List of minor planets
This is a list of numbered minor planets in the Solar System, in numerical order. As of March 2018[ref] there are 755,394 minor planets of which 514,567 are numbered (secured discoveries). Every month, several thousand minor planets are newly numbered and added to this list. It is expected that the upcoming survey by the LSST will discover another 5 million minor planets during the next ten years—a tenfold increase from current numbers. While all asteroids with a diameter above 10 kilometers have already been discovered, there might be as many as 10 trillion 1-meter-sized asteroids or larger out to the orbit of Jupiter; and more than a trillion minor planets in the Kuiper belt.
Only 21,221 or approximately 4% of all numbered minor planets are currently named, mostly for people and figures from mythology and fiction. The Jupiter trojan (3708) 1974 FV1 is currently the lowest-numbered unnamed minor planet. Minor planets also include dwarf planets of which 5 have been officially recognized by the IAU with potentially hundreds more to follow in the future.
For specific lists on physical, orbital and other properties, as well as on discovery circumstances and other aspects, see § Specific minor planet lists
- 1 Partial lists
- 2 Specific minor planet lists
- 3 See also
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
The list of minor planets consists of more than 500 partial lists, each containing 1000 minor planets grouped in 10 tables. The data is sourced from the Minor Planet Center (MPC). For an overview of all existing partial lists, see § Main index.
|Designation||Discovery||Discoverer(s)||Category||Ref · Meaning|
|189001||4889 P-L||September 24, 1960||Palomar||C. J. van Houten, I. van Houten-Groeneveld, T. Gehrels||—||MPC · —|
|189002||6760 P-L||September 24, 1960||Palomar||C. J. van Houten, I. van Houten-Groeneveld, T. Gehrels||NYS||MPC · —|
|189003||3009 T-3||October 16, 1977||Palomar||C. J. van Houten, I. van Houten-Groeneveld, T. Gehrels||—||MPC · —|
|189004 Capys||3184 T-3||October 16, 1977||Palomar||C. J. van Houten, I. van Houten-Groeneveld, T. Gehrels||L5||MPC · 189004|
|189005||5176 T-3||October 16, 1977||Palomar||C. J. van Houten, I. van Houten-Groeneveld, T. Gehrels||—||MPC · —|
The example above shows the beginning of the first table in partial list 189,001 to 190,000. It has the columns § Designation showing its permanent (number and name) and provisional designation, § Discovery, giving the date and location of its discovery, and column § Discoverers, for people, surveys, programs and observatories that are officially credited with its discovery. In the column "category" an asteroid's membership to a family, group and/or camp is displayed. The catalog table also contains a reference column that externally links to the body's dedicated page at the Minor Planet Center's website and to the corresponding entry in meanings of minor planet names (latter for named minor planets only).
In this example, all 5 bodies were discovered at Palomar Observatory by a trio of astronomers: Cornelis van Houten, Ingrid van Houten-Groeneveld and Tom Gehrels. The row's color represents a minor planet's orbital group—cyan is used for Jupiter trojans, while a white, light-grey and dark-grey color is used for asteroids of the inner, middle and outer regions of the asteroid belt, respectively. For more information, see § Orbital groups. As only 189004 Capys has been named yet, the other four bodies only display their number in the permanent designation column. The provisional designation displayed in this example is an uncommon survey designation.
The MPC credits more than 1000 professional and amateur astronomers as discoverers of minor planets. Many of them have discovered only a few minor planets or even just co-discovered a single one. Moreover, a discoverer does not need to be a human being. There are about 300 programs, surveys and observatories credited as discoverers. Among these, a small group of U.S. programs and surveys actually account for most of all discoveries made so far (see pie chart). As the total of numbered minor planets is growing by the thousands on a monthly basis, all statistical figures are constantly changing. Note that the MPC summarizes the total of discoveries somewhat differently (typically by distinct group of discoverers), for example, bodies discovered in the Palomar–Leiden Survey are directly credited to the trio of astronomers as displayed in the above table.
After discovery, minor planets generally receive a provisional designation, e.g. 1989 AC, then a leading sequential number in parenthesis, e.g. (4179) 1989 AC, turning it into a permanent designation (numbered minor planet). Optionally, a name can be given, replacing the provisional part of the designation, e.g. 4179 Toutatis. (Note that on Wikipedia, named minor planets also drop their parenthesis.)
