List of sports clubs playing in the league of another country

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There are a number of sports clubs around the world that are based in one country/territory but play in another's league in their respective sport. Conditions for competing in a "foreign" league, as well as in a continental/confederational competition, are set case-by-case by the international sports federation as well as the respective confederation and national sport associations involved.

Clubs which are located in defunct nations that merged with others, new nations separated from others, or which stopped competing in a nation's league system because their locale was transferred to another nation, are not included in this article.


Association football[edit]

Britain and Ireland[edit]

As a result of the history of football in the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom has four FIFA member countries instead of one. Therefore, clubs that play outside what would be regarded as their 'home country' are included.

England / Scotland[edit]

Shielfield Park, home of Berwick Rangers, an English club playing in Scotland's national leagues

EnglandScotland : English in Scotland

ScotlandEngland : Scottish in England

England / Wales[edit]

The New Saints of the Welsh Premier League play at Park Hall in the English town of Oswestry

EnglandWales : English in Wales

WalesEngland : Welsh in England

Although all the above clubs play in the English football league system and are allowed to compete in the FA Cup, Wrexham, Colwyn Bay and Merthyr Town are under the jurisdiction of the Football Association of Wales for disciplinary and administration purposes. Swansea City, Cardiff City and Newport County previously had the same governance until an arrangement was made with the FA for the 2011–12 season onwards which sees Welsh clubs playing in the top four divisions of English football under the governance of the FA.[3]

Cardiff City (1921–29, 1952–57, 1960–62 and 2013–14) and Swansea City (1981–83 and 2011–present) have played in the top division of English football (currently the Premier League). Cardiff City are also the only non-English side to have won the FA Cup, winning it in 1927; they again reached the final in 2008, prompting the English FA to change the rules to allow Welsh clubs to represent England in UEFA competitions should they qualify to do so.[4] Swansea City won the 2012–13 Football League Cup, and are the first Wales-based club to qualify for a European competition through a place reserved for the English Football Association.

The following Welsh clubs have also played in the English football league system:

The following defunct Welsh clubs also played in the English league system:

Until 1995, the above clubs were allowed to participate in the Welsh Cup, and represented Wales in the Cup Winners' Cup if they won. Clubs playing in those parts of England close to the Welsh border could also play in the Welsh Cup by invitation, but could not represent Wales if they won.

Northern Ireland / Republic of Ireland[edit]

Brandywell Stadium, home of Derry City, a team located in Northern Ireland and playing in the Republic of Ireland

Northern IrelandRepublic of Ireland : Northern Irish in the Republic of Ireland

  • Two different clubs bearing the name Derry City have played in the Republic of Ireland football league system:
    • The original club, founded in 1928, played in the Northern Ireland football league system until 1972, when it was expelled from the Irish Football League due to issues related to The Troubles. The club then spent 13 years without a league until being admitted to the second level of the League of Ireland in 1985. Two years later, they earned promotion to the League of Ireland's first level, and continued there until their expulsion in 2009 for financial mismanagement. The club was dissolved shortly thereafter.
    • A new Derry City club, which considers itself to be a continuation of the original, was founded in January 2010, and was admitted to the second level of the League of Ireland starting with that season. They returned to the top flight at the first opportunity by winning the First Division title.

Derry City have won the league titles of both Northern Ireland (1964–65) and the Republic of Ireland (1988–89, 1996–97), and also the cup titles of both Northern Ireland (1948–49, 1953–54, 1963–64) and the Republic of Ireland (1988–89, 1994–95, 2002, 2006, 2012), and have represented both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in European club competitions.

Guernsey / England[edit]

GuernseyEngland : Guernsey in England

The Guernsey Football Association has no international recognition; it has county status with the English Football Association.

Continental Europe[edit]

Andorra / Spain[edit]

AndorraSpain : Andorran in Spain

Austria / Germany[edit]

AustriaGermany : Austrian in Germany

  • SV Kleinwalsertal has played in Germany since the 1960s, playing in the tier ten A-Klasse Allgäu 4 in 2016–17.[6]

Cyprus / Greece[edit]

CyprusGreece : Cypriot in Greece

From 1967 to 1974, the champion of the Cypriot First Division was promoted to the Greek First Division.

Finland / Sweden[edit]

FinlandSweden : Finnish in Sweden

All clubs are based in the Åland Islands, an autonomous region of Finland with an ethnic Swedish population.

Germany / Switzerland[edit]

GermanySwitzerland : German in Switzerland

Italy / Switzerland[edit]

ItalySwitzerland : Italian in Switzerland

SwitzerlandItaly : Swiss in Italy :

  • FC Chiasso played in the Italian league system between 1914 and 1923.

Kosovo / Serbia[edit]

KosovoSerbia : Kosovar in Serbia
Kosovo is still only a partially recognised state and the government of Serbia still claims the territory as its own. Due to Serbian refusal of Kosovo institutions, Serbs in North Kosovo act independently in sport. For example, the Football First League of North Kosovo was primarily formed of Serbian clubs from four of North Kosovo's municipalities. Both governments agreed upon creating an Community of Serb Municipalities.

