List of assassinations in Asia

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This is a list of assassinations which took place on the continent of Asia.

For the purposes of this article, an assassination is defined as the deliberate, premeditated murder of a prominent figure, often for religious or political reasons.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
February 20, 1919 Habibullah Khan, emir of Afghanistan
November 8, 1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah, king of Afghanistan[1] Abdul Khaliq Hazara
April 28, 1978 Mohammed Daoud Khan, president of Afghanistan Killed in communist coup
February 14, 1979 Adolph Dubs, U.S. ambassador to Afghanistan[2]
September 14, 1979 Nur Mohammad Taraki, communist president Said to have been smothered to death with a pillow on the orders of Hafizullah Amin
December 27, 1979 Hafizullah Amin, communist Prime Minister of Afghanistan Killed by Soviet forces in the early stages of the Soviet–Afghan War
February 4, 1987 Meena Keshwar Kamal, Afghan founder of the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan
March 20, 1995 Abdul Ali Mazari, Leader of Hazaras Community in Afghanistan Killed by the Taliban during the capture of Kabul
September 27, 1996 Mohammed Najibullah, president of Afghanistan from 1986 to 1992 Killed by the Taliban during the capture of Kabul
September 9, 2001 Ahmed Shah Massoud, leader of the Afghan Northern Alliance Al Qaeda suicide bombers Killed by Taliban, 2 days before the 9/11 attacks.
October 26, 2001 Abdul Haq, Afghan Northern Alliance commander Killed by remnants of the Taliban
November 2001 Mohammed Atef, alleged military chief of al-Qaeda Killed in a U.S. drone strike
2001 Juma Namangani, co-founder of Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
July 6, 2002 Abdul Qadir, vice-president of Afghanistan[2]
February 14, 2002 Abdul Rahman, Afghan Minister for Civil Aviation and Tourism[2]
May 12, 2007 Dadullah, Taliban's senior military commander
May 3, 2007 Abdul Sabur Farid Kuhestani, former Prime Minister of Afghanistan
August 27, 2009 Tohir Yo'ldosh, co-founder of Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Killed in a U.S. drone strike
September 20, 2011 Burhanuddin Rabbani, former President of Afghanistan Assassinated, possibly members of the Taliban or the Haqqani network, while leading peace negotiations between the internationally recognized Afghan government of Hamid Karzai and the Taliban
July 12, 2011 Ahmed Wali Karzai, half-brother of Afghan president Hamid Karzai Sardar Mohammad Shot twice in the head and chest by his security guard as he was coming out of his bathroom
June 5, 2016 Shir Wali Wardak, Afghanistan Member of Parliament and lawmaker, member of the economic committee.[3] Islamic State and maybe the Taliban.[4] Killed by a hidden bomb, along with 11 other people, including bodyguards.[5]


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
October 27, 1999 Vazgen Sargsyan, Prime Minister of Armenia (also 7 other politicians)[2] Nairi Hunanyan Sargsyan was shot dead in an attack on the Armenian National Assembly by a group of armed men who claimed to be staging a coup d'état. According to the attackers, Sargsyan was their only target, and the seven other deaths had been unintentional.[6]


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
April 1993 Eduard Huseynov, Azerbaijani counter admiral Assassinated near his home in Baku.[7]
September 29, 1994 Afiyaddin Jalilov, deputy speaker of Azerbaijani parliament Assassinated near his home in Baku.[7]
September 29, 1994 Shamsi Rahimov, intelligence and national security chief Assassinated near his home in Baku.[7]
March 17, 1995 Rovshan Javadov, the chief of the Special Purpose Police Detachment of Azerbaijan. Killed in Azeri coup d'état attempt in 1995.
May 28, 1996 Ali Ansukhski, member of Azerbaijani parliament Mahir Ahmadov Assassinated near his home in Baku.[7]
February 21, 1997 Ziya Bunyadov, Azerbaijani historian Unknown, presumed to be Hezbollah Assassinated near his home in Baku.[7]
March 13, 2002 Rovshan Aliyev, criminalist Haji Mammadov
June 14, 2004 Fatulla Huseynov, colonel, the vice president of AFFA Haji Mammadov Assassinated near his home in Baku.[7]
March 25, 2005 Elmar Huseynov, Azerbaijani journalist Unknown, though believed to be figures within the government of Azerbaijan Shot to death at his home in Baku.[8]
February 11, 2009 Rail Rzayev, commander of the Azerbaijani Air Force Assassinated near his home in Baku.[9]


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
August 15, 1975 Mujibur Rahman, father of the nation and founder President of Bangladesh[2] Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad and coup The coup was planned by disgruntled Awami League colleagues and military officers who were led by Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad, and they targeted to exterminate his entire family.
November 3, 1975 Muhammad Mansur Ali, Prime Minister of Bangladesh Killed by military officers in Dhaka Central Jail, having been arrested in the aftermath of the August coup.
November 3, 1975 Tajuddin Ahmad, former Prime Minister Killed by military officers in Dhaka Central Jail, having been arrested in the aftermath of the August coup.
November 3, 1975 Syed Nazrul Islam, former President Killed by military officers in Dhaka Central Jail, having been arrested in the aftermath of the August coup.
November 3, 1975 A. H. M. Qamaruzzaman, former government minister Killed by military officers in Dhaka Central Jail, having been arrested in the aftermath of the August coup.
November 7, 1975 Khaled Mosharraf, Bangladeshi general Mosharraf seized power from Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad (who had overthrown Mujibur Rahman in August), but was killed by mutinous army personnel four days later.
May 30, 1981 Ziaur Rahman, President Group of army officers Plotted by a faction of officers of Bangladesh Army led by General Abul Monjur.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
April 6, 1964 Jigme Palden Dorji, Prime Minister of Bhutan[10]


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
January 14, 1950 Ieu Koeus, briefly prime minister of Cambodia in 1949


