List of assassinations in Europe

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This is a list of assassinations which took place on the continent of Europe.

For the purposes of this article, an assassination is defined as the deliberate, premeditated murder of a prominent figure, often for religious or political reasons.



Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1913 Franz Schuhmeier, socialist member of parliament Paul Kunschak
1916 Count Karl von Stürgkh, Minister-President of Austria Friedrich Adler
1925 Hugo Bettauer, journalist and writer, critic of antisemitism Otto Rothstock, Austrian Nazi Party member
1934 Engelbert Dollfuss, Chancellor of Austria[1] Paul Hudl, Otto Planetta and other Austrian Nazis Part of a failed coup d'état, the July Putsch.
1936 Moritz Schlick, German philosopher Johann Nelböck, student Shot at the University of Vienna
1975 Daniş Tunalıgil, Turkish ambassador Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide
1989 Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, dissident Kurdish Iranian political leader Sahra-roodi and others, Islamic republic of Iran Intelligence agency Killed in Vienna on the negotiation table
2009 Umar Israilov, Former bodyguard of Ramzan Kadyrov Chechen criminal group, ordered by Ramzan Kadyrov


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1943 Wilhelm Kube, German Nazi Generalkommissar for Weissruthenien (Belarus) Yelena Mazanik Killed in Minsk.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1127 Charles I, Count of Flanders
1950 Julien Lahaut, chairman of the Communist Party of Belgium Belgian royalists Shot in his home town of Seraing.
1971 Maximiliano Gómez, Dominican communist leader Poisoned by his lover in Brussels.
1990 Gerald Bull, Canadian developer of the Martlet cannon Shot outside his apartment in Brussels.
1991 André Cools, Belgian politician Killed in Liège.

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie Gavrilo Princip This assassination played a role in starting World War I[1]
1993 Hakija Turajlić, deputy prime minister


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1895 Stefan Stambolov, former Prime Minister of Bulgaria Died in Sofia after being stabbed.
1907 Dimitar Petkov, Prime Minister of Bulgaria Killed in Sofia.
1923 Aleksandar Stamboliyski, Prime Minister of Bulgaria Killed in his home town of Slavovitsa.
1943 Hristo Lukov, soldier and rightist politician
1995 Vasil Iliev, insurance boss, owner of "VIS-2", former wrestler Shot while being driven in Sofia.
October 2, 1996 Andrey Lukanov, former Prime Minister of Bulgaria[2] Shot outside his apartment in Sofia.
2003 Iliya Pavlov, president of Multigroup corporation, former wrestler, the wealthiest man in Bulgaria Shot outside his office in Sofia.
2005 Georgi Iliev, football club owner, brother of the assassinated Vasil Iliev Shot in a restaurant in Sunny Beach.
2005 Emil Kyulev, banker, ex-professional swimmer, voted Mr. Economics in Bulgaria for 2002 Shot while driving along Boulevard Bulgaria in Sofia.
2006 Ivan "Doktora" Todorov, businessman alleged of smuggling
2008 Borislav Georgiev, CEO of "Atomenergoremont" nuclear plant repair company


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
480 Julius Nepos, Roman emperor Assassinated near Salona (modern Solin).
1931 Milan Šufflay, nationalist writer
1933 Josip Predavec, politician
1991 Ante Paradžik, politician


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1970 Polykarpos Giorkatzis, government minister
1974 Rodger Paul Davies, United States ambassador

Czech Republic[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
921 Saint Ludmila, wife of Duke Bořivoj, grandmother of Duke Václav I Tunna and Gomon Tunna and Gomon were Viking warriors hired by Ludmila's daughter-in-law Drahomíra I., they killed Ludmila by strangulation
935 Václav I (Saint Wenceslas), Duke of Bohemia Stabbed to death in Stará Boleslav
1306 Václav III, King of Bohemia Killed in Olomouc.
1634 Albrecht von Wallenstein, Bohemian Generalissimo during the Thirty Years' War Walter Devereux Stabbed to death in Cheb.
1923 Alois Rašín, Minister of Finances of Czechoslovakia Josef Šoupal Shot in Prague.
1923 Rayko Daskalov, Bulgarian politician Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization
1927 Ceno Kryeziu, Albanian ambassador in Prague Alqiviadh Bebi Shot in Prague.
1942 Reinhard Heydrich, a General in the Nazi German paramilitary corps and governor of occupied Czech lands Jan Kubiš, Jozef Gabčík Died after being wounded by a bomb thrown at him as he was being driven through Libeň near Prague. The massacre of Lidice followed as a retribution by the Nazis. A legend has it that he deliberately put the Crown of Bohemia on his head beforehand, meaning an untimely death.
2006 František Mrázek, controversial Czech entrepreneur Shot in the heart by a sniper


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1086 Canute IV, King of Denmark
1286 Erik V Klipping, King of Denmark


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1904 Nikolai Ivanovich Bobrikov, Governor-General of Finland Eugen Schauman Happens on day described in James Joyce's novel Ulysses, is briefly mentioned in the book.
1905 Eliel Soisalon-Soininen, attorney General Lennart Hohenthal
1911 Valde Hirvikanta, president of Turku Court of Appeal Bruno Forsström
1922 Heikki Ritavuori, Minister of the Interior of Finland Ernst Tandefelt