In modern times, a minor planet receives a sequential number only after it has been observed several times over at least 4 oppositions. Minor planets whose orbits are not (yet) precisely known are known by their provisional designation. This rule was not necessarily followed in earlier times, and some bodies received a number but subsequently became lost minor planets. The 2000 recovery of 719 Albert, which had been lost for nearly 89 years, eliminated the last numbered lost asteroid.
Only after a number is assigned is the minor planet eligible to receive a name. Usually the discoverer has up to 10 years to pick a name; many minor planets now remain unnamed. Especially towards the end of the twentieth century, large-scale automated asteroid discovery programs such as LINEAR have increased the pace of discoveries so much that the vast majority of minor planets will most likely never receive names.
For the reasons mentioned above, the sequence of numbers only approximately matches the timeline of discovery. In extreme cases, such as lost minor planets, there may be a considerable mismatch: for instance the high-numbered 69230 Hermes was originally discovered in 1937, but it was a lost until 2003. Only after it was rediscovered could its orbit be established and a number assigned.
Observatories, telescopes and surveys that report astrometric observations of small Solar System bodies to the MPC receive a numeric or alphanumeric code such as 675 for the Palomar Observatory, or I41 for the Palomar Transient Factory, a dedicated survey that runs at Palomar Mountain. On numbering, such an observatory may directly be credited by the MPC as discoverer.
In this catalog, minor planets are classified into one of 8 orbital groups and highlighted with a distinct color. These are:
|Near-Earth obj.||MBA (inner)||MBA (outer)||Centaur|
|Mars-crosser||MBA (middle)||Jupiter trojan||Trans-Neptunian obj.|
The vast majority of minor planets are evenly distributed between the inner-, central and outer parts of the asteroid belt, which are separated by the two Kirkwood gaps at 2.5 and 2.82 AU. Nearly 97.5% of all minor planets are main-belt asteroids (MBA), while Jupiter trojans, Mars-crossing and near-Earth asteroids each account for less than 1% of the overall population. Only a small number of centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects have been numbered so far. In the partial lists, table column "category" further refines this principal grouping:
- main-belt asteroids show their family membership based on the hierarchical clustering method,
- near-Earth objects are divided into the Aten (ATE), Amor (AMO), Apollo (APO), and Atira (ATI) group,[a] with some of them being potentially hazardous asteroids (PHA)
- Jupiter trojans display whether they belong to the Greek- (L4) or Trojan camp (L5),
- trans-Neptunian objects are divided into dynamical subgroups such as cubewanos, scattered disc objects, plutinos and other Neptunian resonances.
|Principal orbital groups||MPs (#)||MPs (%)||Distribution||Orbital criteria|
||q < 1.3 AU|
|Mars-crosser||5,088||0.99%||1.3 AU < q < 1.666 AU; a < 3.2 AU|
|MBA (inner)||170,818||33.20%||a < 2.5 AU; q > 1.666 AU|
|MBA (middle)||179,904||34.96%||2.5 AU < a < 2.82 AU; q > 1.666 AU|
|MBA (outer)||150,775||29.30%||2.82 AU < a < 4.6 AU; q > 1.666 AU|
|Jupiter trojan||4,823||0.94%||4.6 AU < a < 5.5 AU; e < 0.3|
|Centaur||94||0.02%||5.5 AU < a < 30.1 AU|
|Trans-Neptunian object||407||0.08%||a > 30.1 AU|
|Total (numbered)||514,567(b)||100%||Source: JPL's SBDB|
- (a) NEO-subgroups with number of members: Aten (216), Amor (1,074), Apollo (1,339) and Atira (6) asteroids.[a]
- (b) Including 23 unclassified bodies: 6144 Kondojiro, 8373 Stephengould, 9767 Midsomer Norton, (18916) 2000 OG44, (32511) 2001 NX17, (96177) 1984 BC, (115916) 2003 WB8, (136620) 1994 JC, (144870) 2004 MA8, (241944) 2002 CU147, (275618) 2000 AU242, (301964) 2000 EJ37, (306418) 1998 KK56, (322713) 2000 KD41, (363135) 2001 QQ199, (405058) 2001 TX16, (477587) 2010 JT86, (487496) 2014 SE288, (490171) 2008 UD253, (494667) 2001 WX1, (497619) 2006 QL39, (504160) 2006 SV301, (514107) 2015 BZ509 (colored as for being unclassified ).[c]
This is an overview of all existing partial lists of numbered minor planets. Each table stands for 100,000 minor planets, each cell for a specific partial list of 1,000 sequentially numbered bodies. For an introduction, see § top
Specific minor planet lists
The following are lists of minor planets by physical properties, orbital properties, or discovery circumstances: selves into a sphere.