In 2016, Kosovo became the 55th member of UEFA, and therefore Football Federation of Kosovo's Football Superleague of Kosovo became a recognised independent league.

From 2010 to 2015, the Football First League of North Kosovo was the top football regional league in North Kosovo, ranked fifth in the Serbian league system. The league was formed primarely of Serbian football clubs that come from four of North Kosovo's municipalities such as Leposavić, Zvečan, Zubin Potok and Northern Kosovska Mitrovica. The league was formed in protest to the establishment of the Kosovo Super League by the Republic of Kosovo; the Serbian clubs from North Kosovo refuse to enter the Republic of Kosovo's institutions as per the Assembly of the Community of Municipalities of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.

There are two other clubs from North Kosovo, which compete in different leagues:

Liechtenstein / Switzerland[edit]

Rheinpark Stadion, home of FC Vaduz, the only Liechtensteiner team to have ever played top-flight football in Switzerland

LiechtensteinSwitzerland : Liechtensteiner in Switzerland

All clubs in Liechtenstein play in the Swiss football league system, as Liechtenstein has no properly recognized league of its own. These clubs also compete in the Liechtenstein Football Cup, which is effectively the championship of Liechtenstein, with the winner representing Liechtenstein in the UEFA Europa League. Liechtenstein clubs do not play in the Swiss Cup, and are not eligible for qualification to European competitions via the Swiss league system.

Monaco / France[edit]

MonacoFrance : Monegasque in France

San Marino / Italy[edit]

San MarinoItaly : Sammarinese in Italy

The home league of San Marino was established only in 1985. Before that year, other Sammarinese teams have competed in the Italian system, though only San Marino Calcio is allowed to take part in the system and also to Coppa Italia exclusively:

Spain / France[edit]

SpainFrance : Spanish in France

Ukraine / Russia[edit]

UkraineRussia : Ukrainian in Russia

The three clubs are from Crimea, a territory recognized by Ukraine and a majority of countries as part of Ukraine, but have been under effective Russian control as the Republic of Crimea since the 2014 Crimean crisis. FC Sevastopol and SC Tavriya Simferopol last played in the 2013–14 Ukrainian Premier League, and were dissolved after the completion of the season. The three clubs joined the Russian Professional Football League starting from the 2014–15 season, after approval from the Russian Football Union.[7] The inclusion of Crimean clubs in Russian competitions have not been approved by either FIFA or UEFA, and the Football Federation of Ukraine have lodged a complaint.[8] On 22 August 2014 UEFA decided "that any football matches played by Crimean clubs organised under the auspices of the Russian Football Union will not be recognised by UEFA until further notice",[9] and on 4 December 2014, decided to prohibit Crimean clubs to play in competitions organised by the Russian Football Union as from 1 January 2015 and for the region to be considered as a “special zone” for football purposes until further notice.[10]


Western Sahara / Morocco[edit]

Western SaharaMorocco : Western Saharan in Morocco


Many North American sports leagues are made up of teams from different countries—three of the four largest professional leagues have teams representing cities on both sides of the U.S.-Canada border. This phenomenon can also be seen in soccer leagues. Although foreign clubs can and do participate in leagues based in the United States, no such team is eligible to participate in the U.S. Open Cup, which is only open to teams affiliated with the United States Soccer Federation (U.S. Soccer). They are also not eligible to represent the United States in the CONCACAF Champions League. Those teams that do participate in U.S. leagues also participate in various competitions under their local federations to gain entry into the Champions League.

Antigua & Barbuda / United States[edit]

Antigua and BarbudaUnited States : Antiguan and Barbudan in the United States

  • Antigua Barracuda FC played in USL Pro (the league now known as the United Soccer League) from 2011 to 2013. The team was forced to play its entire 2013 schedule on the road due to issues with its home stadium, normally a cricket ground, and folded after that season.

Bermuda / United States[edit]

BermudaUnited States : Bermudian in the United States

Canada / United States[edit]

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States
Major League Soccer (MLS), the current North American Soccer League (NASL), and the United Soccer League (USL) are based in the United States, but occupy the top levels of both the American and Canadian soccer pyramids. Prior to the 2017 season, the NASL was officially the second level and the USL the third; those leagues now share second-division status.

The top five professional clubs in Canada (Toronto FC, Montreal Impact, Vancouver Whitecaps FC, FC Edmonton, and Ottawa Fury FC) contest the Canadian Championship for the Voyageurs Cup to determine Canada's entrant into the CONCACAF Champions League.

As in the men's game, the women's soccer pyramid contains leagues that operate on both sides of the border. The current top level, the National Women's Soccer League, operates solely in the U.S., although it receives financial backing from all three North American federations (U.S. Soccer, Canadian Soccer Association, Mexican Football Federation).

In indoor soccer, a variant of the sport that is currently governed by the World Minifootball Federation rather than FIFA, several US-based leagues have had Canadian teams.