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1354 Charles d'Espagne, constable of France
1358 Étienne Marcel, Parisian merchant
1407 Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans
1419 John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy Tanneguy du Chastel and Jean Louvet during a parley with the French dauphin (the future Charles VII of France)
1572 Gaspard de Coligny Besme An initial act in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
1589 Henri III, King of France Jacques Clément Religious-political antagonism.
1610 Henri IV, King of France François Ravaillac Religious-political antagonism.
1617 Concino Concini, chief minister
1789 Jacques de Flesselles, Provost of Paris
1793 Jean-Paul Marat, revolutionary Charlotte Corday Stabbed in his bathtub. Later often seen as a patriotic act.[by whom?]
February 13, 1820 Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, younger son of the future King Charles X Louis Pierre Louvel
June 24, 1894 Marie François Sadi Carnot, President of France Sante Geronimo Caserio, anarchist Stabbed to death after a speech in Lyon.
July 30, 1914 Jean Jaurès, politician, pacifist[3] Raoul Villain Killed in Paris. The assassin was tried and acquitted in 1919.
1920 Esat Toptani, former Albanian leader Avni Rustemi
1926 Symon Petlyura, Ukrainian president-in-exile Sholom Schwartzbard Killed in Paris. The jury acquitted the murderer.[4]
May 6, 1932 Paul Doumer, President of France Paul Gorguloff Shot at a book fair at the Hôtel Salomon de Rothschild, Paris.[1]
1934 Alexander I of Yugoslavia, king of Yugoslavia Vlado Chernozemski Killed in Marseille during a state visit.
1934 Louis Barthou, foreign minister of France Vlado Chernozemski Killed along with King Alexander I of Yugoslavia at Marseille.
1938 Ernst vom Rath, German diplomat in France Herschel Grynszpan Killed in Paris.
1941 Marx Dormoy, politician
1944 Constant Chevillon, head of FUDOFSI Killed by Gestapo in Lyon
1944 Philippe Henriot, State secretary for Information and Propaganda of Vichy government Killed by French resistants in Paris
1944 Georges Mandel, former radical-socialist minister and French resistant Killed by miliciens in forest of Fontainebleau
1944 Eugène Deloncle, milicien and former leader of clandestine far-right organisation La Cagoule Killed by Gestapo
1965 Mehdi Ben Barka, Moroccan socialist leader and Third-World Tricontinental leader Disappeared in Paris
December 8, 1972 Mahmoud Hamshari, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) representative in Paris Mossad, Israeli Secret Service Killed in his apartment by a bomb planted in his telephone as he answered a call in retribution for the Black September attack and killing of Israeli athletes in the Munich Massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics, the second of a number of revenges pursuant to Operation Wrath of God.
1973 Outel Bono, Chadian medical doctor and anti-Tombalbaye activist Shot while climbing into his car in Paris by unknown hand.
June 28, 1973 Mohammad Boudia, the Algerian-born director of operations for Black September in France Mossad, Israeli Secret Service Killed in Paris by a pressure-activated bomb packed with heavy nuts and bolts placed under his car seat as part of Operation Wrath of God.
1975 İsmail Erez, Turkish ambassador Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia
1976 Jean de Broglie, former minister and one of the French negotiators of the Évian Accords
1978 François Duprat, neofascist writer
1978 Henri Curiel, anticolonialist activist Shot in Paris by unknown hand.
1978 Bruno Bušić, Croatian/Yugoslav writer Yugoslav secret police
1978 José Miguel Beñaran Ordeñana "Argala", Basque leader Killed by a bomb in Anglet, allegedly planted by the Batallón Vasco Español.
1979 Pierre Goldman, left-wing activist Shot in Paris by unknown hand.
1979 Robert Boulin, minister of Labor and many times minister since 1961 Officially suicide, but a lot of anomalies revealed since.
1979 Zuhair Muhsin, Palestinian political leader
1980 Joseph Fontanet, former minister Killed in Paris.
1980 Salah al-Din Bitar, Syrian Baath politician Killed in Paris.
1980 Yehia El-Mashad, Egyptian atomic scientist Shot at the Le Méridien hotel in Paris.
1982 Jean-Pierre Maïone-Libaude, right-wing activist and criminal Shot at Argent-sur-Sauldre soon after being released from prison.
July 23, 1982 Fadl Dani, deputy director of the PLO office in Paris Mossad, Israeli Secret Service Killed in Paris by a bomb that had been placed in his car as part of Operation Wrath of God.
1986 Georges Besse, Renault executive Shot while emerging from his car in Paris, by far-left activists of Action directe
1988 Dulcie September, African National Congress representative Killed in Paris.
1990 Joseph Doucé, activist for sexual minorities Corpse found in Rambouillet forest; murder remains unsolved
1991 Shapour Bakhtiar, Prime Minister of Iran briefly in 1979. Killed along with his secretary and soon after Abdorrahman Boroumand. Stabbed to death at his home in France.
1995 Abdelbaki Sahraoui, co-founder of the Algerian Islamic Salvation Front Killed in Paris.
1998 Claude Érignac, prefect of Corsica Yvan Colonna Shot in Ajaccio by a Corsican nationalist.
2013 Sakine Cansız, Fidan Doğan and Leyla Söylemez, Kurdish nationalists Shot at Rue La Fayette, Paris.
2016 Jacques Hamel, priest of Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray Adel Kermiche and Abdel Malik Petitjean Stabbed to death during mass at his church. See 2016 Normandy church attack.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1994 Giorgi Chanturia, Georgian opposition politician Chanturia and his wife were shot by four gunmen in their car
2007 Guram Sharadze, Georgian historian and politician He was assassinated in Tbilisi