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
238 BC Lord Chunshen, prime minister of the Kingdom of Chu Li Yuan
221 Zhang Fei, military general of Shu Han Fan Qiang, Zhang Da
July 13, 815 Wu Yuanheng, Chancellor under Emperor Xianzong
1207 Han Tuozhou, Chancellor under Emperor Ningzong of Southern Song Shi Miyuan (disputed)
September 4, 1323 Sidibala, grand-khan of the Mongol Empire, Emperor of Yuan China
August 22, 1849 João Maria Ferreira do Amaral, Portuguese Governor of Macau
August 22, 1870 Ma Xinyi, governor Zhang Wenxiang
March 28, 1894 Kim Ok-gyun, Korean reformist, pro-Western activist Hong Jong-u Killed aboard ship en route to Shanghai. Hong Jong-u also planned to assassinate Pak Yeong-hyo.
October 26, 1909 Ito Hirobumi, Japanese Resident-General of Korea and former Prime Minister of Japan An Jung-geun Killed in Manchuria
March 22, 1913 Song Jiaoren, Xinhai revolutionary Killed in Shanghai
May 18, 1916 Chen Qimei, revolutionary activist Killed on the orders of Yuan Shikai, probably by Yuan's general Zhang Zongchang
August 20, 1925 Liao Zhongkai, prominent member of the Kuomintang party
June 4, 1928 Zhang Zuolin, Manchurian warlord Killed by officers of the Japanese Guandong Army
December 1941 Fang Zhenwu, military officer Assassinated by Kuomintang agents
July 15, 1946 Wen Yiduo, Chinese poet and scholar Tang Shiliang, Li Wenshan


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
June 19, 1920 Fatali Khan Khoyski, former Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan Aram Yerganian Killed by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation as part of Operation Nemesis
July 21, 1922 Cemal Pasha, former Ottoman Navy Minister Killed by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation as part of Operation Nemesis
December 3, 1994 Giorgi Chanturia, Georgian opposition leader


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
185 BC Brihadratha Maurya, last ruler of the Mauryan dynasty Pushyamitra Shunga
August 12, 1602 Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, vizier of the Mughal emperor Akbar Vir Singh Deo Killed in a plot orchestrated by Prince Salim, because Abu'l-Farzl opposed Salim's accession to the throne
February 8, 1872 Earl of Mayo (Richard Bourke), Viceroy of India Sher Ali Afridi Stabbed while inspecting prisons in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
January 30, 1948 Mahatma Gandhi, independence leader and key proponent of non-violence Nathuram Godse See Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi
October 31, 1984 Indira Gandhi, Indian Prime Minister Satwant Singh and Beant Singh Assassinated by personal bodyguards. See Assassination of Indira Gandhi.
August 10, 1986 Arun Shridhar Vaidya, Chief of Army Staff, Indian Army from 1983 to 1986 Sukhdev Singh Sukha and Harjinder Singh Jinda
March 8, 1988 Amar Singh Chamkila, controversial Punjabi singer/songwriter
May 21, 1991 Rajiv Gandhi, former Indian prime minister Thenmuli Rajaratnam Killed in an explosion triggered by a LTTE suicide bomber. First politician to be killed by a suicide bomber. See Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi.
August 31, 1995 Beant Singh, chief minister of Punjab Dilawar Singh Jaisinghvala
July 25, 2001 Phoolan Devi, bandit queen turned politician Sher Singh Rana
May 21, 2002 Abdul Ghani Lone, moderate Kashmiri Muslim separatist leader
22 April 2006 Pramod Mahajan, former Minister of Defence, Parliamentary Affairs and Communications and Information Technology Pravin Mahajan, his brother


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
October 1, 1965 Achmad Yani, Lieutenant General Killed as part of the 30 September Movement
October 1, 1965 Soeprapto, Major General Killed as part of the 30 September Movement
October 1, 1965 M. T. Haryono, Major General Killed as part of the 30 September Movement
October 1, 1965 Siswondo Parman, Major General Killed as part of the 30 September Movement
October 1, 1965 Donald Izacus Panjaitan, Brigadier General Killed as part of the 30 September Movement
October 1, 1965 Sutoyo Siswomiharjo, Brigadier General Killed as part of the 30 September Movement
November 22, 1965 Dipa Nusantara Aidit, leader of the Communist Party of Indonesia
September 7, 2004 Munir Said Thalib, a human rights and anti-corruption activist Pollycarpus Priyanto Poisoned with arsenic while flying from Jakarta to Amsterdam


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
465 BC Xerxes I, Persian king Artabanus, commander of the royal bodyguard
423 BC Xerxes II, Persian king Sogdianus, Xerxes' half-brother
23 August 818 Ali al-Ridha, The eighth Imam of Shi'ite Muslim The Caliph Al-Ma'mun and was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and the eighth Shi'ite Imam
423 BC Sogdianus, Persian king Darius II, Sogdianus' half-brother
October 14, 1092 Nizam al-Mulk, Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuk Turks The Assassins
June 20, 1747 Nader Shah, Shah of Persia Army officers led by Salah Bey, captain of the guards Nadar was attacked in his sleep, but was able to kill two of the assassins before dying.
May 1, 1896 Nasser-al-Din Shah, Shah of Persia Mirza Reza Kermani Assassinated on the day of his fiftieth kingship ceremony.
October 3, 1933 Abdolhossein Teymourtash, Iranian statesman Died in Qasr Prison, possibly assassinated by the doctor Ahmad Ahmadi
1937 Firouz Mirza Nosrat-ed-Dowleh Farman Farmaian III, Iranian diplomat and politician
March 31, 1947 Qazi Muhammad, dissident Kurdish Iranian political leader Killed in Mahabad
March 7, 1951 Ali Razmara, Prime Minister of Iran Khalil Tahmasebi Shot in a mosque.
January 22, 1965 Hassan Ali Mansur, Prime Minister of Iran[11] Mohammad Bokharaei, a member of Fada'iyan-e Islam Died in hospital on January 27
June 28, 1981 Mohammad Beheshti Killed along with 72 others in the Hafte Tir bombing
August 30, 1981 Mohammad Ali Rajai, president of Iran Massoud Keshmiri, an operative of the People's Mujahedin of Iran
August 30, 1981 Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Prime Minister of Iran Massoud Keshmiri, an operative of the People's Mujahedin of Iran
January 11, 2012 Mostafa Ahmadi-Roshan, nuclear scientist and university professor Killed by a bomber from a motorcycle