Mexico / United States[edit]

 Mexico United States : Mexican in the United States

No FIFA-sanctioned league has ever had teams on both sides of the Mexico–US border. However, several Mexican teams have played in US-based indoor soccer leagues.

  • The original Monterrey La Raza began play in the Continental Indoor Soccer League (CISL) when the league launched in 1992. When the CISL folded in 1997, the team took a year off and then joined the World Indoor Soccer League (WISL) in 1999. Despite considerable playing success in both leagues, including three league championships, La Raza were expelled from the WISL after their 2000 championship season due to arena issues.
  • The Monterrey Fury began play in the second Major Indoor Soccer League (MISL) in 2003. The team folded in 2004, during its second season of play.
  • A new version of the Monterrey La Raza joined the MISL in 2007. When that league folded, La Raza joined the National Indoor Soccer League, which would later become the third MISL. The team folded at the end of the 2009–10 season despite winning the league championship.
  • Toros Mexico, based in Tijuana, joined the Professional Arena Soccer League (PASL), known since 2014–15 as the Major Arena Soccer League (MASL), in 2010. The team folded after the 2013–14 season.
  • Two Mexican teams joined the PASL in 2013: the Monterrey Flash and Saltillo Rancho Seco. The Flash folded at the end of the 2014–15 MASL season, and Rancho Seco left the MASL after its 2015–16 season but continues to compete in Mexico's indoor league.
  • Atletico Baja, based in Tijuana, and the Sonora Suns, based in Hermosillo, joined the MASL in 2015, and continue to operate.

Puerto Rico / United States[edit]

Puerto RicoUnited States : Puerto Rican in the United States

Asia & Oceania[edit]

Australia / Singapore[edit]

AustraliaSingapore : Australian in Singapore

Brunei / Malaysia[edit]

BruneiMalaysia : Bruneian in Malaysia

Brunei / Singapore[edit]

BruneiSingapore : Bruneian in Singapore

  • DPMM FC play in the S.League, starting in 2009, after getting kicked out the Malaysia Super League for the 2009 season (see above). They were also invited to take part in the Singapore Cup in 2007. Since the FIFA ban on the Brunei FA in 2009, DPMM FC have suspended their participation and resumed it only in 2012.

China / Hong Kong[edit]

ChinaHong Kong : Mainland Chinese in Hong Kong

Malaysia / Australia[edit]

MalaysiaAustralia: Malaysian in Australia

Malaysia / Singapore[edit]

MalaysiaSingapore : Malaysian in Singapore

SingaporeMalaysia : Singaporean in Malaysia

New Zealand / Australia[edit]

Westpac Stadium, home of the Wellington Phoenix, the sole New Zealand team in Australia's A-League

New ZealandAustralia : New Zealand in Australia

As New Zealand is a member of OFC and Australia is a member of AFC since moving from OFC in 2006, Wellington Phoenix are playing in the league of a member of another football confederation. As per agreement with FIFA, AFC and OFC, Wellington Phoenix are not allowed to participate in the AFC Champions League.[11] They also do not participate in the OFC Champions League, as New Zealand is represented by clubs from its football league, the New Zealand Football Championship. Wellington Phoenix are the only extant professional football team in New Zealand; the New Zealand Football Championship is amateur. The reserve team of Wellington Phoenix began play in the NZ Championship in 2014–15,[12] and have featured in every season since.

Foreign & Satellite teams in Singapore[edit]

Besides DPMM FC, a number of "foreign" teams have also played in the S.League. These clubs, while playing their home games in Singapore, are either satellite teams of foreign clubs or are made up exclusively of foreign players:

As of 2016, only Albirex Niigata Singapore FC play in the S.League. The foreign teams are not allowed to represent Singapore in AFC club competitions such as the AFC Champions League and the AFC Cup. Moreover, due to the presence of foreign teams in the S.League, the AFC does not allow S.League teams to participate in the AFC Champions League since 2011.[13]

In recent years, foreign clubs from other countries have also been invited to participate in the Singapore Cup.


Andorra / Spain[edit]

AndorraSpain : Andorran in Spain

Australia / New Zealand[edit]

New ZealandAustralia : New Zealander in Australia

Canada / United States[edit]

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

The National Basketball Association has had three teams in Canada in its history:

The minor leagues also have several teams:

Gibraltar / Spain[edit]

GibraltarSpain : Gibraltarian in Spain

Basketball in Gibraltar is managed by the Gibraltar Amateur Basketball Association (GABBA). Sponsored by Grind House, Men and Ladies GABBA teams play the senior basketball league in the neighbour Spanish province of Cádiz. Grind House GABBA won the 2007/08 female championship[14] GABBA is a member of FIBA since 1985,[15] and the men's team plays biennially the FIBA European Championship for Small Countries.

Monaco / France[edit]

MonacoFrance : Monegasque in France

AS Monaco Basket plays in the French basketball league system, paralleling its parent club's presence in the French football system. They have played in the top level, now known as LNB Pro A, on several occasions in their history, most recently since 2015.