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
235 Alexander Severus, Roman emperor Killed near Moguntiacum (present-day Mainz) by his troops.
268 Postumus, Gallic emperor Killed in Mainz
268 Laelianus, Gallic emperor Killed in Mainz
997 Adalbert of Prague, Czech Bishop, in Prussia Prussian Heathen He was tortured to death near coast of Baltic sea, now there is town of Elbląg
1208 Philipp von Hohenstaufen, Emperor, in Bamberg
1225 Engelbert I. von Köln, Archbishop of Cologne
1233 Konrad von Marburg, inquisitor
1819 August von Kotzebue, dramatist Karl Ludwig Sand
1919 Rosa Luxemburg, socialist writer Killed in Berlin.
1919 Karl Liebknecht, socialist lawyer and politician Killed in Berlin.
1919 Kurt Eisner, Prime Minister of Bavaria Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley Killed in Munich.
1919 Leo Jogiches, Marxist revolutionary
1919 Hugo Haase, socialist politician
1921 Talat Pasha, former Ottoman Minister of Interior Affairs Soghomon Tehlirian Killed in Berlin.
1921 Matthias Erzberger, politician Members of Organisation Consul Shot at Bad Griesbach.
1922 Bahattin Şakir, Turkish genocide suspect Armenian Revolutionary Federation
June 24, 1922 Walther Rathenau, German foreign minister[3] Ernst Werner Techow, Erwin Kern and Hermann Fischer Shot as he was being driven through Berlin by assassins in another car.
1934 Ernst Röhm, leader of the Sturm Abteilung (SA) Michael Lippert Shot in Stadelheim Prison by SS officers during the Night of the Long Knives.
1934 Kurt von Schleicher, former German chancellor SS officers Murdered at Babelsberg by the SS during the Night of the Long Knives. His wife Elisabeth was also killed.
1934 Erich Klausener, politician Night of the Long Knives
1934 Gregor Strasser, politician Night of the Long Knives
1957 Lev Rebet, Ukrainian nationalist leader Bohdan Stashynsky, KGB Poisoned by cyanide gas in Munich.
1959 Stepan Bandera, Ukrainian nationalist leader Bohdan Stashynsky, KGB Poisoned by cyanide gas in Munich.
1961 Salah Ben Youssef, Tunisian politician Shot in a hotel in Frankfurt.
1967 Benno Ohnesorg, German student Karl-Heinz Kurras, German police officer Shot during a demonstration in West-Berlin
1970 Krim Belkacem, Algerian politician Shot in a hotel in Frankfurt.
1977 Siegfried Buback, German attorney general Red Army Faction members Shot while driving his car near Karlsruhe.
1977 Jürgen Ponto, CEO Dresdner Bank Red Army Faction members Killed in Frankfurt.
1977 Hanns-Martin Schleyer, president of the German employers' organization Red Army Faction members Kidnapped and later killed.
1989 Alfred Herrhausen, Deutsche Bank CEO Red Army Faction members Killed by a bicycle bomb as his car passed in Bad Homburg.
1991 Detlev Karsten Rohwedder, director of Treuhandanstalt for former East Germany Red Army Faction members Killed in Düsseldorf.
1992 Sadeq Sharafkandi, Fattah Abdoli, Homayoun Ardalan, Nouri Dehkordi, dissident Kurdish Iranian political leaders Ordered by Islamic Republic of Iran's leaders Rafsanjani, Khameneye and others Killed in Berlin (see Mykonos restaurant assassinations).
1992 Petra Kelly, Green politician and activist Allegedly by her partner, ex-general Gert Bastian, who then killed himself Shot in Bonn while sleeping.
2019 Walter Lübcke, Christian Democratic politician Ongoing Shot outside his own home in Istha.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
514 BC Hipparchus (son of Peisistratos), Tyrant of Athens Harmodius and Aristogeiton
461 BC Ephialtes, leader of the radical democracy movement in Athens
404 BC Alcibiades, Athenian general and politician
October, 336 BC Philip II of Macedon, king of Macedon Pausanias of Orestis Assassinated in the theatre of ancient Aegae (present-day Vergina).
314 BC Alexander, regent of Macedonia Alexion, a Siyconian Killed in Sicyon.
281 BC Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid dynasty Killed near Lysimachia.
251 BC Abantidas, tyrant of Sicyon
192 BC Nabis, Tyrant of Sparta Aetolian League
1831 Ioannis Kapodistrias, first President of Greece Konstantinos Mavromichalis and Georgios Mavromichalis Killed outside Nafplio church. Konstantinos Mavromichalis was thrown over a cliff by the citizens of Nafplio; Georgios Mavromichalis was executed by firing squad.
June 13, 1905 Theodoros Deligiannis, Prime Minister of Greece Antonios Gherakaris Stabbed outside the Greek parliament.
March 8, 1907 Marinos Antypas, Greek politician Killed at Pyrgetos in Thessaly.
1912 Andreas Kopasis, governor of Samos
March 18, 1913 George I of Greece, King of Greece[2] Alexandros Schinas Shot while walking in Thessaloniki. Possible conspiracy.
May 1948 George Polk, American journalist critical of US aid to rightist Greek government
1963 Grigoris Lambrakis, leader of anti-fascist movement in Greece Emannouel Emannouilides and Spyro Gotzamanis Killed with a club in Thessaloniki.
1975 Richard Welch, CIA Station Chief Shot as he was being driven through Athens.
1983 George Tsantes; U.S. military attaché in Athens & deputy chief of the Joint United States Military Aid Group to Greece Members of Revolutionary Organization 17 November Killed in Athens.
1988 Hagop Hagopian, Armenian leader of ASALA Killed in Athens.
1988 William Nordeen, Tsantes successor as U.S. military attaché in Athens Members of Revolutionary Organization 17 November Killed in Athens.
1989 Pavlos Bakoyannis, New Democracy politician Members of Revolutionary Organization 17 November Shot outside his office in Athens.
2000 Stephen Saunders, Brigadier and British military attaché in Athens Members of Revolutionary Organization 17 November Killed by a motorcycle gunman as he was driving in Athens.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1209 Csépán Győr, Palatine of Hungary Tiba Tomaj Motivation is unclear
September 28, 1213 Gertrude of Merania, queen consort Group of Hungarian nobles led by Peter, son of Töre Stabbed for her blatant favoritism towards her German kinsmen and courtiers
November 1272 Béla, Duke of Macsó Henry Kőszegi After his murder, his duchy was divided among the leading noble families
July 10, 1290 Ladislaus IV, King of Hungary Three Cumans – Árbóc, Törtel and Kemence
October 31, 1918 István Tisza, Prime Minister of Hungary[3]


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
September 23, 1241 Snorri Sturluson, historian and politician Gissur Þorvaldsson


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1014 Brian Boruma, Irish king Brodir Killed while praying in his tent during the aftermath of the Battle of Clontarf.
1186 Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath Gilla-Gan-Mathiar O'Maidhaigh Durrow, County Offaly
1189 Conchobar Maenmaige Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht Manus mac Flann Ua Finaghty, Aodh mac Brian, Muircheartach mac Cathal mac Dermot mac Tadhg, Giolla na Naomh Ua Mulvihill Assassination instigated by Conchobar ua nDiarmata, a rival for the title of King of Connacht. The victim's son Cathal Carragh Ua Conchobair later killed Conchobar ua nDiarmata in revenge.
1882 Lord Frederick Charles Cavendish, Chief Secretary for Ireland Irish National Invincibles
1920 Tomás Mac Curtain, Lord Mayor of Cork Auxiliaries and RIC men Shot in his home by a group of masked men, likely members of the Royal Irish Constabulary.
1920 Cairo Gang Irish Republican Army 12 British intelligence agents, assassinated on the morning of 21 November 1920 in coordinated attacks.
1922 Sean Hales, Pro-Treaty Sinn Féin TD Anti-Treaty IRA Killed as he left Dáil Éireann; fellow TD Pádraic Ó Máille was injured in the same attack, which was in reprisal against executions of anti-Treaty prisoners
1922 Michael Collins, President of the Provisional Government and Irish Republican Army (IRA) guerrilla leader during the Irish War of Independence[5] Sonny O'Neill Killed in an ambush firefight near the end of Irish Civil War.
1927 Kevin O'Higgins, Irish politician, Minister of Home Affairs/Minister of Justice of the Irish Free State[3] Timothy Coughlin, Bill Gannon and Archie Doyle Killed while on his way to Mass by three anti-Treaty members of the IRA.
1932 Patrick Reynolds, Cumann na nGaedheal TD Joseph Leddy Shot dead during the 1932 election campaign by an ex-RIC policeman who had a personal grudge against him.[6][7]
1936 Henry Boyle Townshend Somerville Anti-Treaty IRA Assassinated for providing assistance to Royal Navy recruits.
1976 Christopher Ewart-Biggs, British ambassador to Ireland IRA Killed by a land mine planted by the IRA.
1979 Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Royal Navy Admiral of the Fleet, last Viceroy of India[2] IRA Killed by a bomb onboard his boat; three other people killed, including his grandson.
1991 Eddie Fullerton, Sinn Féin county councillor Ulster Defence Association Shot at his home in Buncrana
1994 Dominic McGlinchey, Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) leader Shot 14 times while making a call in a phone box.
1996 Veronica Guerin, Irish journalist