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
681 BC Sennacherib, Assyrian king Arda Mulissi Stabbed to death while at prayer in a temple, or possibly crushed under a winged child angelica.[12]
February 20, 244 Gordian III, Roman emperor Possibly killed near Circesium by his troops
661 Ali ibn Abi Talib, The first Imam of Shia and 4th Caliph of Sunni Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam
10 October 680 Husayn ibn Ali he's was a grandson and 3rd Imam of Shia Muslim ‘Umar ibn Sa'ad, the head of Kufan army, sent a messenger to Husayn to inquire about the purpose of his coming to Iraq. Husayn answered again that he had responded to the invitation of the people of Kufa but was ready to leave if they now disliked his presence. When Umar ibn Sa'ad, the head of Kufan army, reported it back to ibn Ziyad, the governor instructed him to offer Ḥusayn and his supporters the opportunity to swear allegiance to Yazid. He also ordered Umar to cut off Husayn and his followers from access to the water of the Euphrates.[8] On the next morning, as ʿOmar b. Saʿd arranged the Kufan army in battle order, Al-Hurr ibn Yazid al Tamimi challenged him and went over to Al-Ḥusayn. He addressed the Kufans in vain, rebuking them for their treachery to the grandson of Muhammad, and was killed in the battle
July 14, 1958 Faisal II, King of Iraq[11] Killed during the 14 July Revolution
July 15, 1958 Nuri Pasha as-Said, Prime Minister of Iraq[10] Killed during the 14 July Revolution
February 09, 1963 Abdulkarim Qassim, Prime Minister of Republic of Iraq [10] Killed during a Baath backed coup
April 9, 1980 Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr, former Grand Ayatollah Killed by Saddam Hussein along with his sister, Bint al-Huda
1980 Bint al-Huda, Iraqi educator and political activist Killed by Saddam Hussein along with her brother, Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr
January 24, 1988 Mahdi al-Hakim, prominent figure in the Iraqi opposition Assassinated in the lobby of the Hilton in the Sudanese capital Khartoum. His companion Halim Abd-alWahhab was wounded in the leg.[13]
February 19, 1999 Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr, former Grand Ayatollah Killed in the Iraqi city of Najaf along with two of his sons
August 19, 2003 Sérgio Vieira de Mello, UN Special Representative in Iraq Killed in the Canal Hotel bombing
August 29, 2003 Sayed Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim, highly influential Shi'ite ayatollah Killed in the Imam Ali Mosque bombing
September 25, 2003 Aquila al-Hashimi, Iraqi Governing Council member
April 10, 2003 Abdul-Majid al-Khoei, Shia cleric
October 28, 2003 Ahmad Shawkat, Iraqi journalist
May 7, 2004 Waldemar Milewicz, Polish journalist
May 17, 2004 Ezzedine Salim, acting chairman of the Iraqi Governing Council, Iraqi MP Killed by members of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad
November 1, 2004 Hatem Kamil, deputy governor of Baghdad Province
January 4, 2005 Ali al-Haidari, governor of Baghdad Province
January 4, 2005 Hadi Saleh, Secretary of the Iraqi Federation of Trade Unions
April 27, 2005 Lamiya Abed Khadawi, Iraqi MP
June 28, 2005 Dhari Ali al-Fayadh, Iraqi MP Killed by members of al-Qaeda in Iraq
July 2005 Ihab al-Sherif, Egyptian envoy to Iraq Abducted on July 3 by al-Qaeda in Iraq; his death was confirmed on July 7
February 22, 2006 Atwar Bahjat, Iraqi journalist Yasser al-Takhi
April 27, 2006 Maysoon al-Hashemi, head of the Iraqi Islamic Party women's department
June 7, 2006 Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq Killed in a U.S. airstrike
April 12, 2007 Mohammed Awad, Iraqi MP Killed in the 2007 Iraqi Parliament bombing
June 25, 2007 Fasal al Gaood, former governor of Al Anbar Province
August 11, 2007 Khalil Jalil Hamza, governor of Al-Qādisiyyah Province
August 20, 2007 Mohammed Ali al-Hasani, governor of Muthanna Province
September 13, 2007 Abdul Sattar Abu Risha, Sunni tribal leader Killed by al-Qaeda in Iraq
October 5, 2008 Mohamed Moumou, Number 2 leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq and senior leader in Northern Iraq Killed by U.S. military
2008 Paulos Faraj Rahho, Chaldean Catholic Archeparch of Mosul Kidnapped on February 29, 2008; his body was discovered on March 13
June 12, 2009 Harith al-Obeidi, Iraqi MP
December 22, 2009 Riad Abdel Majid, Brigadier General in the Iraqi Army[14]
April 18, 2010 Abu Ayyub al-Masri, leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) Killed by U.S. and Iraqi forces
January 15, 2013 Ayfan Sadoun al-Essawi, prominent Sunni MP[15]