Canada / United States[edit]

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

In Major League Baseball, the Toronto Blue Jays have played in the American League since 1977. Also, the Montreal Expos were members of the National League from 1969 until they moved to Washington, D.C. in 2004.

In the MLB-affiliated minor leagues, the only active team is the Vancouver Canadians of the Northwest League. However, over the years there have been numerous Canadian teams playing in the U.S-based professional leagues. Among the notable teams were the Montreal Royals, for whom Jackie Robinson made his professional debut in 1946.

The U.S.-based independent leagues currently have four Canadian teams.

Cuba / United States[edit]

CubaUnited States : Cuban in the United States

From 1946 to 1953, the Havana Cubans played in the Class C (later Class B) Florida International League. From the 1954 season through the middle of the 1960 season, the Havana Sugar Kings played in the Class AAA International League. (The International League also included two Canadian teams at the time.) Beginning in 1955, the Sugar Kings were the Cincinnati Reds' top minor-league affiliate. In 1959, the Sugar Kings won the league championship and the Junior World Series. The franchise was moved to Jersey City, New Jersey in July 1960 during the aftermath of the Cuban Revolution. The move was made after the Castro regime began nationalizing American-owned assets. (Ironically, Castro himself had been an avid fan of the team.) The franchise has been moved and renamed several times since then and it is currently known as the Norfolk Tides.

United States / Mexico[edit]

United StatesMexico : American in Mexico.

Beginning in 1985, the Mexican Baseball League's Tecolotes de Nuevo Laredo played games on both sides of the international border, in Laredo, Texas as well as Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas. The team was known as Los Tecolotes de los Dos Laredos (or "The Owls of the Two Laredos.") They won the league championship in 1989. The team moved to Tijuana after the 2003 season.

Mexico's three professional summer leagues are officially part of the USA's organized Minor League Baseball system, although teams are not affiliated with Major League Baseball franchises, and only a few players cross the USA-Mexico border.

Malta / Italy[edit]

MaltaItaly : Maltese in Italy

Malta had a baseball championship, the National League, from 1993 until 2008. From 2009, the clubs were integrated in the Italian system.[16]

San Marino / Italy[edit]

San MarinoItaly : Sammarinese in Italy

San Marino Baseball Club (also known as T&A San Marino for sponsorship reasons) plays in the Italian leagues since its foundation, in 1985 (a parent club took part to the system since 1970, though, reaching the second level, Serie B in 1980 before leaving space for the new club). It was first promoted in the first level, Serie A, in 1986. The side has since became one of the best clubs in Italy, taking part to the Italian Baseball League where it won four titles: in 2008 and three in a row from 2011 to 2014. The club also won the Coppa Italia in 2006 and 2009. As the only professional club in San Marino, they also qualify automatically to the European Cup, where they proved to be a serious contender, winning the competition in 2006, 2011 and 2014.

Slovenia / Italy[edit]

SloveniaItaly : Slovenian in Italy

The Baseball Federation of Slovenia formed a representative club with the same players of the national team, that took part to the amateur Serie C1 in 2008.[16]

Canadian football[edit]

United States / Canada[edit]

United StatesCanada : American in Canada

In Canadian football, the sport's professional league, the Canadian Football League, expanded into the U.S. in the mid-1990s.

Apart from the Stallions, which had some of the league's best attendance figures and also won the Grey Cup in 1995, the U.S. teams were unsuccessful; even the Stallions posted a modest financial loss that season. The U.S. experiment also led to tension between the American and Canadian teams. Ultimately, the announcement by Art Modell, owner of the NFL's Cleveland Browns, that he would move the team to Baltimore for the 1996 season (where it became the Baltimore Ravens) ended the CFL's foray into the U.S. All of the American teams except for the Stallions folded; the Stallions moved to Montreal to become the current version of the Montreal Alouettes.


Andorra / Spain[edit]

AndorraSpain : Andorran in Spain

  • FC Andorra Futsal played in the Spanish leagues until the club's disbandment in 2013.

Ice Hockey[edit]


The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, in Montreal, Quebec, after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association (NHA), which had been founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario.[17] The NHL immediately took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name. The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, and has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. However the league is now currently based in New York City, New York in the United States and US teams make up the majority of the league. The league is still sometimes considered to be that of a Canadian league, especially with regard to its player pool; even today, a slight majority of the league's players are Canadians.

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

Current teams:

Former teams:


The American Hockey League is a feeder league to the NHL. The league offices are located in Springfield, Massachusetts, and historically has been a U.S. league.

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States
Current teams, as of the league's ongoing 2017–18 season:

Former teams:


The ECHL, originally known as the East Coast Hockey League, is an effective feeder league for the AHL and NHL. Also historically a U.S. league, its offices are in Princeton, New Jersey. Only two Canadian teams have been members.

North American Hockey League[edit]

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

The North American Hockey League is a minor hockey league in the USA. Although no foreign teams are currently in the league, several Canadian teams used to be part of the competition, all from the province of British Columbia:

United States Hockey League[edit]

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

The United States Hockey League is a minor hockey league in north-west USA.