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
748 BC Titus Tatius, Sabine king Killed in Rome.
579 BC Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Etruscan king of Rome Killed in Rome by the sons of Ancus Marcius.
554 BC Phalaris, Tyrant of Agrigento Killed in an uprising led by Telemachus (Acragas) Killed in Sicily. Said to be burned in his own brazen bull.
534 BC Servius Tullius, Etruscan king of Rome Tarquin II Killed in Rome.
439 BC Spurius Maelius, Wealthy Roman plebeian Gaius Servilius Ahala
354 BC Dion of Syracuse, tyrant of Syracuse Calippus of Syracuse Killed in Sicily
352 BC Calippus of Syracuse, tyrant of Syracuse revolting mercenaries led by Leptines II and Polyperchon reputedly was stabbed to death with the same sword he assassinated Dion less than two years earlier.
133 BC Tiberius Gracchus, Roman tribune Killed in Rome by Roman senators.
91 BC Marcus Livius Drusus, Roman tribune Resulted in the Social War.
44 BC Julius Caesar, Roman general and dictator Marcus Junius Brutus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, and other members of the Roman Senate Resulted in a series of civil wars and indirectly in the end of the Roman Republic.
43 BC Cicero, Roman orator Killed near Formiae under orders from Mark Antony and with the approval of the Second Triumvirate.
41 Caligula, Roman Emperor Cassius Chaerea, Marcus Vinicius, Lucius Annius Vinicianus, members of the Praetorian Guard, and others
54 Claudius, Roman Emperor Uncertain, reputed to be Agrippina the Younger on behalf of Nero Rumored to be killed by poison mushrooms supplied by Locusta.
69 Vitellius, Roman Emperor Killed in Rome by the Flavian army.
69 Galba, Roman Emperor Killed in Rome by the Praetorian Guard under orders from Otho.
96 Domitian, Roman Emperor Stephanus, steward to Julia Flavia Killed in Rome.
192 Commodus, Roman Emperor Narcissus, wrestler Killed in Rome.
193 Pertinax, Roman Emperor Killed in Rome by the Praetorian Guard.
193 Didius Julianus, Roman Emperor Killed in Rome by the Praetorian Guard.
212 Publius Septimius Geta, Roman Emperor Killed in Rome by centurions under orders of Caracalla.
217 Caracalla, Roman Emperor Martialis Killed between Edessa and Carrhae (modern-day Sanli Urfa and Harran), possibly under orders of Macrinus.
222 Elagabalus, Roman Emperor Killed in Rome by the Praetorian Guard under orders of Julia Maesa and Julia Mamaea.
238 Maximinus Thrax, Roman Emperor Killed outside Aquileia by his troops.
238 Pupienus, Roman Emperor Killed in Rome by the Praetorian Guard. See Year of the Six Emperors.
238 Balbinus, Roman Emperor Killed in Rome by the Praetorian Guard. See Year of the Six Emperors.
253 Volusianus, Roman Emperor Killed near Interamna by his troops.
253 Trebonianus Gallus, Roman Emperor Killed near Interamna by his troops.
275 Aurelian, Roman Emperor Mucapor and members of the Praetorian Guard Killed near Caenophrurium (modern-day Corlu).
276 Florianus, Roman Emperor Killed near Tarsus.
882 Pope John VIII
1052 Boniface III, Margrave of Tuscany
1345 Andrew, Duke of Calabria
1412 Gian Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan[8]
1478 Giuliano de' Medici, co-ruler of Florence Francesco de' Pazzi and Bernardo Bandini Giuliano was stabbed 19 times, in an incident known as the Pazzi conspiracy. Lorenzo de' Medici was also attacked, but escaped with his life.
1497 Giovanni Borgia, Duke of Gandia, son of Pope Alexander VI
1537 Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence Lorenzino de' Medici
1848 Pellegrino Rossi, Papal States Minister of Justice
July 29, 1900 Umberto I of Italy, King of Italy[5] Gaetano Bresci He was shot four times with a revolver. The reason was the royal decoration of the general Fiorenzo Bava Beccaris, who ordered a bloody repression in Milan in 1898. Influenced Leon Czologsz to kill United States President William McKinley in 1901.
1921 Said Halim Pasha, former Ottoman Prime Minister Arshavir Shirakian Killed in Rome owing to his alleged role in the Armenian Genocide.
June 10, 1924 Giacomo Matteotti, Italian socialist politician[3] Kidnapped and killed by Fascists.
1925 Luigj Gurakuqi, Albanian independence leader Baltjon Stambolla Killed in Bari.
April 28, 1945 Benito Mussolini, fascist, former Prime Minister of Italy[9]
See: Death of Benito Mussolini
Walter Audisio and fellow Communists Shot in the village of Giulino di Mezzegra in Lombardy. His lover Clara Petacci was also killed.
1962 Enrico Mattei, Italian public head officer, head of Eni oil company, supported Algerian independence Died in a plane crash near Bascapè in Lombardy, allegedly caused by a bomb.
1972 Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, Italian publisher and partizan of leftist guerrilla movements Died during a bomb attack, probably with Italian secret service involvement
1975 Pier Paolo Pasolini, Italian writer, poet and film director Giuseppe Pelosi Died in Ostia after being run over by his own car which Pelosi had stolen.
1977 Taha Carım, Turkish ambassador to the Holy See Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide
1978 Aldo Moro, former Prime Minister of Italy Members of the Red Brigades Kidnapped and later killed. See Kidnapping of Aldo Moro.
1978 Giuseppe Impastato, anti-mafia activist Members of the Mafia Killed by a charge of TNT placed under his own body.
1979 Cesare Terranova, magistrate Shot as he was being driven through Palermo. His driver was also killed.
1980 Piersanti Mattarella, Sicilian president Sicilian Mafia
1982 Pio La Torre, Communist politician Sicilian Mafia
1982 Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa, General of the Carabinieri Corps, investigating on the Mafia Giuseppe Greco, Giuseppe Lucchese and members of the Mafia Shot as he was being driven through Palermo. His wife and their driver were also killed.
1983 Rocco Chinnici, magistrate Giuseppe Greco, Michele Greco and members of the Mafia Car bombing in Palermo.
1992 Giovanni Falcone, anti-mafia judge Giovanni Brusca Killed in motorway bombing near Palermo.
1992 Paolo Borsellino, anti-mafia judge Salvatore Riina and members of the Mafia Car bombing in Palermo, in which five police officers were also killed. See Massacre of Via D'Amelio.
1992 Salvo Lima, politician Members of the Mafia Shot as he climbed out of his car in Palermo.
2002 Marco Biagi, Italian Labor Ministry advisor Members of the New Red Brigades Killed in Bologna.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
15 June 1389 Murad I Ottoman sultan Miloš Obilić Assassinated in Kosovo Polje.
1889 Ali Pasha of Gusinje one of the leaders of League of Prizren Assassinated in Rugova canyon near Peć.
31 March 1903 Grigoriy Schterbina Russian consul Albanian Ottoman officer Assassinated in Mitrovica
2003 Tahir Zemaj Assassinated in Peć.
16 January 2018 Oliver Ivanović Unknown (investigation underway) Assassinated in North Mitrovica.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
30 May 2018 Mārtiņš Bunkus Bankruptcy administrator Unknown, under investigation Assassinated near Brothers' Cemetery in Riga. Was shot dead from a moving truck, while driving.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1995 Fathi Shaqaqi, Palestinian politician Mossad Shot outside a hotel in Sliema.
2017 Daphne Caruana Galizia, Journalist and blogger Unknown (investigation underway) Killed in a car bomb attack near her home in Bidnija.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1860 Danilo I, Prince of Montenegro Killed in Kotor (then Austria-Hungary) by a member of Bjelopavlici tribe.
1945 Sekula Drljević, Montenegrin nationalist