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
582/1 BCE Gedaliah, governor of Yehud
1134 Hugh II of Le Puiset, count of Jaffa Attacked by a Breton knight, and died of his wounds shortly after.
October 1174 Miles of Plancy, regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
April 28, 1192 Conrad of Montferrat, King of Jerusalem, leader in the Third Crusade Killed by Hashshashin
June 30, 1924 Jacob Israël de Haan, pro-Orthodox Jewish diplomat Killed by members of Haganah
June 16, 1933 Haim Arlosoroff, Zionist leader in the British Mandate of Palestine
August 26, 1939 Ralph Cairns, commander of the Palestine Police CID's Jewish Section in Jerusalem Assassinated by Irgun under orders from Hanoch Kalai
May 28, 1948 Thomas C. Wasson, US Consul General in Jerusalem
September 17, 1948 Folke Bernadotte, Middle East peace mediator Assassinated by Lehi[10]
March 15, 1957 Rudolf Kastner, Hungarian Zionist leader, negotiated the Kasztner train with the Nazis Ze'ev Eckstein, a member of Lehi
January 12, 1981 Hamad Abu Rabia, member of the Knesset Killed by the sons of Jabr Muadi
November 4, 1995 Yitzhak Rabin, Prime Minister of Israel and 1994 Nobel Peace Prize recipient[2] Yigal Amir Attack carried out by Israeli opposed to Oslo Accords. See Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin.
December 31, 2000 Binyamin Ze'ev Kahane, son of Meir David Kahane, leader of Kahane Chai, Zionist
October 17, 2001 Rehavam Zeevi, Israeli general and politician Hamdi Quran, Basel al-Asmar, Majdi Rahima Rimawi, and Ahad Olma, members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
456 Emperor Ankō, Emperor of Japan Prince Mayowa no Ōkimi
592 Emperor Sushun, Emperor of Japan Yamato no Aya no Ataikoma The assassination was ordered by Soga no Umako
645 Soga no Iruka, son of influential statesman Soga no Emishi Killed on the orders of Nakatomi no Kamatari and Prince Naka no Ōe
February 11, 1160 Minamoto no Yoshitomo, head of Minamoto clan, father of Minamoto no Yoritomo
February 13, 1219 Minamoto no Sanetomo, the third shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate Kugyō, Sanetomo's nephew
July 12, 1441 Ashikaga Yoshinori, the sixth shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate Killed on the orders of Akamatsu Mitsusuke
August 25, 1486 Ōta Dōkan, samurai, architect and builder of Edo Castle
August 1, 1507 Hosokawa Masamoto, shugo daimyō of Ashikaga shogunate Kosai Motonaga and Hosokawa Sumiyuki
1535 Matsudaira Kiyoyasu, daimyō, feudal leader in Japan
September 30, 1551 Ōuchi Yoshitaka, daimyō, feudal leader in Japan
November 22, 1557 Oda Nobuyuki, Japanese samurai, younger brother of Oda Nobunaga
June 17, 1565 Ashikaga Yoshiteru, shōgun, feudal leader in Japan
February 24, 1566 Mimura Iechika, daimyō, feudal leader in Japan Endō Matajirō and Yoshijirō Killed on the orders of Ukita Naoie
August 20, 1578 Yamanaka Shikanosuke, Japanese samurai Killed by soldiers of the Mōri clan
June 21, 1582 Oda Nobunaga, samurai warlord Akechi Mitsuhide
1669 Shakushain, Ainu chieftain
January 30, 1703 Kira Yoshinaka, master of ceremonies Killed by a group known as the Forty-seven Ronin
March 24, 1860 Ii Naosuke, Japanese politician
October 27, 1863 Serizawa Kamo, a chief of Shinsen-gumi
August 12, 1864 Sakuma Shozan, Japanese politician Kawakami Gensai, samurai
December 10, 1867 Sakamoto Ryōma, Japanese author
December 7, 1869 Ōmura Masujirō, military leader and theorist
February 15, 1869 Yokoi Shōnan, scholar and politician
May 14, 1878 Okubo Toshimichi, Home Minister of Japan, briefly most powerful man in Japan Shimada Ichirō
February 12, 1889 Mori Arinori, First Education Minister
October 26, 1909 Hirobumi Itō, former Prime Minister of Japan An Jung-geun, Korean independence activist
September 28, 1921 Yasuda Zenjirō, entrepreneur who founded Yasuda zaibatsu, great-grand father of Yoko Ono
November 4, 1921 Hara Takashi, Prime Minister of Japan Nakaoka Kon'ichi, a right-wing railroad switchman
August 26, 1931 Osachi Hamaguchi, Prime Minister of Japan Tomeo Sagoya, a member of the Aikoku-sha ultranationalist secret society
February 9, 1932 Junnosuke Inoue, businessman Sho Onuma Part of the League of Blood Incident
March 5, 1932 Dan Takuma, zaibatsu leader Goro Hishinuma, right-wing nationalist Part of the League of Blood Incident
May 15, 1932 Inukai Tsuyoshi, Prime Minister of Japan Killed by naval officers in the May 15 Incident
May 26, 1932 Yoshinori Shirakawa, general of the Imperial Japanese Army Yun Bong-gil, Korean independence activist
August 12, 1935 Tetsuzan Nagata, general of the Imperial Japanese Army Saburo Aizawa, army officer
February 26, 1936 Saitō Makoto, admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy Killed in the February 26 Incident.
February 26, 1936 Takahashi Korekiyo, Prime Minister of Japan Killed in the February 26 Incident.
February 26, 1936 Jōtarō Watanabe, Inspector General of Military Training Killed in the February 26 Incident.
October 12, 1960 Inejiro Asanuma, Socialist Party of Japan chairman Otoya Yamaguchi While Asanuma spoke from the lectern at Tokyo's Hibiya Hall during a televised debate, Yamaguchi rushed onstage and ran his wakizashi (a type of traditional Japanese sword) through Asanuma's abdomen, killing him.
June 18, 1985 Kazuo Nagano, Japanese chairman Masakazu Yano and Atsuo Iida
July 12, 1991 Hitoshi Igarashi, translated The Satanic Verses into Japanese
April 23, 1995 Hideo Murai, one of the leading members of Aum Shinrikyo Hiroyuki Jo, member of the Yamaguchi-gumi
October 25, 2002 Koki Ishii, Japanese politician Ito Hakusui, member of the Yamaguchi-gumi
April 18, 2007 Iccho Itoh, Mayor of Nagasaki Tetsuya Shiroo, member of the Yamaguchi-gumi
2013 Masayuki Daito (ja), business chairman of Osho Food Service