Federal Hockey League[edit]

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

The Federal Hockey League is a minor hockey league whose teams are mostly in the northeastern U.S. Three Canadian teams have competed in the league, with two still being active members.


CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States
The Eastern Junior Hockey League (EJHL) was an USA Hockey-sanctioned junior ice hockey league.


The Canadian Junior Hockey League (CJHL), an association of Canadian junior ice hockey leagues and teams.

United StatesCanada : American in Canada


The Ontario Junior Hockey League has one team not from Ontario, Buffalo Jr. Sabres from Buffalo, New York. Between 1998 and 2005 Syracuse Jr. Crunch from Syracuse, New York were part of the league before leaving to join the EJHL.


The British Columbia Hockey League has one team outside of British Columbia, the Wenatchee Wild from Washington.


The Northern Ontario Junior Hockey League (NOJHL) is a Canadian Junior ice hockey league with one U.S. team, the Soo Eagles from Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan who rejoined in 2015.


The Canadian Hockey League (CHL) is an umbrella organization that represents the three Canadian-based major junior ice hockey leagues for players 16 to 20 years of age. It is composed of its three member leagues, the Western Hockey League, Ontario Hockey League, and Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. For the 2017–18 season, its three leagues and 60 teams represent nine Canadian provinces (52 teams) as well as four American states (8 teams).

United StatesCanada : American in Canada


The Ontario Hockey League or OHL for short, has consisted almost exclusively of teams from Ontario, but currently hosts three teams from the U.S.: two from Michigan and one from Pennsylvania.

The Flint Firebirds franchise relocated several times within the state of Michigan; previous identities of that team are:


The Western Hockey League or WHL for short, has a U.S. Division in its Western Conference with 5 teams:


The Quebec Major Junior Hockey League (QMJHL) is composed of teams mostly from Quebec, and a few teams from The Maritimes. However, in the past a few short-lived U.S. teams have played:

Canadian Women's Hockey League[edit]

The Canadian Women's Hockey League (CWHL) is the top women's league in Canada. It launched in 2007 with four teams, all in the province of Ontario, but has since expanded to include teams from other parts of Canada, the U.S., and most recently China.

United StatesCanada : American in Canada

  • The Boston Blades have played in the league since the 2010–11 season.

ChinaCanada : Chinese in Canada

  • Kunlun Red Star WIH, operated by Kunlun Red Star, a Chinese men's team competing in the Eurasian KHL, started CWHL play in the 2017–18 season.
  • Vanke Rays, operated directly by China's hockey federation, also started play in 2017–18.

Austrian Hockey League[edit]

The Austrian Hockey League has several foreign teams playing in its league, and has a history of foreign team playing at various points in its history:

CroatiaAustria : Croatian in Austria

Czech RepublicAustria : Czech in Austria

HungaryAustria : Hungarian in Austria

ItalyAustria : Italian in Austria

SloveniaAustria : Slovenian in Austria

Belorusian Extraleague[edit]

The Belarusian Extraleague has had two foreign teams in its league in the past:

UkraineBelarus : Ukrainian in Belarus

LatviaBelarus : Latvian in Belarus

Vysshaya Liga[edit]

The Vysshaya Liga is second tier of Belorussian ice hockey.

LithuaniaBelarus : Lithuanian in Belarus

Croatian Ice Hockey League[edit]

SloveniaCroatia : Slovenian in Croatia


In the Eredivisie one foreign team participates in the league:

BelgiumNetherlands : Belgian in The Netherlands

  • HYC Herentals from Herentals, switched in 2010 from the Belgian Hockey League to the North Sea Cup, a combined Belgian-Dutch elite league. When the North Sea Cup disbanded only two years later in 2012, it joined the Eredivisie, however continues to participate in the Belgian league too.

FFHG Division 3[edit]

The FFHG Division 3 is the lowest (fourth) division of professional ice hockey in France.

LuxembourgFrance : Luxembourger in France

2. Divisioona[edit]

EstoniaFinland : Estonian in Finland

Latvian Hockey League[edit]

LithuaniaLatvia : Lithuanian in Latvia

EstoniaLatvia : Estonian in Latvia

Lithuanian Hockey League[edit]

RussiaLithuania : Russian in Lithuania

Luxembourg Cup[edit]

The Luxembourg Cup is the main and only ice hockey competition in the country, after the Luxembourg Championship was disbanded in 2003. Prior to 2003, clubs from other countries in the region were allowed to participate in the cup tournament.

BelgiumLuxembourg : Belgian in Luxembourg


LuxembourgGermany : Luxembourger in Germany

  • Tornado Luxembourg debuted in the 1987-88 season, and played in the Rheinland-Palatinat Liga, a German regional league, which they won. They then finished second in the qualification round for the Regionalliga Middle Group, and thus qualified for the 1988-89 season. They only played in the Regionalliga for the 1988-89 season, as they finished in eighth place in their group, and failed to qualify for the following season. They then played in the Rheinland-Palatinat Liga until 2005, when they joined the FFHG Division 3, the fourth level of French ice hockey.