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
754 Saint Boniface, Christian missionary
1099 Conrad, Bishop of Utrecht
1296 Count Floris V
1425 Duke John of Straubing-Holland
1584 William I of Orange, leader of the Dutch war of independence from Spanish rule (Eighty Years' War) Balthasar Gérard
1649 Isaac Dorislaus, diplomat
1672 Johan de Witt, politician, and his brother Murdered by orangist lynch mob in The Hague
1672 Cornelis de Witt, politician Murdered by orangist lynch mob in The Hague
1938 Yevhen Konovalets, Ukrainian nationalist Pavel Sudoplatov, NKVD Bomb in a box of chocolates
1943 Folkert Posthuma, Nazi collaborator
1945 Hannie Schaft, underground Resistance fighter Dutch Nazi officials Executed in the dunes of Bloemendaal
1979 Richard Sykes, British ambassador Provisional Irish Republican Army Shot in The Hague
1987 Gerrit Jan Heijn, top manager of Ahold Ferdi Elsas Kidnapped and later killed.
2002 Pim Fortuyn, election candidate Volkert van der Graaf Shot in Hilversum.
2004 Theo van Gogh, film director, writer and critic Mohammed Bouyeri Shot and stabbed in Amsterdam.
2005 Louis Sévèke, leftwing journalist Marcel Theunissen Shot by rifle gun, downtown Nijmegen.
2014 Els Borst, politician


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1136 Harald IV Gille of Norway, King assassinated by a pretender to the throne Sigurd Slembe Slembe claimed he was his half brother and wanted his throne

Ottoman Empire[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1389 Murad I, Third Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Serbian knight Miloš Obilić Killed during Battle of Kosovo.
1579 Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, Grand Vizier of Ottoman Empire
1622 Osman II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
January 23, 1913 Mahmud Şevket Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire[3]
1929 Djemal Pasha, former Ottoman Minister for the Navy Killed in Istanbul, due to his role in the Armenian Genocide


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1079 Stanislaus of Szczepanów, Bishop of Kraków (now a saint)
December 16, 1922 Gabriel Narutowicz, President of Poland[3] Eligiusz Niewiadomski Killed five days after his inauguration, while attending the opening of an art exhibit at the Zachęta Gallery in Warsaw.
June 15, 1934 Bronisław Pieracki, Minister of Interior of Poland OUN
August 29, 1931 Tadeusz Hołówko, interwar Polish politician, diplomat OUN
1942 Marceli Nowotko, Communist politician Unknown hit man from the Gakowski Crime Family
1943 Wilhelm Krüger, German chief of Gestapo operations in Nazi-occupied Poland three fighters of the Polish resistance Killed in Krakow.
1943 Franz Bürkl, German Sicherheitspolizei officer Jerzy Zborowski and Szare Szeregi-men See Operation Heads.
1943 Helmut Kapp, German Gestapo member soldiers of the Polish Home Army See Operation Heads.
1944 Karl Freudenthal, German officer of the Schutzstaffel, Kreishauptmann of powiat Garwolin 20 soldiers of the Polish Home Army See Operation Heads.
1944 Franz Kutschera, German SS general and chief of police Armia Krajowa Killed by Polish resistance. See Operation Kutschera.
1947 Karol Świerczewski, Army general Ukrainian Insurgent Army
1984 Jerzy Popiełuszko, Polish priest Killed by the communist political police.
1992 Piotr Jaroszewicz, former prime minister
1998 Marek Papała, chief of the police Believed to have been killed by the Polish mafia.
1999 Andrzej Kolikowski, leader of the Pruszków mafia in Poland Ryszard Bogucki Shot in Zakopane
14 January 2019 Paweł Adamowicz, Mayor of Gdańsk[10] Stefan W. Stabbed to death at a charity event


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
139 BC Viriathus, leader of the Lusitanian people that resisted Roman expansion over the regions of Western Iberia
7 January 1355 Inês de Castro, posthumously declared Queen of Portugal
1 February 1908 Carlos I of Portugal, King, and Luiz Filipe of Portugal, Crown Prince[3] Manuel Buíça and Alfredo Luís da Costa Shot by assassins sympathetic to Republican interests and aided by anti-monarchic society Portuguese Carbonária.
3 October 1910 Miguel Bombarda Aparício Rebelo dos Santos Shot by a mental patient, just before the 5 October 1910 revolution, of which he was one of the civil leaders.
1918 Sidónio Pais, President José Júlio da Costa Shot at Rossio railway station in Lisbon. See Assassination of Sidónio Pais.
1921 António Joaquim Granjo, prime minister See Bloody Night (Lisbon, 1921)
António Machado Santos
José Carlos da Maia
Freitas da Silva
Botelho de Vasconcelos
1965 Humberto Delgado, General, Presidential Candidate
1983 Issam Sartawi, member of the Palestine Liberation Organization Shot in a hotel.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1601 Mihai Viteazul, Ruler of Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania
1862 Barbu Catargiu, Prime Minister of Romania Killed in Bucharest.
1933 Ion Duca, Prime Minister of Romania Nicolae Constantinescu Shot at Sinaia railway station.
1938 Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, politician Members of the Romanian Gendarmerie Killed in Tâncăbeşti.
1939 Armand Călinescu, Prime Minister of Romania[9] Members of the Iron Guard Shot while being driven through Bucharest.
1940 Nicolae Iorga, former Prime Minister of Romania, historian Kidnapped and later killed.
1940 Gheorghe Argeșanu, former Prime Minister Iron Guard
1940 Virgil Madgearu, politician Kidnapped and later killed.
1945 Constantin Tănase, actor
1989 Danny Huwe, Belgian journalist Shot by a sniper during the Romanian Revolution.