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1200 BC Eglon, Moabite king Ehud Stabbed to death in his throne room (Judges 3:12-30).
July 17, 1951 Riad Al Solh, former Prime Minister of Lebanon Shot at Amman Airport during visit to Jordan.
July 20, 1951 Abdullah I, King of Jordan Mustafa Ashi, a Palestinian from the al-Husayni clan Shot when entering the Al Aqsa Mosque.[2]
August 29, 1960 Hazza al-Majali, Prime Minister of Jordan Killed with 10 others by time bomb in office[10]
October 28, 2002 Laurence Foley, USAID official Killed by Al-Qaeda operatives


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
304 King Bunseo of Baekje, King of Baekje Assassinated by an unknown boy, later recalled as "Hwang-Chang-Lang"(黃昌郞,황창랑).
October 8, 1895 Queen Min, the first official wife of King Gojong, the twenty-sixth king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea Killed by Japanese agents under Miura Goro, with the aid of the "Hullyeondae", a Japanese trained Regiment of the Royal Guards
July 19, 1947 Lyuh Woon-Hyung, former head of People's Republic of Korea Han Chigeun, a refugee from North Korea
October 26, 1979 Park Chung-Hee, President of South Korea[2] Kim Jae-kyu See Park Chung-hee assassination.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
March 30, 1971 Hardan al-Tikriti, former Iraqi defense minister and vice president


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
April 1, 1963 Quinim Pholsena, foreign minister of Laos Chy Kong, a soldier assigned to guard Pholsena's villa


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1152 Raymond II of Tripoli, count of Tripoli Killed by Hashshashin
April 28, 1192 Conrad of Montferrat Killed by Hashshashin
August 17, 1270 Philip of Montfort, Lord of Tyre Killed by Hashshashin
October 31, 1950 Sami al-Hinnawi, Syrian head of state Hersho al-Barazi Hersho al-Barazi was a cousin of former Prime Minister Muhsin al-Barazi, who al-Hinnawi had executed following a coup.
June 16, 1976 Francis E. Meloy, Jr., US Ambassador to Lebanon Killed by members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
June 16, 1976 Robert O. Waring, US Economic Counselor to Lebanon Killed by members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
March 16, 1977 Kamal Jumblatt, Lebanese Druze leader
June 13, 1978 Tony Frangieh, Lebanese Christian leader Killed by Phalangists led by Elie Hobeika and Samir Geagea
September 14, 1982 Bachir Gemayel, president-elect of Lebanon Habib Tanious Shartouni Bomb explosion in the Phalange's Beirut headquarters.[2]
June 1, 1987 Rashid Karami, Prime Minister of Lebanon Killed by bomb aboard helicopter, planted by the Lebanese Forces.[2]
November 22, 1989 René Moawad, President of Lebanon
October 21, 1990 Dany Chamoun, son of late president Camille Chamoun
January 24, 2002 Elie Hobeika, Lebanese militia leader
February 14, 2005 Rafik Hariri, former Prime Minister of Lebanon and billionaire Assassination via car bomb in Beirut
June 2, 2005 Samir Kassir, columnist at Lebanese newspaper "An Nahar", and fierce critic of Syria
June 21, 2005 George Hawi, former chief of Lebanese Communist Party
December 12, 2005 Gibran Tueni, Editor in Chief of Lebanese newspaper "An Nahar"
November 21, 2006 Pierre Gemayel, Minister of Industry of Lebanon
June 13, 2007 Walid Eido, member of the National Assembly
September 19, 2007 Antoine Ghanim, member of the National Assembly
December 12, 2007 François al-Hajj, Lebanese Military General
January 25, 2008 Wissam Eid, National Security, Information Sector
December 27, 2013 Mohamad Chatah, former finance minister, ambassador to the United States, and advisor to Saad Hariri Assassination via car bomb in Beirut. Presumed to be because Chatah was mentioned as a potential candidate for prime minister. Saad Hariri hinted that he believed the assassinators to be from Hezbollah.[16]


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
November 2, 1875 James Wheeler Woodford Birch, a British Resident Minister in the State of Perak Speared to death by followers of Malay chief Lela Pandak Lam, while in the bath-house of his boat at Pasir Salak
December 10, 1949 Duncan Stewart, Second Governor of Sarawak, a British Crown Colony (1946–1963) Rukun 13 members Rosli Dhobie, Morshidi Sidek, Awang Ramli Mohd Deli, and Bujang Suntong Stabbed to death during his arrival at Sibu
October 6, 1951 Henry Gurney, British High Commissioner in Malaya (1948–1951) Shot to death by a guerilla unit from the Malayan Communist Party at Fraser's Hill
7 June 1974 Abdul Rahman Hashim, Inspector-General of Police from 1 February 1973 to 7 June 1974. Shot dead by the communist subversive who the one leader of Royal Malaysian Police at Mounbatten Road (now Jalan Tun Perak) and Weld Road (now Jalan Raja Chulan), Kuala Lumpur.
18 October, 2006 Shaariibuugiin Altantuyaa, a Mongolian national Murdered by C-4 explosives or was somehow killed first and her remains destroyed with C-4 on 18 October 2006 in a deserted area in Shah Alam, Malaysia near Kuala Lumpur.[17]
January 11, 2008 S. Krishnasamy, state assemblyman for the Tenggaroh constituency, Malaysia (2003-2008)
July 29, 2013 Hussain Najadi, banker, AmBank founder Shot twice at close range by an unidentified assailant
February 13, 2017 Kim Jong-nam, brother of North Korean supreme leader Kim Jong-un Poisoned with VX nerve agent by two women at Kuala Lumpur International Airport


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
October 2, 2012 Afrasheem Ali, legislator and Islamic scholar


