed that Abbott's band, Pantera, was reading his mind and "stealing his identity."[20]
2007 Chauncey Bailey, Oakland Tribune journalist Devaughndre Broussard Shot on the street in Oakland.
February 7, 2008 Mike Swoboda, mayor of Kirkwood, Missouri Charles "Cookie" Thornton Kirkwood City Council shooting
2009 George Tiller, physician Scott Roeder Shot as he ushered at his church.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1868 Bernardo P. Berro, Uruguayan president, 1860 to 1864.
February 19, 1868 Venancio Flores, Uruguayan president, 1865 to February 15, 1868.
1897 Juan Idiarte Borda, Uruguayan president
1992 Eugenio Berríos, Chilean chemist who worked for the DINA during the Pinochet dictatorship Killed in Uruguay by Chilean secret services for him "knowing too much".


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
November 13, 1950 Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, President of Venezuela[4] Rafael Simón Urbina
2004 Danilo Anderson, State prosecutor





Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1802 Pemulwuy Henry Hacking Shot and killed by British sailor Henry Hacking under orders by Governor Phillip Gidley King
February 12, 1894 William Paisley, Mayor of Burwood, NSW
July 15, 1977 Donald Mackay, anti-drugs campaigner
December 17, 1980 Sarik Ariyak, Turkish Consul General
1989 Colin Winchester, Assistant Commissioner of the Australian Federal Police
1994 John Newman, New South Wales state Member for Cabramatta

New Caledonia[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1989 Jean-Marie Tjibaou, Kanak independence leader


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1999 Luagalau Levaula Kamu, cabinet minister


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1985 Haruo Remeliik, president

West Papua[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
April 26, 1984 Arnold Ap, songman and ethnomusicologist Shot in back by Indonesian military unit upon release from prison[21]
March 14, 1996 Thomas Wainggai, Independence leader Allegedly poisoned by Indonesian intelligence officers in Cipinang prison.[21]
November 10, 2001 Theys Eluay, West Papuan Independence movement leader Assassinated by Kopassus officers after attending a military dinner, Jayapura, Papua[21]
December 16, 2009 Kelly Kwalik, West papuan guerrilla leader Assassinated by Detachment 88 officers in Timika, West Papua[21]
June 14, 2012 Mako Tabuni, Chairman of main civil resistance independence organisation, West Papua National Committee(KNPB) Assassinated by Detachment 88 officers in Jayapura, West Papua[22]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Historic Assassinations Since 1865," The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2004, p156 (World Almanac 2004)
  2. ^ "Chief Political Assassinations Since 1865," The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1967, p257 (World Almanac 1967)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t World Almanac 2004, p156
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h World Almanac 1967, p257
  5. ^ "Assassinations and Political Murders," 20th Century Timeline (Griesewood & Dempsey, Ltd., 1985) (Crescent Books, 1985) [20th Century Timeline], p119
  6. ^ 20th Century Timeline, p120
  7. ^ "Historic Assassinations Since 1865," The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1982 (World Almanac 1982), p750
  8. ^ Cohen, David William (2004). The Risks of Knowledge: Investigations Into the Death of the Hon. Minister John Robert Ouko in Kenya, 1990. Ohio University Press. p. x. ISBN 9780821415986.
  9. ^ "Nigeria's Boko Haram accused of killing MP Modu Bintube". BBC News. October 17, 2011.
  10. ^ "Gunmen Assassinate Oyo Assembly Lawmaker, Gideon Aremu -".
  11. ^ "Killed the Matabele God: Burnham, the American scout, may end uprising". New York Times. June 25, 1896. ISSN 0093-1179.
  12. ^ "History".
  13. ^ "Veneno para un magnicidio". Retrieved 2012-01-29.
  14. ^ "Habla Mayor (R) Carlos Herrera Jimenez, procesado por el Caso Tucapel". 2008-01-17. Archived from the original on 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
  15. ^ a b c World Almanac 1982, p750
  16. ^ Some conspiracy theories dispute this
  17. ^ Some conspiracy theories dispute this
  18. ^ Complete Transcript of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination Conspiracy Trial (from The King Center website)
  19. ^ "Sirhan Sirhan Kept Behind Bars". CBS. 2003-03-06. Retrieved 2008-05-18.
  20. ^ "Inside The Mind Of A Killer". Retrieved 2019-03-20.
  21. ^ a b c d Papua, West (2012-06-18). "Papua's Fallen Leaders – arena". Archived from the original on 2013-04-27. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
  22. ^ "7.30". ABC. 2012-08-28. Retrieved 2013-02-18.