Russia/Soviet Union[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1762 Peter III of Russia, Emperor of Russia Unknown Possibly organized by Catherine the Great
1801 Paul I of Russia, Emperor of Russia Band of dismissed officers led by Levin August, Count von Bennigsen, Vladimir Mikhailovich Yashvil, Nikolay Zubov and others Organized by Peter Ludwig von der Pahlen, Nikita Petrovich Panin and José de Ribas
1825 Mikhail Miloradovich, military Governor of Saint Petersburg Pyotr Kakhovsky
1878 Nikolay Mezentsov, Executive Director of the Third Section Sergey Stepnyak-Kravchinsky
March 13, 1881 Alexander II of Russia, Tsar of All the Russias[1] Ignacy Hryniewiecki Assassination plot concluded with bombs.
1893 Nikolay Alekseyev, Mayor of Moscow Andrianov
April 8, 1902 Dmitry Sipyagin, Russian Interior Minister[3] Stepan Balmashov
1904 Vyacheslav von Plehve, Russian Interior Minister Yegor Sazonov
1905 Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich Romanov, former Governor-General of Moscow Ivan Kalyayev Organized by the SR Combat Organization
September 14, 1911 Pyotr Stolypin, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Bogrov Killed in theater in Kiev[3]
December 30, 1916 Grigori Rasputin, controversial friar and mystic[5] Band of nobles led by Felix Yusupov, Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich of Russia, Vladimir Purishkevich and Vasily Maklakov
1917 Ivan Logginovich Goremykin, former Prime Minister Konstantin X Kotev
July 16, 1918 Tsar Nicholas II and his family: Tsarina Alexandra, Tsarevich Alexei, Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia, physician Eugene Botkin, maid Anna Demidova, footman Alexei Trupp and cook Ivan Kharitonov Cheka officers led by Yakov Yurovsky Order given by Yakov Sverdlov on behalf of Vladimir Lenin
July 18, 1918 Elizabeth of Hesse, Grand Duchess of Russia, Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich, Princes John Constantinovich, Constantine Constantinovich and Igor Constantinovich, poet and prince Vladimir Paley and nun Varvara Yakovleva Cheka officers
1918 V. Volodarsky, revolutionary Grigory Ivanovich Semyonov
1918 Wilhelm von Mirbach, German Ambassador in Moscow Yakov Blumkin
December 1, 1934 Sergey Kirov, Bolshevik party leader in Leningrad[3] Leonid Nikolaev
1948 Solomon Mikhoels, Chairman of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee[11] Police officers, led by Sergei Ogoltsov Ordered by Joseph Stalin
1991 Igor Talkov, singer-songwriter, anti-Soviet activist Allegedly Valeriy Schlyafman
1995 Vladislav Listyev, a Russian journalist and head of the ORT TV Channel Unknown
1996 Dzhokhar Dudayev, first Chechen separatist President and anti-Russian guerrilla leader Russian military
1998 Valeriy Hubulov, South Ossetian politician, former prime minister Unknown
1998 Galina Starovoytova, influential politician, then member of Russian parliament (Duma) Yuri Kolchin and Vitali Akishin
1998 Larisa Yudina, Kalmyk journalist
1998 Otakhon Latifi, Tajik journalist and opposition figure Allegedly Abdullo Tursunov
2003 Sergei Yushenkov, Russian politician Mikhail Kodanev and others Killed in Moscow[12]
2003 Yuri Shchekochikhin, Russian journalist Unknown Killed in Moscow[13]
2004 Paul Klebnikov, editor of the Russian edition of Forbes magazine
2004 Akhmad Kadyrov, Kremlin-backed President of the Chechen Republic Presumed to be Chechen Islamists Killed along with about 30 others in a football stadium during a Soviet Victory Day parade, by a bomb that had been built into the concrete of one of the stadium's supporting columns.
2005 Aslan Maskhadov, President of separatist Chechnya
2005 Anatoly Trofimov, former FSB deputy director
2005 Magomed Omarov, deputy Interior Minister of Dagestan
2005 Bayaman Erkinbayev, Kyrgyz MP
2006 Altynbek Sarsenbayev, Kazakh politician
2006 Abdul-Khalim Sadulayev, President of separatist Chechnya
2006 Anna Politkovskaya, Russian journalist and human rights campaigner Unknown; many theories Shot in the elevator block of her apartment in Moscow. See Assassination of Anna Politkovskaya.
2008 Vitaly Karayev, mayor of Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia–Alania
2008 Kazbek Pagiyev, former mayor of Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia–Alania
2008 Nina Varlamova, mayor of Kandalaksha, Murmansk Oblast
2009 Anastasia Baburova, journalist
2009 Stanislav Markelov, human rights lawyer
2009 Adilgerei Magomedtagirov, interior minister of Dagestan
2009 Aza Gazgireyeva, deputy chair of Ingushetia Supreme Court
2009 Bashir Aushev, former deputy prime minister of Ingushetia
2009 Natalia Estemirova, human rights activist
2011 Gadzhimurat Kamalov, journalist
2015 Boris Nemtsov, politician Unknown See "Assassination of Boris Nemtsov"
2016 Andrei Karlov, Ambassador to Turkey Mevlut Mert Altintas (Turkish Police Officer) See "Assassination of Andrei Karlov"


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
Roman Empire
268 Gallienus, Roman emperor Killed near Naissus.
282 Probus, Roman emperor Assassinated at Sirmium.
285 Carinus, Roman emperor Assassinated at Margus.
Ottoman period
1804 72 notable Serbs Dahije Slaughter of the Knezes
1815 Kara-Marko Vasić, revolutionary Ordered by Miloš Obrenović.
1816 Melentije Nikšić, revolutionary Ordered by Miloš Obrenović.
1817 Karađorđe Petrović, leader of the First Serbian Uprising Nikola Novaković Nikola Novaković, a henchman of Vujica Vulićević, killed the sleeping Karađorđe with an axe blow to the head, then shot Naum Krnar, in the village of Radovanje. Ordered by rival Miloš Obrenović.
Serbian monarchy
1868 Mihailo Obrenović, Prince of Serbia Pavle Radovanović and Kosta Radovanović Shot in Košutnjak, a park in Belgrade, as part of a conspiracy.
1885 Čakr-paša, hajduk Toma Stanković
1903 Aleksandar Obrenović, King of Serbia, and Draga Mašin, Queen Consort Army officers led by Dragutin Dimitrijević Killed in the royal palace as part of the May Overthrow.
1903 Lazar Petrović Killed as part of the May Overthrow.
1903 Dimitrije Cincar-Marković, Prime Minister
1921 Milorad Drašković, Yugoslav interior minister Alija Alijagić
1928 Velimir Prelić, legal adviser in Skoplje Mara Buneva Shot on "Ratomir Putnik" Street in Skoplje, 13 January 1928.
1928 Đuro Basariček, Croatian politician Puniša Račić
1928 Stjepan Radić, Croatian politician. Serbian radical politician Puniša Račić. Shot in the Yugoslav Parliament in Belgrade.
1983 Galip Balkar, Turkish ambassador Armenian nationalists Harutyun Krikor Levonian and Alexander Elbekyan. Assassination of Galip Balkar
FR Yugoslavia/Serbia and Montenegro
1994 Dada Vujasinović, journalist
1994 Goran Vuković, criminal
1999 Slavko Ćuruvija, journalist
2000 Željko Ražnatović "Arkan", career-criminal and warlord
2000 Pavle Bulatović, defense minister
2000 Žika Petrović, Jat Airways executive
2000 Boško Perošević, politician Milivoje Gutović Assassinated at Novi Sad Fair.
2000 Ivan Stambolić, former President Special Operations Unit Ordered by Slobodan Milošević.
2001 Milan Pantić, journalist Unknown
2003 Zoran Đinđić, Prime Minister of Serbia Zvezdan Jovanović Jovanović killed his victim with a sniper rifle (a relatively rare type of assassination); see Assassination of Zoran Đinđić.
2004 Branko Bulatović, Football Association general secretary Unknown
Republic of Serbia
2006 Radoljub Kanjevac, criminal Unknown
2014 Rade Rakonjac, Arkan's bodyguard Unknown


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1999 Ján Ducký, government minister
2018 Ján Kuciak, Slovak journalist Unknown An investigative journalist shot dead with his girlfriend was working on a story about the activities of Italian mafia in Slovakia