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
October 2, 1998 Sanjaasürengiin Zorig, politician and democratic activist Stabbed to death in his apartment

Myanmar (Burma)[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
c. 1168 Alaungsithu, King of Pagan Kingdom Narathu, his son
1550 Tabinshwehti, King of Taungoo Dynasty Assassinated by Mon revival
1628 Anaukpetlun, King of Nyaungyan Dynasty
August 2, 1866 Crown Prince Ka Naung, son of King Tharrawaddy and younger brother of King Mindon
July 19, 1947 Aung San, Burmese nationalist leader, founder of Thirty Comrades
July 19, 1947 U Ba Win
January 29, 2017 U Ko Ni, NLD party legal advisor, Muslim Dead by Gun(Shot In The Head) at Yangon airport terminal 1 Car Packing


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
June 1, 2001 Birendra, King of Nepal, along with Queen Aiswary and 9 other members of the royal family[2] Prince Dipendra See Nepalese royal massacre.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
October 16, 1951 Liaquat Ali Khan, first Prime Minister of Pakistan[2]
February 1960 Esther John, Pakistani Christian nurse She was found murdered in her bed.
February 8, 1975 Hayat Sherpao, former Governor of the North-West Frontier Province Killed by Afghan extremist
August 17, 1988 Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, 10-year President of Pakistan and 12-year Chief of Army Staff Killed in a mysterious aircraft accident which seemed to be a bomb blast (traced to a crate of mangoes placed into his aircraft).
November 24, 1989 Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, militant Islamist Killed near Peshawar
October 3, 1991 Fazle Haq, former governor of the Northwest Frontier province, Pakistan, from 1978 to 1985
September 1993 Ghulam Haider Wyne, former Chief Minister of Punjab
April 16, 1995 Iqbal Masih, 13-year-old anti-child labor activist Killed in Rakh Baoli
October 17, 1998 Hakim Said, founder of Hamdard Foundation and Hamdard University, Karachi; former Governor of Sindh
2001 Siddiq Khan Kanju, former foreign minister of Pakistan from 1991 to 1993
December 27, 2007 Benazir Bhutto, former Prime Minister of Pakistan (first and only woman Prime minister of Pakistan) Unknown, widely believed to be Islamic militants Killed while entering a vehicle upon leaving a political rally for the Pakistan People's Party in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. See Assassination of Benazir Bhutto.
August 5, 2009 Baitullah Mehsud, leader of Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
May 2, 2011 Osama bin Laden, head and status symbol of al-Quaeda, held responsible for the attacks on 9/11 Members of the US Navy Seals Killed in a raid in his residence in Abbottabad, the order for the raid and execution came from US president Barack Obama
January 4, 2011 Salman Taseer, Governor of Punjab Malik Mumtaz Hussain Qadri Killed by one of his security guards due to Taseer's opposition to Pakistan's blasphemy laws
March 2, 2011 Shahbaz Bhatti, Minorities Minister Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan Killed due to his opposition to Pakistan's blasphemy laws
June 4, 2012 Abu Yahya al-Libi, high-ranking al-Qaeda member, alleged member of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, former detainee at the Parwan Detention Facility, from where he escaped in 2005
January 2, 2013 Maulvi Nazir, high-ranking Pakistani Taliban member in South Waziristan
August 16, 2015 Shuja Khanzada, Home Minister of Punjab Killed in the 2015 Attock bombing
February 1, 2018 Hazar Khan Bijarani, Pakistani politician.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1996 Yahya Ayyash, Hamas' explosives expert
2001 Abu Ali Mustafa, leader of PFLP
2002 Salah Shahade, leader of Hamas' military wing
2003 Ibrahim al-Makadmeh, co-founder of Hamas
2003 Mekled Hameid, Islamic Jihad Movement commander
2004 Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, leader and founder of Hamas
2004 Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi, leader of Hamas
2004 Izz El-Deen Sheikh Khalil, Hamas operative
2004 Adnan al-Ghoul, Hamas' explosives expert
2009 Nizar Rayan, Senior Hamas leader
2009 Said Seyam, Senior Hamas leader
2009 Abu Zakaria al-Jamal, Senior Hamas military wing commander


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
October 11, 1719 Fernando Manuel de Bustamante, Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines. Dragged and killed by a mob instigated by friars.
May 28, 1763 Diego Silang, early Ilocano rebel leader, and husband of Gabriela Silang. Miguel Vicos
Pedro Bebec
Church authorities paid the assassins. Vicos was Silang's friend
June 5, 1899 Antonio Luna, general of the Filipino army during the Philippine–American War. Kawit Battalion of the Katipunan led by Pedro Janolino Emilio Aguinaldo is suspected to be behind the assassination.
September 20, 1935 Julio Nalundasan, Congressman for Ilocos A young Ferdinand Marcos tried but acquitted for the slaying.
April 28, 1949 Aurora Quezon y Aragón, former First Lady of the Philippines and widow of President Manuel L. Quezon. Died with her daughter and several others in ambush believed to have been perpetrated by the Hukbalahap.
April 28, 1949 Ponciano Bernardo, Mayor of Quezon City, then the national capital Died with Doña Quezon and several others in an ambush.
April 24, 1980 Macliing Dulag, Kalinga pangat (chieftain) and indigenous peoples' rights activist. 4th Infantry Division, Philippine Army
December 16, 1980 Joe Lingad, former Governor of Pampanga.
August 21, 1983 Benigno Aquino, Jr., politician, leader of the opposition against President Ferdinand Marcos[2] Rogelio Moreno (confirmed)
AVSECOM members (accomplices)
November 14, 1984 Cesar Climaco, Mayor of Zamboanga City and prominent opposition leader.
February 11, 1986 Evelio Javier, Governor of Antique and ally of 1986 presidential candidate, Corazon Aquino.
1986 Emma Henry, police officer and film actress.
September 19, 1987 Lean Alejandro, prominent student activist leader.
January 17, 1988 Roy Padilla, Sr., Governor of Camarines Norte, and father of action star Robin Padilla.
April 21, 1989 James N. Rowe, United States military advisor. Juanito T. Itaas (principal)
Donato B. Continente (accomplice)
The New People's Army claims responsibility for the assassination
February 6, 2001 Filemon 'Ka Popoy' Lagmán, founder of the Bukluran ng Manggagawang Pilipino (BMP; "coalition of Filipino workers") Two unknown assailants
October 3, 2006 Alberto Ramento, Obispo Máximo IX of the Philippine Independent Church.
November 13, 2007 Wahab Akbar, Representative of Basilan One of several killed when the Batasan Pambansa (National Legislature building) was bombed.
January 1, 2011 Reynaldo Dagsa, Barangay captain of Maypajo, Caloocan
January 25, 2015 Zulkifli Abdhir, suspected leader of Jemaah Islamiyah Members of the Special Action Force See Mamasapano clash
October 16, 2017 Isnilon Hapilon, Emir of ISIS in Southeast Asia and leader of Abu Sayyaf Members of the Philippine Army See Battle of Marawi