Rheinland-Palatinat Liga[edit]

LuxembourgGermany : Luxembourger in Germany

  • Tornado Luxembourg debuted in the 1987-88 season, and played in the Rheinland-Palatinat Liga, a German regional league, which they won. They then finished second in the qualification round for the Regionalliga Middle Group, and thus qualified for the 1988-89 season. They only played in the Regionalliga for the 1988-89 season, as they finished in eighth place in their group, and failed to qualify for the following season. They then played in the Rheinland-Palatinat Liga until 2005, when they joined the FFHG Division 3, the fourth level of French ice hockey.

Slovenian Ice Hockey League[edit]

AustriaSlovenia : Austrian in Slovenia

CroatiaSlovenia : Croatian in Slovenia

SerbiaSlovenia : Serbian in Slovenia

English National Ice Hockey League[edit]

WalesEngland : Welsh in England
Active teams:

Defunct teams:

ScotlandEngland : Scottish in England

Irish Hockey League[edit]

Northern IrelandRepublic of Ireland : Northern Irish in the Republic of Ireland

Scottish National League[edit]

The Scottish National League hosts one foreign team:

Northern IrelandScotland : Northern Irish in Scotland

MOL Liga[edit]

The MOL Liga is an international ice hockey league organized for clubs based in Hungary and Romania. The games played between the Hungarian teams count towards the Hungarian National Championship in the OB I bajnokság. The Romanian teams also compete in the Romanian National Championship Liga Naţională.

SlovakiaHungaryRomania : Slovakian in Hungary & Romania

Inter-National League[edit]

The Inter-National League was an international ice hockey league formed by a partnership between the national federations of Austria and Slovenia. It was created as a solution to semi-professional hockey in both Austria and neighbouring Slovenia. However, the league welcomed guest Italian teams in the past:

ItalyAustriaSlovenia : Italian in Austria & Slovenia

The league merged with Italy's Serie A after the 2015–16 season to create the Alps Hockey League, which remains in operation.


Originally a Russian league, the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) was established in 2008 to rival the NHL. Since its inception, a number of teams joined the league from post-Soviet states; however in recent years other European teams have joined, and the league expanded into China in 2016.

Currently, two foreign teams play in the Chernyshev division:

KazakhstanRussia : Kazakh in Russia

ChinaRussia : Chinese in Russia

Four foreign teams play in the Bobrov Division:

BelarusRussia : Belarusian in Russia

LatviaRussia : Latvian in Russia

FinlandRussia : Finnish in Russia

SlovakiaRussia : Slovakian in Russia

There were three more foreign teams in the past:

CroatiaRussia : Croatian in Russia

Czech RepublicRussia : Czech in Russia

UkraineRussia : Ukrainian in Russia

  • HC Donbass from Donetsk joined in 2012 but had to cease operation at the end of the 2013–14 season due to the War in Donbass. The club relocated outside the war zone and resumed operations in the 2015–16 season in the Ukrainian leagues, and currently plays in the Ukrainian Hockey League.


The Supreme Hockey League (VHL or HHL for short) is a feeder league to the KHL, however not all teams are affiliated.

KazakhstanRussia : Kazakh in Russia

BelarusRussia : Belarusian in Russia


The Russian Junior Hockey League (MHL)[21] is a major junior ice hockey league in Eurasia, founded in 2009. It currently consists of 39 teams from 7 countries.[22] Some of these teams are subsidiaries (feeder teams) for their respective Kontinental Hockey League professional counterparts, other teams are subsidiaries of teams of other leagues (VHL, BEL, PHL) and some teams don't have an affiliated team.

BelarusRussia : Belarusian in Russia

LatviaRussia : Latvian in Russia

KazakhstanRussia : Kazakh in Russia

MHL B[edit]

The Junior Hockey League Division B is the second level of the Junior Hockey League.

BelarusRussia : Belarusian in Russia

LatviaRussia : Latvian in Russia

LithuaniaRussia : Lithuanian in Russia

MoldovaRussia : Moldovan in Russia

Indoor American football[edit]

Canada / United States[edit]

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

  • The Arena Football League, which has been the top level of the indoor game since its creation in 1987 (with a one-season hiatus in 2009), included the Toronto Phantoms in its 2001 and 2002 seasons.
  • The Can-Am Indoor Football League, which only played one season in 2017 before merging with another minor league to form the American Arena League, initially included the Ontario–Niagara Spartans, from the Niagara Peninsula town of Beamsville. The Spartans were expelled from the league after playing only two games.

Mexico / United States[edit]

MexicoUnited States : Mexican in the United States

  • The National Arena League, a league that began play in 2017, included the Monterrey Steel as one of its eight inaugural teams. The Steel only played in the 2017 season, and were removed from the league when they could not commit to playing in 2018.


Canada / United States[edit]

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

The National Lacrosse League, headquartered in New York City and playing the indoor box version of the sport, traces its history to a league formed in 1987, and has operated under its current name since 1998. While it was initially a U.S.-only league, it expanded into Canada in 1998, and has had teams in Canada ever since.