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1369 Peter the Cruel, King of Castile Henry II of Castile
December 17, 1485 Pedro de Arbués, a prominent member of the Spanish Inquisition Assassinated while praying in La Seo Cathedral of Zaragosa. His death allowed Grand Inquisitor Tomás de Torquemada to massively expand the Spanish Inquisition.
1870 Juan Prim, Prime Minister of Spain and Governor of Puerto Rico Shot in Madrid by unknown hand.
1897 Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Prime Minister of Spain Michele Angiolillo Shot in a spa in Mondragón, Guipúzcoa.
1912 José Canalejas, Prime Minister of Spain Manuel Pardiñas Shot in Madrid.
1921 Eduardo Dato Iradier, Prime Minister of Spain Lluís Nicolau, Pere Mateu, and Ramon Casanelles Shot in Madrid by Catalan anarchists.
1923 Juan Cardinal Soldevilla y Romero, Roman Catholic archbishop of Zaragoza Los Solidarios
1936 José Castillo, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party lieutenant in the Assault Guards Falangist gunmen Killed in Madrid.
1936 José Calvo Sotelo, right-wing politician Killed in a police vehicle in Madrid.
1936 Federico García Lorca, Spanish poet and dramatist Nationalists Shot at Alfacar by fascists.
1936 Raoul Villain, assassin of Jean Jaurès Shot on the island of Ibiza.
1937 Camillo Berneri, Italian anarchist
1937 Andrés Nin, Spanish Communist revolutionary Taken to a camp by the Spanish Government and probably killed there. (this is disputed).
1967 Mohamed Khider, Algerian politician Killed in Madrid.
1968 Melitón Manzanas, secret police officer and state torturer Members of ETA Killed at Irún, Guipúzcoa.
December 20, 1973 Luis Carrero Blanco, Spanish prime minister[14] ETA Killed by a bomb which threw his car over a building. The murder of Luis Carrero Blanco was, according to ETA, then to intensify existing divisions within Francoist Spain between the "openness" and "purists".
1976 Juan María de Araluce Villar, Politician, President of the Provincial Deputation of Gipuzkoa Members of ETA Killed at San Sebastián, Guipúzcoa.
1977 Augusto Unceta Barrenechea, Politician, President of the Provincial Deputation of Biscay Members of ETA Killed at Guernica, Biscay.
1984 Santiago Brouard, Basque nationalist Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación
1997 Miguel Ángel Blanco, Basque politician ETA Kidnapped and later killed.
2000 Fernando Buesa Blanco, Basque politician and party leader ETA Car bombing in Vitoria.
2000 Ernest Lluch Martín, former Spanish minister ETA Shot in Barcelona.
2014 Isabel Carrasco, governor of León province, leader of People's Party in León Shot in León.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1156 King Sverker I of Sweden
1160 King Eric IX of Sweden
1167 King Charles VII of Sweden
1436 Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Regent of Sweden
1577 King Eric XIV of Sweden On order of his half-brother King John III of Sweden
1792 King Gustav III of Sweden Jacob Johan Anckarström The king was shot at a masquerade ball and died two weeks later from his wounds.
June 20, 1810 Count Axel von Fersen, Marshal of the Realm Otto Johan Tandefelt, sailor ("crushing of the ribcage" by jumping with both feet on Count von Fersen's chest.) Killed by a vicious mob in Stockholm, who blamed him for the death of Crown Prince Carl August. Army soldiers were present at the scene, but were ordered not to interfere.
1971 Vladimir Rolović, Yugoslav ambassador Croatian National Resistance
February 28, 1986 Olof Palme, Prime Minister of Sweden[2] Unknown Shot on his way home from a cinema on a street in central Stockholm. He was not accompanied by any bodyguards on this occasion.
September 11, 2003 Anna Lindh, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Sweden Mijailo Mijailović Lindh was stabbed while visiting the NK department store in central Stockholm on September 10. She died the following morning. Lindh was prominently featured in the "Yes" campaign during the Euro referendum, which took place later in the same weekend. She did not have any protective detail assigned to her, because the Swedish Security Police had not received, or perceived there to be no specific threats made against her.


Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1308 Albert I of Habsburg, German King and Duke of Austria John Parricida Albert was killed by his nephew, whom he had deprived of his inheritance, at Windisch on the Reuss River.
1639 Jörg Jenatsch Killed in Chur
1898 Elisabeth ("Sisi"), Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary Luigi Lucheni Lucheni attacked the Empress randomly on the street of Geneva. Elisabeth was stabbed in the heart once with a sharp needle file. Due to her extremely tight corset, she had no idea she has been wounded and collapsed suddenly two hours later due to slow internal hemorrhaging.
1923 Vatslav Vorovsky, Soviet diplomat Maurice Conradi
1936 Wilhelm Gustloff, German leader of the Swiss Nazi party
1960 Félix-Roland Moumié, successor to Ruben Um Nyobe at the head of the UPC Assassinated by the SDECE (French secret services).
1990 Kazem Rajavi, Iranian opposition leader Killed in Geneva.

United Kingdom[edit]