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
2004 Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev, former President of separatist Chechnya

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
644 Umar ibn al-Khattab, second caliph Abu Lulu
656 Uthman Ibn Affan, third caliph
661 Ali ibn Abi-Talib, fourth caliph and first Imam of Muslims Abdur Rehman Ibn-e-Muljim Ambushed from back with a poisoned sword while Ali Ibn-e-Abi Talib was offering Salaat-ul-Fajr (early morning prayer)
March 25, 1975 Faisal of Saudi Arabia, King of Saudi Arabia Prince Faisal bin Musa'id Shot by nephew at palace.[11]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
September 25, 1959 S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, Ceylonese prime minister Talduwe Somarama, a Buddhist monk who later converted to Christianity[2]
1975 Alfred Duraiappah, Mayor of Jaffna Killed by LTTE
1989 Vijaya Kumaranatunga, movie actor turned SLFP-SLMP politician Killed by JVP
1989 Rohana Wijeweera, founder of JVP Killed by Sri Lankan Armed Forces
1989 A. Amirthalingam, leader of separatist party TULF Killed by LTTE
1991 Ranjan Wijeratne, Foreign Minister & Minister of State for Defence Killed by LTTE
1993 Lalith Athulathmudali, former cabinet minister Purportedly killed by LTTE
1993 Ranasinghe Premadasa, President of Sri Lanka Killed by a suicide bomber on May Day parade. The attack was purportedly carried out by LTTE (but was possibly revenge for his own orchestrating murder of political rival Lalith Athulathmudali, to whom he feared losing election).
1994 Gamini Dissanayake, Presidential candidate, UNP Member of Parliament Killed by LTTE
1998 Sarojini Yogeswaran, Mayor of Jaffna Killed by LTTE
1998 Ponnudurai Sivapalan, Mayor of Jaffna Killed by LTTE
1999 Neelan Tiruchelvam, TULF Member of Parliament Killed by LTTE
1999 Lakshman Algama, UNP politician Killed by LTTE
2000 C. V. Gunaratne, cabinet minister Killed by LTTE
2005 Joseph Pararajasingham, TNA Member of Parliament Killed by GoSL supported para-military Karuna Group
2005 Lakshman Kadirgamar, foreign minister Killed by LTTE
2006 Parami Kulatunga, army general Killed by LTTE
2006 Nadarajah Raviraj, TNA Member of Parliament Killed by GoSL paramilitary Group
2008 T. Maheswaran, UNP Member of Parliament Killed by LTTE as revenge for having talks with the president Raajapakse
2008 D. M. Dassanayake, Nation Building Minister and SLFP Member of Parliament Killed by LTTE
2008 K. Sivanesan, TNA Member of Parliament Killed by Sri Lankan Army's Deep Penetration Unit
2008 Jeyaraj Fernandopulle, Minister of Highways and Road Development and SLFP Member of Parliament Killed by LTTE
2009 Lasantha Wickrematunge, editor of The Sunday Leader Unknown