  • The league's first Canadian team was the Hamilton-based Ontario Raiders, which joined the league in 1998. The team was sold after its first season, moved to Toronto, and has played in that city as the Toronto Rock ever since.
  • The Ottawa Rebel was the next Canadian team, relocating from Syracuse, New York for the 2001 season. The Rebel withdrew from the league following the 2003 season; the franchise was purchased by Edmonton interests and reactivated in 2005 as the Edmonton Rush. The team relocated to Saskatoon for the 2016 season and is now the Saskatchewan Rush.
  • Three new Canadian teams joined for the 2002 season:
  • The NLL returned to the Vancouver area in 2014 with the relocation of a team from the Seattle area to become the Vancouver Stealth.

Motorcycle Speedway[edit]

Czech League[edit]

SlovakiaCzech Republic : Slovakian in the Czech Republic

  • SC Žarnovica is the only remaining speedway club in Slovakia and therefore rides in the Czech league system, having previously competed in the Czechoslovakian counterpart in the past before its dissolution.

Finnish League[edit]

LatviaFinland : Latvian in Finland

  • Neva Sankt Petersburg, now known as Lokomotiv Daugavpils, between 1994-2002 took part in the Finnish Extraliiga. In its last 5 years they did not finish below the podium; were 3rd 3 times (1998, 1999, 2001), once runners-up (2002), and won the Finnish title in 2000. During this time they were concurrently competing in the Russian league.

Polish Leagues[edit]

HungaryPoland : Hungarian in Poland

LatviaPoland : Latvian in Poland

UkrainePoland : Ukrainian in Poland

Russian Leagues[edit]

LatviaRussia : Latvian in Russia

  • Neva Sankt Petersburg, now known as Lokomotiv Daugavpils, between 1995-2002 took part in the Russian Premier Speedway League. In their debut season 1995 they won the bronze medal, a feat they repeated in 1996, 2001 and 2002. Since 2003, after withdrawing from the Finnish Extraliiga, in which they competed concurrently, the club competed under the name Spidveja Centrs Daugavpils but without success.

UkraineRussia : Ukrainian in Russia


Australia / New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand & Australia : New Zealand and Australia

  • Netball features a transnational league with extensive involvement from both countries. The ANZ Championship, with co-equal head offices in Melbourne and Auckland, has featured five teams each from Australia and New Zealand since its formation in 2008.

Rugby league[edit]

Australia / New Zealand[edit]

New ZealandAustralia : New Zealander in Australia

Canada / England[edit]

CanadaEngland : Canadian in England

The Toronto Wolfpack, a rugby league club from Toronto, are now part of the British rugby league system. While teams from France and Wales compete in the system, the great majority of teams are based in England, and the system is organised by the Rugby Football League, based in Leeds. The Wolfpack began play at the third level of the system, League 1, in 2017, and after winning the League 1 title that season will play in the second-level Championship in 2018.

France / England[edit]

FranceEngland : French in England

Three different French teams have played in the British rugby league system:

  • The first, Paris Saint-Germain, played in the first two seasons of the top-level Super League in 1996 and 1997. Due to financial difficulties, the club folded after its second season.
  • Catalans Dragons, from Perpignan, have played in Super League since the 2006 season, having beaten out fellow French clubs Toulouse Olympique and Villeneuve Leopards for a licence. In their first Super League season they finished last, however in the 2008 season they finished third, entering the play-offs, where they were beaten by Wigan 50-26 in the Semi finals. They have played in Super League ever since, and are now currently 12th in the all time Super League table as of 2015.
  • Toulouse Olympique, from Toulouse, have played in the British leagues during two different periods.
    • First, after having failed to secure a Super League licence in 2009, they were invited to play in the second-level Championship, and played in that league through the 2011 season. The club, having experienced little competitive or financial success, then withdrew from the British leagues and rejoined the French leagues.
    • In 2016, they returned to the British system, this time in the third-level League 1. They earned promotion to the Championship at the first opportunity, and began play at that level in 2017.

Wales / England[edit]

WalesEngland : Welsh in England

Several Welsh clubs have played in the English league system.

  • In the early years of rugby league, several South Wales clubs played in the RFL system.
  • The next Welsh side to play in RFL competitions was Pontypridd, established in 1926. The club folded the following year, having played only one full season plus eight games of their second season.
  • Two different efforts to establish a Cardiff side, in 1947–48 and 1951–52, ended in failure after a single season.
  • South Wales Dragons, founded in 1995, played at the RFL's second level (later split into two leagues now known as the Championship and League 1) in 1996. The club was reasonably successful on the field, but attendances varied wildly during the season. They folded when they failed to earn a Super League licence for the 1997 season.
  • The Celtic Crusaders began play in 2006 in National League Two (later known as Championship 1 and since 2015 as League 1), originally in Bridgend in South Wales. They were promoted to the second-level National League One (since renamed the Championship) for 2008, and earned a Super League licence for the 2009–2011 period. In 2010, they moved to Wrexham in North Wales and rebranded themselves as Crusaders Rugby League. They folded after the 2011 season.
  • The Crusaders' successor, the North Wales Crusaders, have played at the Championship 1/League 1 level since their formation in 2012.
  • The South Wales Scorpions began play at the level now known as League 1 in 2009, and have remained at that level ever since. The club rebranded itself as South Wales Ironmen after the 2016 season, and then moved to Llanelli after the 2017 season, rebranding itself as West Wales Raiders.