- List of exceptional asteroids (physical properties)
- List of instrument-resolved minor planets
- List of Jupiter trojans (Greek camp)
- List of Jupiter trojans (Trojan camp)
- List of minor planets visited by spacecraft
- List of minor planet moons
- List of minor-planet groups
- List of named minor planets (alphabetical)
- List of named minor planets (numerical)
- List of possible dwarf planets
- List of trans-Neptunian objects
- List of unnumbered minor planets (about 32% of minor planets as of March 2018[update])
- Meanings of minor planet names
- Binary asteroid
- Dwarf planets – Pluto, Ceres, Eris, Haumea, and Makemake
- Kuiper belt
- Minor-planet moon
- Trans-Neptunian object
- Other lists
- Split-up of NEOs into Amor, Aten, Apollo and Atira asteroid is based on the orbital criteria given in adjunct table. The data is sourced from JPL Small-Body Orbital Elements "Numbered Asteroids (50 MB)" file
- This table adopts the orbital criteria used by the JPL Small-Body Database, with the exception of (1.) using a different limit to categorize asteroids of the intermediate main belt (i.e. a = 2.5–2.82 AU), and (2.) adding another orbital criteria to outer MBAs (q > 1.666 AU).
The values for an object's perihelion and aphelion need to be derived from the semi-major axis and the eccentricity as they are not provided in the data source (q = a(1-e); Q = a(1+e)).
- There are a few minor planets that remain unclassified based on the defined orbital criteria. At least five of these bodies have a semi-major axis too large to be an outer main-belt asteroid, and an orbit too eccentric to be classified as a Jupiter trojan (JPL classifies these bodies simply as "asteroids", while the MPC, which never distinguishes between inner, outer and middle MBAs, classifies them as "main-belt asteroids"). Other unclassified minor planets include Mars-crossers (as per MPC) with a semi-major axis of that of an outer-MBA (as per JPL).
- "Minor Planet – Running Tallies". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- "Minor Planet Statistics – Orbits And Names". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- Jones, R. Lynne; Juric, Mario; Ivezic, Zeljko (January 2016). "Asteroid Discovery and Characterization with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope" (PDF). Asteroids: New Observations. 318: 282–292. arXiv: . Bibcode:2016IAUS..318..282J. doi:10.1017/S1743921315008510. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
- Bidstrup, P. R.; Andersen, A. C.; Haack, H.; Michelsen, R. (August 2008). "How to detect another 10 trillion small Main Belt asteroids". Physica Scripta. 130. Bibcode:2008PhST..130a4027B. doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2008/T130/014027. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- "Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets (1)–(5000)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- "Minor Planet Discoverers (by number)". Minor Planet Center. 5 October 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- "JPL Small-Body Orbital Elements "Numbered Asteroids (50 MB)"". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- An opposition is the time when a body is at its furthest apparent point from the Sun, and in this case is defined as the time when an asteroid is far enough from the Sun to be observed from the Earth. In most cases, this is about 4 to 6 months a year. Some notable minor planets are exceptions to this rule, such as 367943 Duende.
- Cowen, Ron (1 November 2002). "Astronomers Rediscover Long-Lost Asteroid". Science News. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
- Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). "Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families" (PDF). Asteroids IV: 297–321. arXiv: . Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
- "List of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- "List Of Jupiter Trojans". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- Johnston, Wm. Robert (30 December 2017). "List of Known Trans-Neptunian Objects". Johnston's Archive. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, 5th ed.: Prepared on Behalf of Commission 20 Under the Auspices of the International Astronomical Union, Lutz D. Schmadel, ISBN 3-540-00238-3
- The Names of the Minor Planets, Paul Herget, 1968, OCLC 224288991
- NASA Near Earth Object Program
- PDS Asteroid Data Archive
- SBN Small Bodies Data Archive
- JPL Minor Planet Database for physical and orbital data (of any Small Solar System Body or dwarf planet)
- on YouTube (min. 3:13)
- Minor Planet Center