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
246 BC Antiochus II Theos, Seleucid king
223 BC Seleucus III Ceraunus, Seleucid king
176 BC Seleucus IV Philopator, Seleucid king
146 BC Alexander Balas, Seleucid king
138 BC Antiochus VI Dionysus, Seleucid heir to the throne
285 Numerian, Roman emperor Arrius Aper, his father-in-law Killed in Emesa (modern-day Homs)
1146 Zengi, ruler of Aleppo and Mosul and founder of the Zengid Dynasty
1940 Abd al-Rahman Shahbandar, Syrian nationalist
August 1, 2008 Muhammad Suleiman, Syrian general and security adviser to president Bashar al-Assad
February 12, 2008 Imad Mughniyah, senior member of Hezbollah
July 18, 2012 Syria's Defense Minister General Dawoud Rajiha, Deputy Defense Minister Asef Shawkat, chief of staff of the Syrian Armed Forces General Hasan Turkmani, and Intelligence and National Security Chief Hisham Ikhtiyar Either Liwa al Islam or the Free Syrian Army (both claimed responsibility) Killed either with a remotely detonated bomb or via suicide attack as part of the Syrian civil war. Several other leading government officials may have been injured or killed.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
King Worawongsathirat, King of the Ayutthaya Kingdom unknown
1946 King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII), the eighth monarch of Thailand under the House of Chakri unknown
August 29, 1961 Princess Lakshamilavan, Vajiravudh's 2nd spouse
August 8, 1968 Suraphol Sombatcharoen, Thai male singer. unknown He was assassinated in 0:02 am., August 8, 1968 at Nakhon Pathom province, in his concert tour time.
1977 Princess Vibhavadi Rangsit, Thai Princess unknown
April 10, 1991 Klaew Thanikhul, Thai boxing promoter. unknown
June 28, 1996 Sangchai Sunthornwat, Chairman in MCOT Ubol Bunyachalothorn
May 13, 2010 Major General Khattiya Sawasdipol unknown Major General Sawasdipol was an ardent supporter and the security chief of the United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD) also known as the "reds Shirts" in their protest against the Government of Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva from approximately March 12, 2010 to May 20, 2010 in which 92 people were killed. He was killed by a sniper's bullet to the head on 13 May while giving an interview to a reporter for The New York Times about 7 p.m.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1913 Mahmud Şevket Pasha, prime minister
1921 Mustafa Suphi, communist leader
1930 Mustafa Fehmi Kubilay Dervish Mehmet Known as Menemen Incident
1979 Abdi Ipekçi, journalist, Editor-in-Chief of Milliyet newspaper Mehmet Ali Ağca
1979 Metin Yüksel, Islamic political activist
1979 Cavit Orhan Tütengil, academician and writer
1980 Ümit Kaftancıoğlu, writer and TV producer
1980 Kemal Türkler, labor union leader Killed by Grey Wolves in Istanbul.
1980 Nihat Erim, former Prime Minister of Turkey Killed by a Dev Sol operative in Istanbul.
1990 Muammer Aksoy, University professor in Law Killed in Ankara.
1990 Bahriye Üçok, University professor in Islam Studies and women's rights activist Killed in Istanbul.
1990 Turan Dursun, Islamic scholar, author, and journalist Killed in Ankara, unresolved.
1992 Musa Anter, dissident Kurdish activist and writer Killed in Diyarbakır, unresolved, attributed to Turkish military intelligence (JITEM).
1993 Uğur Mumcu, a journalist of Cumhuriyet newspaper Unknown Killed in Ankara.
1995 Onat Kutlar, writer, poet, founder of Cinemateque Istanbul, columnist for Cumhuriyet newspaper Killed in Istanbul.
1996 Özdemir Sabancı, prominent industrialist and member of Sabancı family
1998 Konca Kuriş, Islamic feminist author Kidnapped and tortured to death in Mersin.
1999 Ahmet Taner Kışlalı, politician, former Minister of Culture, Ankara University professor in Political Science, Cumhuriyet newspaper columnist
2001 Üzeyir Garih, Turkish Jewish businessman and industrialist
2002 Necip Hablemitoğlu, Professor of history at Ankara University His assassination is unresolved.
2006 Mustafa Yücel Özbilgin, High Judge at Council of State Alparslan Arslan Killed in Ankara.
2006 Andrea Santoro, Roman Catholic priest Oğuzhan Akdin Murdered in the Santa Maria Church in Trabzon.
2007 Hrant Dink, Turkish Armenian journalist, publisher of Agos newspaper Ogün Samast Fired three shots at Dink's head from the back at point blank range before fleeing the scene on foot. See Assassination of Hrant Dink.
2016 Andrei Karlov, Russian ambassador to Turkey Mevlüt Mert Altıntaş Fatally shot while delivering a speech at a photographic exhibition at the CerModern, a museum of modern art in Ankara.[18] See Assassination of Andrei Karlov.

United Arab Emirates[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
January 19, 2010 Mahmoud al-Mabhouh, a member of Hamas Unknown, widely believed to be Mossad agents Exact cause unknown; possibilities include suffocation, strangulation, and electrocution. See Assassination of Mahmoud al-Mabhouh.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
November 2, 1963 Ngo Dinh Nhu, politician[2] Killed along with his brother, Ngo Dinh Diem
November 2, 1963 Ngo Dinh Diem, first president of South Vietnam[2] Generally believed to be Nguyen Van Nhung and Duong Hieu Nghia, on orders from Duong Van Minh Part of the 1963 South Vietnamese coup. See Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1948 Imam Yahya, King of Yemen
1977 Ibrahim al-Hamadi, president of North Yemen
1978 Ahmad al-Ghashmi, president of North Yemen Killed by bomb along with envoy from South Yemen.
2002 Jarallah Omar, deputy secretary-general of Yemeni Socialist Party
2011 Anwar al-Aulaqi, spokesman and recruiter for al-Qaeda, leader of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Killed in a US drone strike
2013 Said Ali al-Shihri, deputy leader of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Killed in a US drone strike. Numerous earlier reports of his death had been previously proven wrong.[19]


  1. ^ 20th Century Timeline, p119
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Historic Assassinations Since 1865," The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2004, p156 (World Almanac 2004)
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ Demourian, Avet (October 27, 1999). "Gunmen Take Over Armenian Parliament; Premier Killed". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Beylergizi, Shahnaz. "Onlar hamısı evinin kandarında öldürülüblər..." (in Azerbaijani). Azadliq Radiosu. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  8. ^ "Elmar Huseynov". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  9. ^ "Azerbaijan air force head killed". BBC News. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c d e "Chief Political Assassinations Since 1865," The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1967, p257 (World Almanac 1967)
  11. ^ a b c "Historic Assassinations Since 1865," The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1982 (World Almanac 1982), p750
  12. ^ Parpola, Simo, "The Murderer of Sennacherib", from Alster, Bendt (ed.), "Death on Mesopotamia", XXVIème Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Akademisk Forlag, 1980.
  13. ^ "Iraqi's Death in Sudan Linked to Iran Faction". The New York Times. January 24, 1988. 
  14. ^ "Iraqi general assassinated". The Himalayan Times. Agence France-Presse. December 23, 2009. 
  15. ^ Reuters (2013-01-15). "Iraqi MP killed in suicide attack". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  16. ^
  17. ^ "PI points finger at Malaysia No. 2 leader in new twist to Mongolian's murder". International Herald Tribune. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 3 July 2008. 
  18. ^
  19. ^ Source: reuters // Reuters (2013-01-24). "Arabian Al-Qaeda's Number Two Is Dead (Reuters)". Archived from the original on 2013-04-16. Retrieved 2013-02-18.