Italy / France[edit]

ItalyFrance : Italian in France

The Saluzzo North West Roosters, an amateur rugby league club from Saluzzo, Piedmont have been accepted into the French rugby league system. The Roosters are the first foreign team to play in the French leagues and will play at the fourth level of the system, National Division 2, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA) League, beginning with the 2016-17 season.[23]

Rugby union[edit]

Argentina / South Africa[edit]

ArgentinaSouth Africa : Argentine in South Africa

The Pampas XV, a developmental side for the Argentina national rugby union team, played in the Vodacom Cup, the second level of South Africa's domestic structure, from 2010 to 2013. The team withdrew from the competition after 2013 for financial reasons, but it was not the end of Argentina's involvement in South African rugby. Starting in 2016, an Argentine side, the Jaguares, entered the hemispheric Super Rugby competition.

Australia / New Zealand / South Africa / Argentina / Japan[edit]

New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, Argentina, Japan: Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina and Japan.
The Super Rugby competition, operated by the Sydney-based SANZAAR, a joint enterprise between the governing bodies of Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and since 2016 Argentina, has teams from all of the SANZAAR countries plus Japan. As of the upcoming 2018 season, New Zealand will have five teams, Australia and South Africa four each, and Argentina and Japan one each.

Fiji / Australia[edit]

FijiAustralia : Fijian in Australia

The Fijian Drua, an effective developmental side for the country's national team, began play in Australia's National Rugby Championship in 2017.

Liechtenstein / Switzerland[edit]

LiechtensteinSwitzerland : Liechtensteiner in Switzerland

In rugby union, there are only two clubs in the country; Lynx RC, which is based at Sportpark Eschen-Mauren, in Eschen, they used to play in the Swiss rugby union leagues,[24] and FC Vaduz Red Pride Rugby, based in Liechtenstein's capital, Vaduz.

Luxembourg / Belgium[edit]

LuxembourgBelgium : Luxembourger in Belgium

Rugby Club Luxembourg joined the Belgian second division in 1995, and remain a part of it 1998, when it earned promotion to the Belgian Elite League.[25] In 2001, the club decided to return to the French league system.

Luxembourg / France[edit]

LuxembourgFrance : Luxembourger in France

Rugby Club Luxembourg played its first competitive game against US Castillionnaise in September 1973. Up until 1995, the club played in the Alsace-Lorraine regional league. In that year, the team joined the Belgian second division. In 2001, the club decided to return to the French league system, again playing regionally in Alsace-Lorraine. It won its division in 2008 but, after an invitation to play in Germany, decided to join the German league system in 2009.[25]

Luxembourg / Germany[edit]

LuxembourgGermany : Luxembourger in Germany

Rugby Club Luxembourg has played in the German league system since 2009, having previously played in the Belgian and French league system, and earning promotion to the highest tier, the Rugby-Bundesliga, in 2015–16.[26] The inclusion of the club in the 2009 promotion round to the 2nd Bundesliga caused some debate in regards to its legality, as the club had not qualified through the German league system and was not a member of any of the German regional rugby federations. However, RC Luxembourg's application was declared valid in regards to the German rugby federations rules and regulations and the team finished second in the promotion round, earning a place in the 2nd Bundesliga for 2009-10.[27]

Namibia / South Africa[edit]

NamibiaSouth Africa : Namibian in South Africa

The Welwitschias, a developmental side for the Namibia national rugby union team, have played in the South African domestic rugby structure on three separate occasions. The history of Namibian involvement in South African rugby predates the country's independence in 1990; when Namibia was a South African colony known as South West Africa, it regularly competed in the top South African domestic competition, the Currie Cup, from 1954 until withdrawing in 1989. After independence, Namibia began fielding a side in the Vodacom Cup in 1999, with the side initially known as Kudus before adopting the Welwitschias name in 2000. Namibia withdrew from the Vodacom Cup after the 2001 season. The Welwitschias returned to the Vodacom Cup in 2010 and 2011 before withdrawing yet again. They returned to the Vodacom Cup in 2015, after which South Africa scrapped that competition. In 2016, the Welwitschias played in a one-off expanded Currie Cup; in 2017, they joined the Vodacom Cup's successor, the Rugby Challenge.

Canada / United States[edit]

United StatesCanada : American in Canada


Canada / United States[edit]

CanadaUnited States : Canadian in the United States

England / Ireland[edit]

EnglandRepublic of Ireland : English in Ireland

United States / Ireland[edit]

United StatesRepublic of Ireland : American in Ireland



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