Date Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
293 Carausius, usurper of the Western Roman Empire Allectius who Carausius appointed treasurer Coup d'tat
946 Edmund I, King of England Stabbed at a banquet
978 Edward the Martyr, King of England
995 Kenneth II, King of Scotland
1100 William Rufus, King of England Walter Tirel Shot in the heart with an arrow, supposedly by accident, but the circumstances remain unclear.
1170 Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury Four knights Stabbed to death in Canterbury Cathedral on the orders of Henry II of England
1306 John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch Robert the Bruce, Roger de Kirkpatrick
1346 Raghnall Mac Ruaidhrí William III, Earl of Ross Killed at Elcho Priory as he attended a royal muster on the eve of a Scottish invasion of England.
1381 Robert Hales, Lord High Treasurer Beheaded at Tower Hill by rebels during the Peasants' Revolt.
1381 Simon of Sudbury, Lord Chancellor, Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of London Beheaded at Tower Hill by rebels during the Peasants' Revolt.
1381 John Cavendish, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, Chancellor of the University of Cambridge Beheaded in Bury St Edmunds by rebels during the Peasants' Revolt.
1437 King James I of Scotland Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl (coup leader), Sir Robert Graham (dealt lethal blow) Killed at Perth on the night of 20–1 February in a failed coup by his kinsman and former ally Walter Stewart.
1452 William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas James II of Scotland
1471 Henry VI of England, King of England Killed in the Tower of London likely on the orders of Edward IV of England.
1488 King James III of Scotland Killed by rebels.
1567 Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, husband of Mary, Queen of Scots Killed at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh
1570 James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, Regent of Scotland James Hamilton The first assassination carried out with a firearm.
1628 George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, Lord High Admiral/royal favourite John Felton Stabbed in Portsmouth as he planned a second expedition to La Rochelle.
1679 James Sharp, Archbishop of St Andrews Killed in Fife, near St Andrews.
1812 Spencer Perceval, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom John Bellingham The only British prime minister to be assassinated. See Assassination of Spencer Perceval.[15]
1812 Louis-Alexandre de Launay, French diplomat Stabbed to death with a stiletto by his former servant at his home in Barnes. His wife was also killed.
22 June 1922 Henry Hughes Wilson, British field marshal, retired Chief of the Imperial General Staff and Conservative politician Reginald Dunne and Joseph O'Sullivan Killed outside his house in Eaton Square, London, by voluntary members of the Irish Republican Army.[3]
1940 Michael O'Dwyer, former Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab Udham Singh, a Punjabi revolutionary Killed during a speech at Caxton Hall, London.
1973 Paddy Wilson, Social Democratic and Labour Party politician Stabbed to death in Belfast, along with his friend Irene Andrews. See Paddy Wilson and Irene Andrews killings.
1975 Ross McWhirter, co-author of the Guinness Book of Records and right wing political activist Harry Duggan and Hugh Doherty Killed outside his home in Bush Hill Park, London, by members of the Balcombe Street Gang, both of whom were Irish Republican Army volunteers.
1977 Kadhi Abdullah al-Hagri, past prime minister of Yemen Arab Republic Killed in London.
1978 Georgi Markov, Bulgarian dissident Died in London after being attacked with ricin fired from a gun disguised as an umbrella on Waterloo Bridge.
9 July 1978 Abdul Razak al-Naif, former Prime Minister of Iraq Killed in London
1979 Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, former Governor-General of India Thomas McMahon Killed along with three others while on a fishing trip with his family by a bomb planted onto his boat by McMahon. McMahon was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, who claimed responsibility for the attack.
1979 Airey Neave, British Conservative politician Car bombing outside Palace of Westminster, by members of the Irish National Liberation Army[16]
1980 John Turnley, SDLP and Irish Independence Party politician UDA Killed while on the way to a political meeting.
1981 Sir Norman Stronge, aristocrat and Northern Irish politician, and his son, Sir James Stronge, aristocrat and Northern Irish politician IRA members Both were killed by members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army at their ancestral home, Tynan Abbey in County Armagh, which the Provisional IRA later set on fire.
1981 Robert Bradford, Unionist MP in Northern Ireland IRA members Murdered during a speech at Finaghy in Belfast.[16]
1982 Shlomo Argov, Israeli Ambassador to the Court of St. James's Although Argov survived this assassination attempt, the injuries he sustained in the attack resulted in his death in 2003.
1983 Edgar Graham, Ulster Unionist politician Shot by an IRA gunman outside Queens University Belfast.[16]
1987 George Seawright, Northern Ireland politician IPLO members Killed by the Irish People's Liberation Organisation in Shankill, Belfast.
1989 Patrick Finucane, solicitor Ken Barrett Killed in Belfast by Ulster Loyalists.
1990 Ian Gow, British Conservative politician IRA members Killed by a car bomb near his house in East Sussex.[16]
1997 Billy Wright, Loyalist Volunteer Force leader INLA prisoners Killed in Maze Prison.[17]
2006 Alexander Litvinenko, former FSB officer and critic of Vladimir Putin Unknowns from Russia Acute radiation syndrome via ingestion of polonium-210. See Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko.[18]
2016 Jo Cox, Member of Parliament for Batley and Spen Thomas Mair Shooting and stabbing incident before a constituency surgery. See Murder of Jo Cox.[19]


Year Victim(s) Assassin(s) Notes
1921 Mykola Leontovych, Ukrainian composer
1949 Yaroslav Halan, Ukrainian anti-fascist writer[20] Members of OUN Mykhailo Stakhur and Ilariy Lukashevych Killed at his home office in Lviv. Received 11 hits with axe. Ordered by the regional OUN leadership (according to the Soviet official version, ordered by the Vatican)
1979 Volodymyr Ivasiuk, Ukrainian composer
1995 Akhat Bragin, Ukrainian businessman of Tatar descent, president of the football club Shakhtar Donetsk until his death.
1998 Vadym Hetman, politician, banker
2000 Georgiy Gongadze, Ukrainian journalist
2000 Yevhen Shcherban, Ukrainian politician
2005 Stepan Senchuk, Ukrainian politician
2014 Oleh Babayev, Ukrainian politician
2015 Oles Buzina, Ukrainian pro-Russian writer
2016 Pavel Sheremet, Belarusian journalist
2017 Denis Voronenkov, former member of the State Duma of the Russian Federation Pavel Parshov, Ukrainian citizen and veteran of Ukraine's volunteer battalion.[21] Shot dead in Kyiv while on his way to meet Ilya Ponomarev, another former member of the State Duma who also lives in exile in Ukraine.


  1. ^ a b c d World Almanac 2004, p155
  2. ^ a b c d "Historic Assassinations Since 1865," The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2004, p156 (World Almanac 2004)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l 20th Century Timeline, p118
  4. ^ The Assassination of Symon Petliura and the Trial of Scholem Schwarzbard 1926–1927: A Selection of Documents. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 2016-04-18. ISBN 9783647310275.
  5. ^ a b c "Historic Assassinations Since 1865," The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1982 (World Almanac 1982), p750
  6. ^ "New book features shooting story from Ballinamore". Archived from the original on 2018-03-06. Retrieved 2019-06-07. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-03-06. Retrieved 2018-03-05. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Adams, John (1794). A defence of the constitutions of government of the United States of America, against the attack of M. Turgot in his letter to Dr. Price, dated the twenty-second day of March, 1778. London: John Stockdale. pp. 153–155. OCLC 2678599. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  9. ^ a b "Assassinations and Political Murders," 20th Century Timeline (Griesewood & Dempsey, Ltd., 1985) (Crescent Books, 1985) [20th Century Timeline], p119
  10. ^ "Pawel Adamowicz, Gdansk mayor, dies after stabbing at charity event". BBC News. 14 January 2019. Archived from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  11. ^ "stalin's secret pogrom-INTRO". Archived from the original on January 29, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 1997. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  12. ^ "Terror-99". Archived from the original on 28 May 2003. Retrieved 22 April 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  13. ^ "Terror-99". Archived from the original on 3 April 2004. Retrieved 22 April 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  14. ^ 20th Century Timeline, p120
  15. ^ "BBC News - The MP whose ancestor killed the prime minister". Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  16. ^ a b c d Siddique, Haroon (16 June 2016). "MPs who have been attacked while in office". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  17. ^ "Billy Wright: the loyalist assassin too violent for his comrades -". Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  18. ^ "Alexander Litvinenko: Profile of murdered Russian spy". BBC News. 21 January 2016. Archived from the original on 14 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  19. ^ Danny Boyle Raziye Akkoc (2016-06-17). "Labour MP Jo Cox dies after being shot and stabbed as husband urges people to 'fight against the hate' that killed her". Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  20. ^ Marples, David R. (2013-01-23). Heroes and Villains : Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. Hors collection. Budapest: Central European University Press. pp. 125–165. ISBN 9786155211355. Archived from the original on 2018-03-19.
  21. ^ working for Russian Secret Service."Kyiv Identifies Suspected Gunman In Ex-Duma Deputy's Assassination Archived 2018-07-15 at the Wayback Machine". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. March 24, 2017.